|Primary sector: raw materials
Secondary sector: manufacturing
Tertiary sector: services
|Colin Clark · Jean Fourastié|
|Quaternary sector · Quinary sector|
|Sectors by ownership|
|Business sector · Private sector · Public sector · Voluntary sector|
The public sector refers to the part of the economy concerned with providing basic government services. The composition of the public sector varies by country, but in most countries the public sector includes such services as the police, military, public roads, public transit, primary education and healthcare for the poor. The public sector might provide services that non-payer cannot be excluded from (such as street lighting), services which benefit all of society rather than just the individual who uses the service (such as public education), and services that encourage equal opportunity."
Businesses and organizations that are not part of the public sector are part of the private sector. The private sector is composed of the business sector, which is intended to earn a profit for the owners of the enterprise, and the voluntary sector, which includes charitable organizations.
The organization of the public sector (public ownership) can take several forms, including:
- Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organization generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial success criteria, and production decisions are determined by government.
- Publicly owned corporations (in some contexts, especially manufacturing, "state-owned enterprises"); which differ from direct administration in that they have greater commercial freedoms and are expected to operate according to commercial criteria, and production decisions are not generally taken by government (although goals may be set for them by government).
- Partial outsourcing (of the scale many businesses do, e.g. for IT services), is considered a public sector model.
A borderline form is as follows**
- Complete outsourcing or contracting out, with a privately owned corporation delivering the entire service on behalf of government. This may be considered a mixture of private sector operations with public ownership of assets, although in some forms the private sector's control and/or risk is so great that the service may no longer be considered part of the public sector (Barlow et al., 2010). (See the United Kingdom's Private Finance Initiative.)
- Civil service
- Government agency
- Political Economy
- Public economics
- Public ownership
- Special-purpose district
- State-Owned Enterprise
- Public Sector Business Cases for Projects
- Public sector. Retrieved: 1 June 2013.
- Barlow, J. Roehrich, J.K. and Wright, S. (2010).De facto privatisation or a renewed role for the EU? Paying for Europe’s healthcare infrastructure in a recession. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 103:51-55.
- Lloyd G. Nigro, Decision Making in the Public Sector (1984), Marcel Dekker Inc .
- David G. Carnevale, Organizational Development in the Public Sector (2002), Westview Pr.
- Jan-Erik Lane, The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches (1995), Sage Pubns.
- A Primer on Public-Private Partnerships http://blog-pfm.imf.org/pfmblog/2008/02/a-primer-on-pub.html#more
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