Croatian Government

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Government of Croatia)
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Croatia
Constitution
Foreign relations

The Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (Croatian: Hrvatska Vlada), is the main executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the President of the Government (Croatian: Predsjednik Vlade), commonly abbreviated to premier (Croatian: premijer) or prime minister. The prime minister is nominated by the President of the Republic from among those candidates who enjoy majority support in the Croatian Parliament; the candidate is then chosen by the Parliament. There are 20 other government members, serving as deputy prime ministers, government ministers or both; they are chosen by the prime minister and confirmed by the Parliament (Sabor). The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament. The current government is led by Prime Minister Zoran Milanović.

Following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the Government of the Land (Croatian: Zemaljska Vlada)—headed by a crown-appointed ban—were established. This government existed until the Austria-Hungary breakup and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes' creation in 1918. In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was established and a head of the Banovina of Croatia was appointed by the crown, but no effective government was formed before World War II. In 1943, the ZAVNOH established an executive board to act as a new government. Communist Croatia, while a part of Communist Yugoslavia, had a separate government, with limited powers (excluding defence and foreign relations; this was similar to all the previous governmental forms). Following the first multi-party elections and the adoption of the present Constitution of Croatia in 1990, the present governmental form was adopted and Stjepan Mesić became the first person to hold the title of Prime Minister of Croatia (with Croatia as part of Yugoslavia), while Franjo Gregurić was the first prime minister of an independent Croatia. Since Communist rule's end, the Republic of Croatia has had twelve governments headed by ten different prime ministers. Eight governments have been formed by the Croatian Democratic Union, three by the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and one was a national unity government (formed during the Croatian War of Independence's peak).

Terminology[edit]

The term "Government" in Croatia (Vlada) primarily refers to the executive branch, as used by the government itself, the press and colloquially, as that branch of the government (vlast) is responsible for day-to-day governance of the nation (uprava); this sense is intended when it is said that a political party forms the Government.[1][2][3][4] At its widest, the term Croatian Government can refer collectively to all three traditional branches of government, including the legislative branch (the Sabor) and judicial branch (the Judiciary of Croatia), as well as other parts of government and civil services which are part of the state of Croatia.[citation needed]

Governmental powers[edit]

Building with lots of windows in a pre-modern style
Banski dvori, the building of the Government of the Republic of Croatia

The Government, the main executive power of the Croatian state, is headed by the prime minister (PM). The PM currently has four deputies (elected by the Croatian Parliament), three of whom also currently serve as government ministers; there are 17 other ministers, who are appointed by the prime minister with the approval of the Sabor (by majority vote). The government ministers are each in charge of a particular sector of activity such as Foreign Affairs. The prime minister and all the deputies form an inner cabinet, tasked with coordinating and supervising the work of government ministers on behalf of the PM; the inner cabinet also prepares materials for meetings of the full government cabinet (consisting of the inner cabinet and the remaining 16 ministers). The first deputy prime minister also discharges the duties of the prime minister when the latter is incapacitated or absent.[5] The executive branch is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The government's official residence is at the Banski dvori in Zagreb.[6] Although the cabinet normally meets at the Banski dvori, occasionally its meetings are held elsewhere in the country.[7]

The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament, the Sabor (Croatian: Hrvatski sabor). Its structure, operational procedures and decision-making processes are defined by the Government of the Republic of Croatia Act and the Government Rules of Procedure. The Constitution mandates that the Government proposes legislation and other documents to the parliament, proposes the budget and gives financial reports, implements Acts and other decisions of the parliament, enacts any regulations required to implement the Acts, defines foreign and internal policies, directs and oversees the operation of state administration, promotes the economic development of the country, directs the activities and development of public services and performs other activities conforming to the provisions of the Constitution and applicable legislation. The Government also passes regulations and administrative acts and orders appointments and removals of appointed officials and civil servants within the scope of its powers. Furthermore, the Government makes rulings in cases of conflicts of jurisdiction between governmental institutions, responds to questions asked parliamentary majority and opposition representatives,[8] prepares proposals of new legislation and other regulations, gives opinions on legislation and other regulations and adopts strategies for the economic and social development of the country.[9][10]

The Government manages state property of the Republic of Croatia unless special legislation provides otherwise. It may appoint special committees to manage the property on its behalf; this process is implemented through appointed members of supervisory boards and managing boards of companies partially or wholly owned by the Republic of Croatia. (The Government also determines these appointees' salaries.) The Government maintains specialized bodies, agencies and offices—including the Legislation Office, the Public Relations Office and the Office for National Minorities—that are required by the Government Act of 1998, as well as committees to decide administrative matters. Various branches of government may establish joint services.[9] There are further entities established by the government as companies designed to support the aims of the Government, such as the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development that strives to fund the reconstruction and development of the economy of Croatia.[11] Local governments are separate from the central government; the latter maintains a State Administration Office in each county, under the Ministry of Administration.[12]

The Government is responsible to the Croatian Parliament; the parliament may recall the Government as a whole or any member of the Government in particular by a simple majority vote following a request for a confidence vote by one fifth of the parliament members or by the prime minister. The prime minister and other members of the Government are jointly responsible for decisions passed by the Government and individually responsible for their respective portfolios (areas of responsibility). The President of the Republic appoints the prime minister, who must then secure a vote of confidence from the Croatian Parliament; the appointment is therefore counter-signed by the speaker of the parliament to signify this. Appointments of members of the Government are done by the prime minister with the approval of the Croatian Parliament (again signified via a counter-signature by the speaker of the parliament). The rules of procedure and regulations enacted by the Government must be published in Narodne Novine—the official gazette of Croatia—to be binding.[9][10]

Government operations[edit]

Government meetings are public; however, the government may decide to close any part of its sessions (or entire sessions) to the public. The prime minister may authorise any deputy to represent the PM and otherwise take over any particular task assigned to the PM. The quorum for government sessions is a majority of government members. Most decisions are reached by a simple majority vote; a two-thirds majority vote is required for decisions about changes to the Croatian Constitution, uniting with other states or transferring any part of Croatian sovereignty to supranational organisations, changes to Croatian borders, dissolution of the parliament, or calling a referendum.[9]

The inner or core cabinet (the prime minister and the PM's deputies) monitors and discusses the operation of the government, and may hold preliminary discussions on any matter performed by the government. The core cabinet may act as the government in emergencies when the government is unable to meet; however, its decisions must be verified at the next government session to remain in force. The Government Secretary coordinates agencies, offices and other services subordinated to the government.[9]

Current government[edit]

Man with greying hair and facial acne scarring
Prime Minister Zoran Milanović

Since 23 December 2011, the prime minister of the government has been Zoran Milanović.[54] There are four deputy prime ministers: Vesna Pusić, Neven Mimica, Branko Grčić, and Milanka Opačić. All the deputy prime ministers are also government ministers except Neven Mimica, whose portfolio overlaps with those of the minister of the interior and the minister of foreign and European affairs. The government ministers are from the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP), the Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (HNS), the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) and two are independent politicians.[4]

Position Portfolio Name Party
Prime Minister Zoran Milanović SDP
Deputy Prime Minister Foreign Affairs Vesna Pusić HNS
Deputy Prime Minister Social welfare policy and youth Milanka Opačić SDP
Deputy Prime Minister Internal, Foreign and European policy Neven Mimica SDP
Deputy Prime Minister Regional development and EU funds Branko Grčić SDP
Minister Finance Boris Lalovac SDP
Minister Defence Ante Kotromanović SDP
Minister Interior Ranko Ostojić SDP
Minister Justice Orsat Miljenić Independent
Minister Public Administration Arsen Bauk SDP
Minister Economy Ivan Vrdoljak HNS
Minister Entrepreneurship and Crafts Gordan Maras SDP
Minister Labour and pension system Mirando Mrsić SDP
Minister Sea, Transport and Infrastructure Siniša Hajdaš Dončić SDP
Minister Agriculture Tihomir Jakovina SDP
Minister Tourism Darko Lorencin IDS
Minister Environment and Nature Protection Mihael Zmajlović SDP
Minister Construction and Spatial Planning Anita Mrak-Taritaš HNS
Minister Croatian Veterans Predrag Matić Independent
Minister Health Siniša Varga SDP
Minister Science, Education and Sports Vedran Mornar Independent
Minister Culture Andrea Zlatar-Violić HNS
Source: Croatian Government[55]

Government history[edit]

Group of people in formal garb, including swords
Ban Pavao Rauch at St. Mark's Square in Zagreb, with Banski dvori in the background

Ban's Council (Croatian: Bansko Vijeće) of 1848–1850 was the first executive council established in Croatia. It acted as an administrative body governing Croatia within the Austrian Empire as a government.[56] Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the subsequent Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was established, along with the Government of the Land (Croatian: Zemaljska Vlada) headed by a crown-appointed ban. The establishment was carried out during the administration of Ban Levin Rauch.[57][58] This government form continued until the breakup of Austria-Hungary and creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918. In total, 15 Bans acted as heads of the government in this period.[59] The Cvetković–Maček Agreement was made in 1939; it established the Banovina of Croatia and appointed Ivan Šubašić as ban to head the Croatian government.[60] Still, an effective government was not formed before the onset of World War II.[61] In June 1943, the National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia established an 11-member executive board to act as the new government of Croatia.[62] Communist-ruled Croatia, a part of Yugoslavia, maintained its own government (of limited powers, excluding defence and foreign relations). The government was appointed by and responsible to the Sabor. During the Communist era, there were 14 governments of Croatia. The official name of the government was the Executive Council of the Sabor (Croatian: Izvršno vijeće Sabora).[63] Following the parliamentary elections and the adoption of the present Constitution of Croatia in 1990, the present form of government was begun. On 30 May 1990, Stjepan Mesić became the first person to hold the title of Prime Minister of Croatia, and Franjo Gregurić was the first prime minister of an independent Croatia, as he held the office on 8 October 1991 when the declaration of independence came into effect.[64][65]

List of governments of the Republic of Croatia[edit]

Since 30 May 1990 (the first multi-party parliamentary election held following the 45-year Communist rule), the Republic of Croatia has had a total of twelve governments headed by ten different prime ministers. The prime minister in the first government after the first multi-party election was Stjepan Mesić, who would later go on to become the President of Croatia. That government was formed by the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), as were seven other governments of Croatia. Three governments have been formed by the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP), and one was a national unity government (representing a wide coalition of political parties) formed during the Croatian War of Independence's peak, between July 1991 and August 1992, with Franjo Gregurić as the prime minister.[64]

Assumed office Prime Minister (Leading) Party in Office Cabinet
30 May 1990 Stjepan Mesić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Stjepan Mesić
24 August 1990 Josip Manolić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Josip Manolić
17 July 1991 Franjo Gregurić national unity government Cabinet of Franjo Gregurić
12 August 1992 Hrvoje Šarinić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Hrvoje Šarinić
3 April 1993 Nikica Valentić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Nikica Valentić
7 November 1995 Zlatko Mateša Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Zlatko Mateša
27 January 2000 Ivica Račan Social Democratic Party of Croatia Cabinet of Ivica Račan I
30 July 2002 Ivica Račan Social Democratic Party of Croatia Cabinet of Ivica Račan II
23 December 2003 Ivo Sanader Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Ivo Sanader I
12 January 2008 Ivo Sanader Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II
6 July 2009 Jadranka Kosor Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Jadranka Kosor
23 December 2011 Zoran Milanović Social Democratic Party of Croatia Cabinet of Zoran Milanović
Sources: Croatian Government;[64] HIDRA.[66]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ These are supporting offices of (services for) the cabinet; each is run by a Head of the Office.
  2. ^ These support the central government as a whole in terms of strategy coordination and infrastructure; each is headed by a State Secretary.
  3. ^ In general, these supervise other government bodies such as the Public Sector Bodies (below).
  4. ^ These are public sector organisations established for various tasks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Croatia country profile". BBC News. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "Social Democrat Ivo Josipovic elected Croatia president". BBC News. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  3. ^ "Kosor accuses Josipovic of trying to humiliate government". t-portal. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b "About Croatian Government". Croatian Government. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Zakon o Vladi Republike Hrvatske" [Government of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  6. ^ "Political Structure". Croatian Government. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2011. 
  7. ^ Tamara Opačak-Klobučar (28 July 2011). "Unatoč nezadovoljstvu SDP-a, Jakovčić će sutra potpisati projekt" [Despite dissatisfaction of the SDP, Jakovčić signs the project tomorrow]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  8. ^ Suzana Barilar, Nikola Sever-Šeni (18 January 2012). "Početak prve sjednice novog saziva Sabora obilježio je sukob HDSSB-a i SDSS-a" [Start of the first session of new Sabor assembly marked by clash of HDSSB and SDSS]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Zakon o Vladi Republike Hrvatske" [Government of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" [Constitution of the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 9 July 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "About HBOR". Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Ustrojstvo državne uprave i struktura upravljanja" [State Administration System and Administration Structure] (in Croatian). Ministry of Administration. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "Uredi Vlade" [Government Offices] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "Uredba o Uredu Predsjednika Vlade Republike Hrvatske" [Regulation on Office of the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 6 November 2002. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "English introduction". Office for Social Partnership of the Croatian Government. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  16. ^ "Ured za razminiranje" [Office for Demining] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  17. ^ "Državni uredi" [Central State Administrative Offices] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "Državne upravne organizacije" [State Administration Bodies] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  19. ^ a b "Zakon o sustavu državne uprave" [State Administration System Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  20. ^ "About us". Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "Osnivanje zavoda" [Founding of the Office] (in Croatian). State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "State Office for Metrology". State Office for Metrology. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "SIPO Croatia". State Intellectual Property Office. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "Državni Inspektorat" [State Inspector’s Office] (in Croatian). State Inspector’s Office. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  25. ^ "About us". Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "About us". National Protection and Rescue Directorate. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  27. ^ "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). State Geodetic Directorate. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  28. ^ "Javni sektor" [Public Sector] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  29. ^ "About us". State Institute for Nature Protection. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "O SKDD-u" [About the CDCC] (in Croatian). Central Depository & Clearing Company. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  31. ^ "About us". Central Finance and Contracting Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  32. ^ "About Regos". Central Registry of Insured Persons. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  33. ^ "Osnivanje i djelokrug poslova" [Founding and scope of operations] (in Croatian). Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "Priority functions of CES". Croatian Employment Service. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  35. ^ "Croatian Standards Institute". Croatian Standards Institute. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  36. ^ "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). Croatian Pension Insurance Institute. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  37. ^ "Vision & Mission". Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  38. ^ "Zakon o državnoj izmjeri i katastru nekretnina" [State Survey and Real-Estate Cadastre Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 9 February 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  39. ^ "Mine action in Croatia". Croatian Mine Action Centre. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  40. ^ "O Hidri" [About Hidra] (in Croatian). Croatian Information Documentation Referral Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  41. ^ "About us". Croatian Accreditation Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "About CARNet". Croatian Academic and Research Network. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  43. ^ "Zakon o hrvatskoj agenciji za nadzor financijskih usluga" [Croatian Financial Services Supervisory Agency Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 28 November 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  44. ^ "Mission, Vision". Croatian Agency for Small Business. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  45. ^ "Djelatnost Fonda" [Activities of the Fund] (in Croatian). Fund for the Compensation of Expropriated Property. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  46. ^ "About us". Financial Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  47. ^ "Scope of authorities and responsibilities". State Audit Office. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  48. ^ "Deposit Insurance and Bank Relation Sector". State Agency for Deposit Insurance and Bank Rehabilitation. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  49. ^ "Human Rights Center". State Agency for Deposit Insurance and Bank Rehabilitation. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  50. ^ "Mission". Croatian Competition Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  51. ^ "About the Agency". Personal Data Protection Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  52. ^ "About us". Croatian Environment Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  53. ^ "Djelatnost APN-a" [Activities of the Agency] (in Croatian). Agency for Transactions and Mediation in Immovable Properties. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  54. ^ Marinela Vidić-Ivoš (23 December 2011). "Premijer Zoran Milanović i ministri položili prisegu kao članovi Vlade" [Prime minister Zoran Milanović and ministers sworn in as members of the government]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  55. ^ "About Croatian Government". Croatian Government. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  56. ^ Rajka Bućin (December 2008). "Pisarnica i sustav uredskog poslovanja Banskog vijeća (1848.-1850)" [Registry and Record-Keeping System of the Ban's Council (1848–1850)]. Arhivski vjesnik (in Croatian) (Croatian State Archives) (51): 25–55. ISSN 0570-9008. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  57. ^ Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian) (Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje) 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  58. ^ Branko Dubravica (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871.-1886." [Political and Territorial Division and Extent of Civilian Croatia in Years of Unification with the Military Croatia 1871–1886]. Politička misao (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences) 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  59. ^ Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1286. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  60. ^ Matjaž Klemenčič; Mitja Žagar (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  61. ^ "Jugoslavija: unitarna država ili federacija povijesne težnje srpskoga i hrvatskog naroda – jedan od uzroka raspada Jugoslavije" [Yugoslavia: A Unitary State or Federation – Historical Aspirations of Serbs and Croats – One of the Causes of the Dissolution of Yugoslavia]. Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu (in Croatian) (University of Split, Faculty of Law) 46 (2): 287–314. June 2009. ISSN 0584-9063. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  62. ^ Josipa Bosiljka Paver (November 1989). "O arhivskoj građi ZAVNOH-a u Arhivu Hrvatske" [On Archive Materials on the ZAVNOH in the Archives of Croatia]. Arhivski vjesnik (in Croatian) (Croatian State Archives) (33): 87–92. ISSN 0570-9008. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  63. ^ Budislav Vukas, ml. (December 2006). "Prijedlozi i nacrti konfederalizacije Jugoslavije 1990./91. – posljednji pokušaji "spašavanja" zajedničke države" [Proposals and Drafts for Confederalisation of Yugoslavia in 1990/1991 – the Last Attempts to Salvage the Common State]. Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian) (University of Rijeka, Faculty of Law) 27 (2): 761–803. ISSN 1330-349X. 
  64. ^ a b c "Prethodne vlade RH" [Previous governments of the Republic of Croatia] (in Croatian). Croatian Government. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  65. ^ "Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia". Official web site of the Croatian Parliament. Sabor. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  66. ^ "Kronologija Vlade" [Chronology of the Government] (in Croatian). Croatian Information-Documentation and Referral Agency – HIDRA. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 

External links[edit]