Government of Illinois
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The government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The capital city of Illinois is Springfield. Under the Constitution of Illinois, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is split into several statewide elected offices. Legislative functions are granted to the Illinois General Assembly, made of the 118-member Illinois House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois Senate. The judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Illinois, Illinois Appellate Court and Illinois Circuit Courts.
The executive branch is composed of six elected officers and their offices as well as numerous other departments. The six elected officers are the:
The government of Illinois has numerous departments, agencies, boards and commissions, but the code departments, so called because they're established by the Civil Administrative Code of Illinois, provide most of the state's services:
- Department of Aging
- Department of Agriculture
- Department of Central Management Services
- Department of Children and Family Services
- Department of Commerce and Economics Opportunity
- Department of Corrections
- Department of Employment Security
- Department of Financial and Professional Regulation
- Department of Healthcare and Family Services
- Department of Human Rights
- Department of Human Services
- Department of Insurance
- Department of Juvenile Justice
- Department of Labor
- Department of Military Affairs
- Department of Natural Resources
- Department of Public Health
- Department of Revenue
- Department of State Police
- Department of Transportation
- Department of Veterans' Affairs
The officers of the General Assembly are elected at the beginning of each even-numbered year. Representatives of the House elect from its membership a Speaker and Speaker pro tempore, drawn from the majority party in the chamber. The Secretary of State convenes and supervises the opening House session and leadership vote. State senators elect from the chamber a President of the Senate, convened and under the supervision of the Governor. The Illinois Auditor General is a legislative officer appointed by the General Assembly that reviews all state spending for legality.
The Governor has different types of veto like a full veto, reduction veto, and amendatory veto. The General Assembly has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote in each chamber.
The Judiciary of Illinois is the unified court system of Illinois. It consists of the Supreme Court, Appellate Court, and Circuit Courts. The Supreme Court oversees the administration of the court system.
The administrative divisions of Illinois are counties, townships, cities, villages, towns, and single-purpose governmental entities. The basic subdivision of Illinois are the 102 counties. 85 of the 102 counties are in turn divided into townships. Municipal governments are the cities, villages, and incorporated towns. Illinois has more units of local government than any other state—over 8,000 in all. Localities possess "home rule", which allows them to govern themselves to a certain extent.
The property tax is a major source of tax revenue for local government taxing districts. The property tax is a local — not state — tax, imposed by local government taxing districts, which include counties, townships, municipalities, school districts, and special taxation districts. The property tax in Illinois is imposed only on real property.
The Constitution of Illinois is the foremost source of state law. Legislation is enacted by the Illinois General Assembly, published in the Laws of the State of Illinois, and codified in the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS). State agencies publish regulations in the Illinois Register, which are in turn codified in the Illinois Administrative Code. Illinois's legal system is based on common law, which is interpreted by case law through the decisions of the Supreme Court of Illinois and the Illinois Appellate Court, which are published on the website of the Supreme Court. Counties, townships, cities, and villages may also promulgate local ordinances.
|2008||36.9% 1,981,158||61.8% 3,319,237|
|2004||44.48% 2,345,946||54.82% 2,891,550|
|2000||42.58% 2,019,421||54.60% 2,589,026|
|1996||36.81% 1,587,021||54.32% 2,341,744|
|1992||34.34% 1,734,096||48.58% 2,453,350|
|1988||50.69% 2,310,939||48.60% 2,215,940|
|1984||56.17% 2,707,103||43.30% 2,086,499|
|1980||49.65% 2,359,049||41.72% 1,981,413|
|1976||50.10% 2,364,269||48.13% 2,271,295|
|1972||59.03% 2,788,179||40.51% 1,913,472|
|1968||47.08% 2,174,774||44.15% 2,039,814|
|1964||40.53% 1,905,946||59.47% 2,796,833|
|1960||49.80% 2,368,988||49.98% 2,377,846|
In the past, Illinois was a critical swing state leaning marginally towards to the Republican Party. This has changed and the state has supported Democratic presidential candidates since 1992. John Kerry easily won the state's 21 electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 11 percentage points with 54.8% of the vote. Traditionally, Chicago, East Saint Louis, and the Illinois portion of the Quad Cities have tended to vote heavily Democratic, along with the Central Illinois population centers of Peoria, Champaign-Urbana and Decatur.
Rural districts have tended to vote more heavily Republican, and the southern half of the state has historically tended Republican since the 1920s. The Republican Party was strongest in southern Illinois during the sixties and seventies when Barry Goldwater, Richard Nixon, and Gerald Ford won all areas of southern Illinois, with the exception of East St. Louis, three to one.
Rod R. Blagojevich (Democrat) was elected Governor in 2002, replacing George H. Ryan. Blagojevich was re-elected in 2006, defeating Republican state treasurer Judy Baar Topinka. However, in 2009, Blagojevich was impeached and removed from office due to charges that he abused his power while in office. Lieutenant Governor Pat Quinn succeeded him.
- Wikisource. Illinois Constitution of 1818.
- Uphoff, Judy Lee (2012). "The Governor and the Executive Branch". In Lind, Nancy S.; Rankin, Erik. Governing Illinois: Your Connection to State and Local Government (4th ed.). Center Publications, Center for State Policy and Leadership, University of Illinois at Springfield. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-938943-28-0.
- 20 ILCS 5
- Individual State Descriptions: 2007, 2007 Census of Governments, United States Census Bureau, November 2012, pp. 69–80
- Census 2007, p. 89.
- Gove, Samuel Kimball (1996). Illinois Politics and Government: The Expanding Metropolitan Frontier. Politics and Governments of the American States. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-8032-7014-3. LCCN 95-46017.
- Nelson, Ronald E. (ed.), ed. (1978). Illinois: Land and Life in the Prairie State. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-8403-1831-6.
- Biles, Roger (2005). Illinois: A History of the Land and its People. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-349-0.
- Horsley, A. Doyne (1986). Illinois: A Geography. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0-86531-522-1.
- Illinois.gov official site
- Illinois at Project Vote Smart
- Illinois at Ballotpedia
- Illinois at Judgepedia
- Illinois at Sunshine Review