Politics of Burkina Faso

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politics and government of
Burkina Faso

The Politics of Burkina Faso takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Burkina Faso is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The party system is dominated by the Congress for Democracy and Progress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Political history[edit]

In 1990, the Popular Front held its first National Congress, which formed a committee to draft a national constitution. The constitution was approved by referendum in 1991. In 1992, Blaise Compaoré was elected president, running unopposed after the opposition boycotted the election because of Compaoré's refusal to accede to demands of the opposition such as a sovereign National Conference to set modalities. The opposition did participate in the following year's legislative elections, in which the ODP/MT won a majority of seats.

The government of the Fourth Republic includes a strong presidency, a prime minister, a Council of Ministers presided over by the president, a two-chamber National Assembly, and the judiciary. The legislature and judiciary are independent but remain susceptible to outside influence.

In 1995, Burkina held its first multiparty municipal elections since independence. The president's ODP/MT won over 1,100 of some 1,700 councillor seats being contested.

In February 1996, the ruling ODP/MT merged with several small opposition parties to form the Congress for Democracy and Progress (CDP). This effectively co-opted much of what little viable opposition to Compaoré existed. The remaining opposition parties regrouped in preparation for 1997 legislative elections and the 1998 presidential election. The 1997 legislative elections, which international observers pronounced to be substantially free, fair, and transparent, resulted in a large CDP majority—101 to 111 seats.

Government[edit]

Actual prime minister Tertius Zongo

Executive branch[edit]

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Blaise Compaoré Congress for Democracy and Progress 15 October 1987
Prime Minister Luc-Adolphe Tiao Congress for Democracy and Progress 18 April 2011

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and may serve up to two terms. The prime minister is appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature. The constitution of June 2, 1991, established a semi-presidential government with a parliament (Assemblée) which can be dissolved by the President of the Republic, who is elected for a term of 5 years. The year 2000 saw a constitutional amendment reducing the presidential term from 7 to 5 years, which was enforced during the 2005 elections. Another change according to the amendment would have prevented sitting president Blaise Compaoré from being re-elected. However, notwithstanding a challenge by other presidential candidates, in October 2005, the constitutional council ruled that because Compaoré was already a sitting president in 2000, the amendment would not apply to him until the end of his second term in office, thereby clearing the way for his candidacy in the 2005 election. On November 13 Compaoré was reelected in a landslide due to a divided political opposition.

Legislative branch[edit]

The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) has 111 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation.

Political parties and elections[edit]

For other political parties see List of political parties in Burkina Faso. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Burkina Faso.
e • d Summary of the 13 November 2005 Burkina Faso presidential election results
Candidates - Nominating parties Votes %
Blaise Compaoré - Congress for Democracy and Progress (Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès) 1,660,148 80.35
Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara - Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Movement (Union pour la Renaissance/Mouvement Sankariste) 100,816 4.88
Laurent Bado - National Rebirth Party (Parti de la Renaissance Nationale) 53,743 2.60
Philippe Ouédraogo - Party for Democracy and Socialism (Parti pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme) 47,146 2.28
Ram Ouédraogo - Rally of the Ecologists of Burkina 42,061 2.04
Ali Lankoandé - Party for Democracy and Progress/Socialist Party (Parti pour la Démocratie et le Progrès/Parti Socialiste) 35,949 1.74
Norbert Tiendrébéogo - Social Forces Front (Front des Forces Sociales) 33,353 1.61
Soumane Touré - African Independence Party (Parti Africain de l’Indépendance) 23,266 1.13
Gilbert Bouda - Burkinabé Party for Recasting 21,658 1.05
Pargui Emile Paré - Socialist Alliance 17,998 0.87
Hermann Yaméogo - National Union for the Defense of Democracy 15,685 0.76
Toubé Clément Dakio - Union for Democracy and Development 7,741 0.37
Nayabtigungu Congo Kaboré - Movement for Tolerance and Progress 6,706 0.32
Total (Turnout 57.7 %) 2,066,270 100.0
Invalid votes 196,629
Total votes 2,262,899
Registered Voters 3,924,328
e • d Summary of the 6 May 2007 National Assembly of Burkina Faso election results
Parties Votes % Seats +/–
Congress for Democracy and Progress (Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès) 1,373,230 58.9 73 +16
Alliance for Democracy and Federation–African Democratic Rally 249,768 10.7 14 –3
Union for the Republic (Union pour la République) 100,392 4.3 5 +5
Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Movement (Union pour la Renaissance/Mouvement Sankariste) 90,788 3.9 4 +1
Convention of the Democratic Forces of Burkina (Convention des Forces Démocratiques de Burkina) 54,621 2.3 3 +3
Union of Sankarist Parties (Union des Partis Sankarist) 40,609 1.7 2 +2
Party for Democracy and Progress/Socialist Party (Parti pour la Démocratie et le Progrès/Parti Socialiste) 423,820 18.1 2 –8
Rally for the Development of Burkina (Rassemblement pour le Développement du Burkina) 2 +2
Party for Democracy and Socialism (Parti pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme) 2 ±0
National Rebirth Party (Parti de la Renaissance Nationale) 1 –3
African Independence Party (Parti Africain de l'Indépendance) 1 –4
Citizen’s Popular Rally (Rassemblement Populaire des Citoyens) 1 +1
Union for Democracy and Social Progress (Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social) 1 +1
Total (turnout 56.4%) 2,520,488 111
Source: African Elections Database

Political pressure groups[edit]

Burkinabé General Confederation of Labor (CGTB); Burkinabé Movement for Human Rights (HBDHP); Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabé Workers (CNTB); National Organization of Free Unions (ONSL); watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities

Administrative divisions[edit]

Burkina Faso is divided into 13 regions and 45 provinces:

Regions:

Provinces:

International organization participation[edit]

ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ITUC, ICRM, IDA, IDB[disambiguation needed], IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

International relationships[edit]

The ambassador of Burkina Faso to Canada is Juliette Bonkoungou.

The ambassador of Burkina Faso to Mexico is Jonathan Hodgson

The former ambassador of Burkina Faso to the United States was Tertius Zongo, he left his post when appointed Prime Minister in July 2007; the US Ambassador to Burkina Faso is Jeanine Jackson.