Politics of East Timor

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Coat of arms of East Timor.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Timor Leste

Politics of East Timor takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential parliamentary representative democratic republic,[1] whereby the Prime Minister of East Timor is the head of government and the President of East Timor exercises the functions of head of state. East Timor has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal, though the president is less powerful than his Portuguese counterpart. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions.

Executive branch[edit]

Government Palace in Dili

The Head of state of the East Timorese republic is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and whose executive powers are somewhat limited by the constitution, though he is able to veto legislation which can be overridden by the parliament. Following elections, the president appoints as the prime minister, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition. As head of government the prime minister presides over the cabinet.

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Taur Matan Ruak Independent 20 May 2012
Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction 8 August 2007



Legislative branch[edit]

Parliament of East Timor

The unicameral Timorese National Parliament (Parlamento Nacional) has 65 members elected by proportional representation (d'Hondt method) for a five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of 52 to a maximum of 65, though it exceptionally had 88 members during its first term which also exceptionally lasted six years – from 2001 to 2007 – this was because the constitution provided that the 88-member Constitutional Assembly would become the first parliament after the constitution entered into force in 2002.

The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions.

Political parties and elections[edit]

Parties and coalitions in East Timorese parliament 2012
For other political parties see List of political parties in East Timor. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in East Timor.
e • d Summary of the 17 March and 16 April 2012 East Timorese presidential election results
Candidates Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Taur Matan Ruak Independent (supported by CNRT) 119,462 25.71 275,471 61.23
Francisco Guterres FRETILIN 133,635 28.76 174,408 38.77
José Ramos-Horta Independent 81,231 17.48  
Fernando de Araújo Democratic Party 80,381 17.30
Rogério Lobato Independent, member of FRETILIN 16,219 3.49
José Luís Guterres Frenti-Mudança 9,235 1.99
Manuel Tilman KOTA 7,226 1.56
Abílio Araújo PNT 6,294 1.35
Lucas da Costa Independent, member of Democratic Party 3,862 0.83
Francisco Gomes PLPA 3,531 0.76
María do Céu Independent 1,843 0.40
Angelita Pires Independent 1,742 0.37
Valid votes 464,661 94.84 449,879 98.08
Invalid votes 18,788 3.83 6,801 1.48
Blank votes 6,484 1.32 2,023 0.44
Total votes (turnout 78.20%/73.12%) 489,933 100.00 458,703 100.00
Source: CNE, CNE
e • d Summary of the 30 June 2007 East Timorese parliamentary election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Frente Revolucionária do Timor-Leste Independente) 120,592 29.02 21
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (Congresso Nacional da Reconstrução Timorense) 100,175 24.10 18
PSD–ASDT
65,358 15.73 11
Democratic Party (Partido Democrático) 46,946 11.30 8
National Unity Party (Partido Unidade Nacional) 18,896 4.55 3
Democratic Alliance (Aliança Democratica)
13,294 3.20 2
National Unity of Timorese Resistance (União Nacional Democrática de Resistência Timorense) 13,247 3.19 2
Timorese Nationalist Party (Partido Nasionalista Timorense) 10,057 2.42 0
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Party (Partido Democratika Republica de Timor) 7,718 1.86 0
Republican Party (Partidu Republikanu) 4,408 1.06 0
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Democrata Cristão) 4,300 1.03 0
Socialist Party of Timor (Partido Socialista de Timor) 3,982 0.96 0
Timorese Democratic Union (União Democrática Timorense) 3,753 0.90 0
Millennium Democratic Party (Partido Milénio Democrático) 2,878 0.69 0
Total (turnout 80.5%) 415,604 100.00 65
Source: CNE

Judicial branch[edit]

The Supreme Court of Justice has one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of the districts of East Timor.

East Timor is divided into thirteen administrative districts:

The districts are subdivided into 65 subdistricts, 443 sucos and 2,336 towns, villages and hamlets. [1] PDF (213 KiB)

Cabinet[edit]

Gusmão II (2012-2017)
Minister Name
Prime Minister Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão
Vice Prime Minister Fernando La Sama de Araújo
Minister of State Agio Pereira
José Luís Guterres
Presidency of the Council of Ministers Agio Pereira
Minister of Coordinator of Social Affairs Fernando La Sama de Araújo
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation José Luís Guterres
Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Constâncio da Conceição Pinto
Minister of Defence and Security Xanana Gusmão
Vice Minister of Defence and Security N/A
Minister of Finance Emilia Pires
Vice Minister of Finance Santina Cardoso
Minister of Justice Dionísio Babo Soares
Vice Minister of Justice Ivo Jorge Valente
Minister of Health Sérgio Lobo
Vice Minister for Ethics and Service Delivery Natália de Araújo
Vice Minister for Management, Support and Resources Maria do Céu da Costa
Minister of Education Bendito Freitas
Vice Minister of Basic/Primary Education Dulce de Jesus Soares
Vice Minister of Secondary Education Virgílio Simith
Vice Minister of Higher Education Marçal Avelino Ximenes
Minister of State Administration Jorge Teme
Vice Minister of State Administration N/A
Minister of Commerce, Industry and Environment António da Conceição
Vice Minister of Commerce, Industry and Environment Abel da Costa Ximenes
Minister of Social Solidarity Isabel Guterres
Vice Minister of Social Solidarity Jacinto Rigoberto de Deus
Minister of Public Works Gastão Francisco de Sousa
Vice Minister of Public Works N/A
Minister of Transport and Communications Pedro Lay
Vice Minister of Transport and Communications Flávio Cardoso Neves
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Mariano Assanami Sabino
Vice Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Marcos da Cruz
Minister of Tourism Francisco Kalbuadi Lay
Vice Minister of Tourism N/A
Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Alfredo Pires
Vice Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources N/A
Gusmão I (2007-2012)
Alkatiri (2002-2007)
Minister Name
Prime Minister Marí Bim Amude Alkatiri
Vice Prime Minister N/A
Minister of State Anna Pessoa Pinto
Jose Ramos Horta
Vice Minister of State Olimpio Branco
Presidency of the Council of Ministers Anna Pessoa Pinto
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Jose Ramos Horta
Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Olimpio Branco
Minister of Internal Affairs Rogerio Tiago Lobato
Vice Minister of Internal Affairs Alcino Baris
Minister of Planning and Finance Maria M. B. Boavida
Vice Minister of Planning and Finance Aicha Bassarewan
Minister of Justice Domingos Maria Sarmento
Vice Minister of Justice Manuel Abrantes
Minister of Health Rui Maria de Araujo
Vice Minister of Health Luis Maria Lobato
Minister of Education, Culture, Youth and Sports Armindo Maia
Vice Minister of Education, Culture, Youth and Sports Rosaria Corte-Real
Minister of Internal Administration Anna Pessoa Pinto
Vice Minister of Internal Administration IIda M. da Conceicao
Minister of Development and Environment  ?
Vice Minister of Development and Environment Abel Da C. F. Ximenes
Minister of Transport, Communications and Public Works Ovidio D. J. Amaral
Vice Minister of Transport, Communications and Public Works Arq Cesar V. Moreira
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Estanislau A. da Silva
Vice Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries F. De Sa Benevides

External links[edit]

References[edit]