Government in exile
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A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, conversely, has lost all its territory.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. For instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed as a result of the Syrian civil war, which sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it can receive, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some governments in exile develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates formal use of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon did during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile 
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states 
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Council of the Belarusian People's Republic||1920||Republic of Belarus||The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto, in a council of 14 called the Rada; see also History of Belarus|||
|Qajar dynasty||1925||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continue to claim the Iranian throne, which is currently claimed by Mohammad Hassan Mirza II who is based in Dallas, Texas|
|National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Currently led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|
|Pahlavi dynasty||1979||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland; see also Iranian Revolution|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||1975||Lao People's Democratic Republic||The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Paris|
| Republic of China
(disputed due mainly to the controversial political status of Taiwan )
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
|The Republic of China (ROC) is the state which governs Taiwan and some of its surrounding islands. Its status as a government in exile is disputed.
Proponents of this view argue that because Taiwan is not a part of the Republic of China, the ROC is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. Opponents claim that Taiwan is part of the ROC, and the government is still located in its own territory, qualifying it not as a government in exile but as a rump state. For further information, see Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan, and Chinese Civil War.
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories 
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||1976|| Kingdom of Morocco
Sahrawi Republic itself
|Headquartered in the Tindouf region of Algeria, controlling what it calls the Free Zone in the eastern part of Western Sahara; claims de jure sovereignty over the entire territory|
|State of Palestine||1988||State of Israel||Unilaterally declared in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization that later established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Currently, ultimate control over all of the territories is exercised by Israel, but it allows the PNA to execute some functions there, depending on special area classification. The members of the institutions of the State of Palestine meet inside its claimed territory without having sovereignty over any part of it.|
Deposed governments of subnational territories 
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who and do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia||1993||autonomous republic||Republic of Abkhazia||independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Giorgi Baramia, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia||2008||provisional administrative entity||Republic of South Ossetia||independent state||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
Alternative governments of current states 
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories 
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government in Exile of the Free City of Danzig||1939||1947||Republic of Poland||Based in Australia|||
|Republic of South Maluku||1950||1950||Republic of Indonesia||Exiled in the Netherlands|
|West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Republic of Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|||
|Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|||
|Republic of Cabinda||1975||1975||Republic of Angola||Based in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||2000||Russian Federation||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|Republic of Serbian Krajina||1996||2005||Republic of Croatia||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|
|Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|||
|Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||Republic of Cameroon||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|||
|Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|||
|East Turkistan Government in Exile||1949||2004||People's Republic of China||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|||
|Interim Government of Federated Shan States||-||2005||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|||
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|||
Exiled Governments with ambiguous status 
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Central Tibetan Administration||1959||People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net,|
|Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan||2001||Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||The Taliban gained control over most of Afghanistan in the Afghan civil war, but were removed from power in the current Afghan war.||,|
Past governments in exile 
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Privy Council of England||1649||1660*|| Commonwealth of England (1649—1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653—1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659—1660)
|Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||Pakistan||Based in Kolkata, India; led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who later became President of Bangladesh|||
|Philippine Government in Exile||1897||1898*||Spain||Based in Hong Kong, Emilio Aguinaldo set up a government in exile in the former British colony. A result of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato|||
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||Empire of Japan||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan’s defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|Czechoslovak government-in-exile||1939||1945°||Czechoslovakia||Based in Paris and later in London, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. After the defeat of Germany, it took control of Czechoslovakia.|
|Azad Hind||1943||1943°||British Raj||Based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government in Exile. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the lost of axis powers in World War II|
|Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|||
|Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|Polish government-in-exile||1939*||1990°||Occupied Poland||Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland|
|Estonian Government in Exile||1953*||1992||Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state.
A rival government was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Munich but it was short lived.
|Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; based in Mexico City from 1939 to 1946, when it was moved to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death|
|Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|Ukrainian People's Republic||1920||1992|| Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
|Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine|
|Aceh||1976*||2005||Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|||
|Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|||
|Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||Republic of Hawaii||Formed by members of the deposed government of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; a failed insurgency in 1895 forced the queen to formally disband the kingdom|
|Kingdom of Belgium in exile (1914–1918)||1914||1918||German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
Sovereign Military Order of Malta 
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the Republic of Malta.
World War II 
- Belgium (invaded 10 May 1940; see Pierlot IV Government)
- Czechoslovak government-in-exile (established in 1940 by Beneš and recognised by the British and other United Nations governments)
- Free France, based in London (from June 1940 to 1944)
- Greece (invaded 28 October 1940; see Greek government in exile)
- Luxembourg (invaded 10 May 1940)
- Netherlands (invaded 10 May 1940; see Dutch government in exile)
- Norway (invaded 9 April 1940)
- Philippine Commonwealth (invaded 9 December 1941)
- Kingdom of Yugoslavia (invaded 6 April 1941)
The Provisional Government of Free India (1943–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war; unlike most other governments in exile in this war, it was affiliated to the Axis and claimed power over an Allied (specifically, British) territory. A Bulgarian government in exile and Vichy France were also allied with the Axis.
The Danish exception 
The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Persian Gulf War 
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Dhahran. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the western hemisphere in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
See also 
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical unrecognized countries
- List of territorial disputes
- List of unrecognized countries
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
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