Government of India Act 1919
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2009)|
|Long title||An Act to make further provision with respect to the Government of India.|
|Chapter||9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101|
|Royal Assent||23 December 1919|
|Repealing legislation||Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1976|
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India. The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929.
The Act received royal assent on December 23 1919. On the same day the King-Emperor issued a proclamation which reviewed the course of parliamentary legislation for India and the intent of the act:
"The Acts of 1773 and 1784 were designed to establish a regular system of administration and justice under the Honourable East India Company. The Act of 1833 opened the door for Indians to public office and employment. The Act of 1858 transferred the administration from the Company to the Crown and laid the foundations of public life which exist in India to-day. The Act of 1861 sowed the seed of representative institutions, and the seed was quickened into life by the Act of 1909. The Act which has now become law entrusts the elected representative of the people with a definite share in the Government and points the way to full responsible Government hereafter".
The Act provided a dual form of government (a "dyarchy") for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council. The 'transferred list' included Agriculture, supervision of local government, Health and Education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged.
At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserved list') remained under the control of the Viceroy. The 'reserved list' included Defence (the military), Foreign Affairs, and Communications.
The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral legislature for all India. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly of 144 members, of which 104 were elected and 40 were nominated and tenure of three years. The upper house was the Council of States consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members and tenure of five years.
- British India
- British Raj
- History of Bangladesh
- History of India
- History of Pakistan
- Governor-General of India
- Government of India Act
- India Office
- Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
- Secretary of State for India
- Ilbert, Sir Courtenay Peregrine. The Government of India. Clarendon Press, 1922. p. 125
- Uttamabahādura Siṃha, Administrative system in India: Vedic age to 1947
- Curtis, Lionel (1920). Papers Relating to the Application of the Principle of Dyarchy to the Government of India. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. lxi, 606 pp.:folded map ; 23 cm. Bib ID 2514830.
- "India: World War I and its aftermath". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. United Kingdom: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2009. Retrieved 11-08-2009.