Politics of Hungary
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (November 2010)|
Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state and holds a largely ceremonial position.
Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. The two larger oppositions are Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and Jobbik, there are also opposition parties with no formal faction but representation in parliament (e. g. Politics Can Be Different) The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Republic of Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Since the constitutional amendment of 23 October 1989, Hungary is a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 386 members. Members of the National Assembly are elected for four years.
|President||János Áder||Fidesz||10 May 2012|
|Prime Minister||Viktor Orbán||Fidesz||29 May 2010|
The President of the Republic, elected by the National Assembly every fifth years, has a largely ceremonial role, but he is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and his powers include the nomination of the Prime Minister who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic. If the President dies, resigns or is otherwise unable to carry out his duties, the Speaker of the National Assembly becomes acting President.
Due to the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-World War II Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.
The unicameral, 386-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the prime minister. Its members are elected for a four-year term. 176 members are elected in single-seat constituencies, 152 by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies, and 58 so-called compensation seats are distributed based on the number of votes "lost" (i.e., the votes that did not produce a seat) in either the single-seat or the multi-seat constituencies. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.
Political parties and elections
|Parties and coalitions||Party list||Constituency||Total seats|
|Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union
Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség
|Christian Democratic People's Party||7||9||16||20|
|Hungarian Socialist Party||1,246,465||25.99||6.29||21||1,273,275||8||29||30||19.10||3.82|
|Dialogue for Hungary||1||0||1|
|Hungarian Liberal Party||1||0||1|
Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom
|Politics Can Be Different (LMP)
Lehet Más a Politika
|Hungarian Workers' Party
|Homeland Not For Sale Movement Party (HNEM)
A Haza Nem Eladó Mozgalom Párt
|Alliance of Mária Seres (SMS)
Seres Mária Szövetségesei
|Green Party (Greens)
|Hungarian Social Democrats' Party (Soc Dems)
Magyar Szociáldemokraták Pártja
|Together 2014 Party
Együtt 2014 Párt
|Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary (SEM)
Sportos és Egészséges Magyarországért Párt
|Community for Social Justice People's Party (KTI)
Közösség a Társadalmi Igazságosságért Néppárt
|Democratic Community of Welfare and Freedom (JESZ)
Jólét és Szabadság Demokratikus Közösség
|Gypsy Party of Hungary (MCP)
Magyarországi Cigány Párt
|Independent Smallholders Party (FKGP)
|Unity Party (ÖP)
|New Dimension Party (ÚDP)
Új Dimenzió Párt
|New Hungary Party (ÚMP)
Új Magyarország Párt
|Others and Independent candidates||–||–||–||–||33,297||0||0||1||0||0.26|
|Total (turnout 61.73%)||4,795,757||100%||–||93||4,742,509||106||199||187||100%||–|
|Source: National Election Office (99.99% reporting)|
The President of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch.
Several ombudsman offices exist in Hungary to protect civil, minority, educational and ecological rights in non-judicial matters. They have held the authority to issue legally binding decisions since late 2003
The central bank, the Hungarian National Bank has been fully independent between 1990–2004, but new legislation gave certain appointment rights to the Executive Branch in November 2004 which is disputed before the Constitutional Court.
Hungary is divided in 19 counties (megyék, singular - megye), 23 urban counties* (megyei jogú városok, singular - megyei jogú város), and 1 capital city** (főváros); Bács-Kiskun, Baranya, Békés, Békéscsaba*, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Budapest**, Csongrád, Debrecen*, Dunaújváros*, Eger*, Érd*, Fejér, Győr*, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Hajdú-Bihar, Heves, Hódmezővásárhely*, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvár*, Kecskemét*, Komárom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nógrád, Nyíregyháza*, Pécs*, Pest, Salgótarján*, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekszárd*, Székesfehérvár*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabánya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém, Veszprém*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Involvement in International Organisations
Hungary is a member of the ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member, as by 1 May 2004), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, Visegrád group, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, and the Zangger Committee.
Note: with restructruring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period.
|English name||Hungarian name||Minister|
|Ministry of Home Affairs||Belügyminisztérium||Sándor Pintér|
|Ministry of Rural Development||Vidékfejlesztési Minisztérium||Sándor Fazekas|
|Ministry of Defence||Honvédelmi Minisztérium||Csaba Hende|
|Ministry of National Development||Nemzeti Fejlesztési Minisztérium||Zsuzsanna Németh|
|Ministry of Human Resources||Emberi Erőforrás Minisztérium||Zoltán Balog|
|Ministry of Foreign Affairs||Külügyminisztérium||János Martonyi|
|Ministry of Administration and Justice||Közigazgatási és Igazságügyi Minisztérium||Tibor Navracsics|
|Ministry of National Economic Affairs||Nemzetgazdasági Minisztérium||Mihály Varga|
Ministers without portfolio
- Website of the Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 31 January 2010.