Government of Romania

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politics and government of
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The Government of Romania (Romanian: Guvernul României) forms one half of the country's executive branch (the other half being the President). It is headed by the Prime-Minister, and consists of the Ministries, various subordinated institutions and agencies, and the 42 Prefectures. The seat of the Romanian Government is at Victoria Palace in Bucharest.

The Government is the public authority of executive power that functions on the basis of the vote of confidence granted by Parliament, ensures the achievement of the country's domestic and foreign policy and that exercises the general leadership of public administration. The Government is appointed by the President of Romania on the basis of the vote of confidence granted to the Government by the Parliament of Romania.


History[edit]

In the interwar period and during the communist period, the executive branch was called the Council of Ministers.

After the Romanian Revolution (Romanian: Revoluția Română), the government of Romania was led by several prime ministers and some interim prime ministers.

     PNL = National Liberal Party (Romania)      FSN = National Salvation Front (Romania)
     PDSR = Romanian Social Democratic Party
(from 2001 PSD; Social Democratic Party)
     PNȚCD = Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party
     PD-L = Democratic Liberal Party (Romania)      Ind. = Independent

No. Name Portrait Born – died From To Party Government
53 Petre Roman[c] Petre Roman.jpg 1946– December 26, 1989 June 28, 1990 FSN Roman I
June 28, 1990 April 30, 1991 Roman II
April 30, 1991 October 16, 1991 Roman III
54 Theodor Stolojan Theodor Stolojan1.jpg 1943– October 16, 1991 November 19, 1992 FSN Stolojan I
55 Nicolae Văcăroiu Nicolae Văcăroiu.jpg 1943– November 19, 1992 December 11, 1996 PDSR Văcăroiu I
56 Victor Ciorbea Victor Ciorbea (1).JPG 1954– December 12, 1996 March 30, 1998 PNȚCD Ciorbea I
Gavril Dejeu 1932– March 30th 1998 April 17th 1998 PNȚCD
57 Radu Vasile Radu Vasile(2).tif 1942–2013 April 17, 1998 December 13, 1999 PNȚCD Vasile
Alexandru Athanasiu 1955– 13 December 1999 22 December 1999 PSDR
58 Mugur Isărescu Mugur Isărescu.jpg 1949– December 22, 1999 December 28, 2000 Ind. Isărescu I
59 Adrian Năstase Nastase3.jpg 1950– December 28th 2000 December 21st 2004 PSDR/PSD Năstase I
Eugen Bejinariu No image.svg 1959– December 21st 2004 December 28th 2004 PSD
60 Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu at a government meeting.jpg 1952– December 29, 2004 April 5, 2007 PNL Tăriceanu I
April 5, 2007 December 22, 2008 Tăriceanu II
61 Emil Boc Conventia PD-L 2013 - Emil Boc (1).jpg 1966– December 22nd 2008 December 23rd 2009 PD-L Boc I
December 23rd 2009 February 6th 2012 Boc II
Cătălin Predoiu No image.svg 1968– February 6th 2012 February 9th 2012 Ind.
62 Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu.jpg 1968– February 9th 2012 April 27 2012 Ind. Ungureanu I
63 Victor Ponta Victor Ponta Feb 2014 (cropped).jpg 1972– May 7, 2012 December 21, 2012 PSD Ponta I
December 21, 2012 March 5, 2014 Ponta II
March 5, 2014 December 15, 2014 Ponta III
December 15, 2014 present Ponta IV

Overview[edit]

Investiture[edit]

The procedure of investing a new Government is initiated by the President, who designates a candidate to the office of Prime Minister after consulting the party which holds a majority of seats in Parliament. If no such majority exists, the President consults all the parties represented in Parliament. Once nominated, the candidate establishes a list of members and a government platform; this is to be done in 10 days. The 10-day interval is not a strict deadline, rather it represents the time period deemed optimal to establish a competent legal Government. The expiry of this interval allows the President to revoke the candidate and designate a new one, though this is not mandatory.[1] ~ Once the candidate has formed a list and a program, he can ask for the Parliament's vote of confidence. The Parliament debates upon the matter in joint sitting, and can only reject proposals twice in a span of 60 days. If Parliament fails to approve a candidate within this time period, the President gains the right to dissolve it.[2] ~ Should the Parliament grant its vote of confidence, the proposed political platform becomes official, and the full list of Government must be confirmed by the President. The Government is then sworn in and begins its term.[3] ~

Structure[edit]

Victoria Palace in Victory Square, Bucharest, is the seat of the Romanian government.

The Constitution of Romania provides for two basic types of members, namely ministers (miniştri) and the Prime Minister (primul-ministru). The statute of additional members is established by organic law. Current legislation establishes the positions of deputy prime minister (viceprim-ministru), state minister (ministru de stat) and ministers delegated with special tasks (miniştri delegaţi cu însărcinări speciale).[4] "State minister" is a senior position, the holder of which coordinates the activity of various ministries under the direction of the Prime Minister.[5] ~ The Prime Minister is the leader of Government and coordinates its activity. The working apparatus of the Government consists of the Prime-Minister's office, the General Secretariat of the Government and other departments and structures established through Government Decisions.[6] ~ The Prime Minister's office itself consists of the Prime Minister's Cabinet, the body of his state-secretaries and state-counselors, and the Prime Minister's Registry. ~

Government program[edit]

The Government is organized and functions in accordance with the Constitution, based on Government Program approved by Parliament. The Government Program is a political-administrative document that sets out the principles, guidelines and steps needed to be taken that the Government intends to implement during its term in office in all the fields of activity. To achieve the goals stipulated in the Government Program, the Romanian Government performs the functions of strategizing, regulating, administering, representing and exercising the state authority.

Strategies, policies and programs[edit]

The Government approves the strategies, policies and public administration programs, these being methods of accomplishing the goals stipulated in the Government Program, as well as methods of satisfying the competences of the institution as a public authority within the executive power, its role being that of ensuring the balanced functioning and development of the national economic and social system, along with its connection to the global economic system while promoting the national interests of Romania.[7]

Role[edit]

The role of the Government is sanctioned by the Constitution and by relevant laws. The Government exercises "general leadership of the public administration",[8] elaborates strategies to implement the government platform, exercises legislative initiative, negotiates international treaties,[9] represents the Romanian state both internally and externally, names prefects[10] and presents information and documents to the Chambers of Parliament as requested.[11]

Relations with the Parliament[edit]

The Government answers exclusively to Parliament, both through compulsory information of Parliament and through questions, interpellations and inquiry committees. A Chamber of Parliament (Chamber of Deputies or Senate) may carry a simple motion with regards to the subject matter of an interpellation.[12] In extreme cases, the Parliament may vote a motion of censure, withdrawing its confidence and forcing the Government to resign.[13]

Through a special habilitation law, the Government may be enabled to issue ordinances (ordonanţe), which have the same legal force as ordinary laws. Ordinances are a form of legislative delegation, and may require approval in Parliament if the habilitation law states so. In extraordinary situations, in which regulation cannot be postponed, the Government may issue emergency ordinances (ordonanţe de urgenţă), which do not require habilitation laws but must be subjected to approval in Parliament before coming into force.[14]

Legislative Process[edit]

The Government meetings are convened and are led by the Prime Minister.

The Government meets weekly or whenever necessary to debate domestic and foreign policy issues or aspects of general leadership of public administration.

The Government meeting's agenda includes:

  • drafting legislative acts (drafting laws, ordinances and decisions)
  • reports
  • notes, mandate notes
  • memoranda
  • stances
  • information and other documents, depending on the needs and requests.

The government agenda is divided into two parts and may also contain additional lists, with the approval of the Prime Minister.

The Government adopts decisions and ordinances (simple or emergency ordinances). Decisions are issued to organize the laws enforcement and ordinances are issued under a special enabling law, within the limits and conditions specified therein.

Decision-making circuit[edit]

The decision-making circuit of draft public policy documents and draft legislative acts is structured in two phases: a) preparatory meeting of the Government meeting which ensures the coordination of the process of elaboration, consultation and approval for public policy documents and legislative acts at inter-ministerial level; b) government meeting marking the end of decision-making process through the adoption / approval or rejection of such draft laws. [7]

Social welfare[edit]

In 1990, after the fall of the communist regime, the whole system was reformed. It was divided into multiple categories (healthcare, child care, adults and elderly), and the concept of generalized social welfare became reduced in scale.[15]

Families or mothers do not pay for giving birth, which is subsidized by state tax revenues. As soon as mothers give birth, they are entitled to vacation. They receive aid which amounts 75% of their net income, with a minimum set at 600 RON and limited to 3400 RON.[16] After the age of two, children receive an allowance of approximately €9 per month[17] up until the age of 18, although they must attend school in order to receive it.[18]

Adults are also able to apply for unemployment aid. The amount varies from case to case, but is generally comparable to the minimum wage. The unemployment aid can be granted if the payer has contributed and if they can prove they are actively seeking for a job. The unemployment aid is granted on a time-limited, individually determined basis.[19] The unemployment rate in Romania has been relatively low in recent years and stands at around 5% in 2011.[20]

The pension system was also reformed.[21][22][23] The current retirement ages (as from 2014) are 60 years for women and 65 years for men. Pension is granted nonetheless on the contributions made during one's lifetime. It increases proportionally with the contribution a person made during their working life. Some retirees have pensions that exceed the medium salary, but a third of them live off a pension equal to or under the minimum wage.[24] Pension is provided by the state.

The current government[edit]

Cabinet office Name Party
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Prime Minister Ponta, VictorVictor Ponta PSD
Mdrap.jpg Viceprime-minister, Minister of Regional Development and Public Administration Dragnea, Liviu NicolaeLiviu Nicolae Dragnea PSD
MINISTERUL FINANTELOR LOGO.jpg Minister of Public Finance Petrescu, Ioana-MariaIoana-Maria Petrescu Independent
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Internal Affairs Oprea, GabrielGabriel Oprea UNPR
MINISTERUL AGRICULTURII LOGO.jpg Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Constantin, DanielDaniel Constantin PC
Mae.png Minister of Foreign Affairs Aurescu, BogdanBogdan Aurescu Independent
MAPN LOGO.jpg Minister of National Defense Dușa, MirceaMircea Dușa PSD
MINISTERUL JUSTITIEI LOGO.jpg Minister of Justice Cazanciuc, Robert MariusRobert Marius Cazanciuc Independent
MINISTERUL MEDIULUI LOGO.gif Minister of Environment and Climatic Change Korodi, AttilaAttila Korodi UDMR
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Economy Nită, ConstantinConstantin Nită PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Information Society Cotovelea, Alexandru-RăzvanAlexandru-Răzvan Cotovelea PC
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Health Bănicioiu, NicolaeNicolae Bănicioiu PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of National Education Pricopie, RemusRemus Pricopie PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Labor, Family, and Social Protection and Elderly Plumb, RovanaRovana Plumb PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of European Funds Teodorovici, Eugen OrlandoEugen Orlando Teodorovici PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Transport Rus, IoanIoan Rus PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Culture Hunor, KelemenKelemen Hunor UDMR
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister of Youth and Sport Szabo, GabrielaGabriela Szabo PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for the Budget Voinea, LiviuLiviu Voinea PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Waters, Forests and Fish Farming Pană, Doina AdrianaDoina Adriana Pană PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Small and Medium Enterprises, Business Environment and Tourism Jianu, Florin-NicolaeFlorin-Nicolae Jianu Independent
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Energy Nicolescu, Răzvan-EugenRăzvan-Eugen Nicolescu Independent
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technological Development Costoiu, Mihnea CosminMihnea Cosmin Costoiu PSD
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Liaison with Parliament Nicolicea, EugenEugen Nicolicea UNPR
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Romanians Abroad Marian-Stanoevici, Bogdan-Dragos-AureliuBogdan-Dragos-Aureliu Marian-Stanoevici Independent
Coat of arms of Romania Eagle.svg Minister-Delegate for Social Dialogue Cristea, AureliaAurelia Cristea PSD

Government's Working Apparatus[edit]

Chancellery of the Prime Minister

A structure without legal personality, subordinated directly to the Prime Minister, funded through the budget of the Secretariat - General of the Government, led by the Head of Chancellery, with the rank of Minister, appointed and removed from office by Prime Minister's decision, one or more Secretaries of state and State Advisors, appointed, or removed from office by Prime Minister's decision, perform their activity in the Prime Minister Chancellery;

General Secretariat of the Government

The Secretariat (administrative office) is a public institution with legal personality, subordinated to the Prime Minister, headed by a general secretary with the rank of Minister, assisted by a Deputy Secretary-General with the rank of Secretary of State, and, where appropriate, by one or more many Secretaries of State, appointed, or removed from office by Prime Minister's Decision, the Secretary - General of the Government is the main credit authorizing officer for the apparatus of Government and public institutions and bodies of the central public administration, subordinated or coordinated by the Government, the Prime Minister and the Secretariat -General of the Government

Department for Liaison with Parliament

A structure with legal personality, funded through the budget of the General Secretariat of the Government, headed by the Minister for Liaison with Parliament, who has the capacity as tertiary credit authorizing officer. The department comprises one or more Secretaries of State, appointed and removed from office by Prime Minister's decision.

Department for Infrastructure Projects and Foreign Investment

A structure with legal personality, funded through the budget of the General Secretariat of the Government, headed by the Minister for Infrastructure Projects of National Interest and Foreign Investment, who has the capacity as secondary credit authorizing officer. The department comprises one or more Secretaries of State, appointed and removed from office by Prime Minister's decision.

Fight against fraud Department - DLAF

A structure with legal personality, in the apparatus of the Government, under the Prime Minister's coordination, financed from the state budget through the budget of the General Secretariat of the Government, headed by a Chief with the rank of Secretary of State, appointed by Prime Minister's decision for a period of 5 years, tertiary credit authorizing officer; DLAF is the institution of contact with European Anti-fraud Office- OLAF and provides supports or coordinates, as appropriate, the fulfillment by Romania of its obligations with respect to the protection of the financial interests of the European Union, in accordance with Art. 325 of the Treaty on European Union, having the power to control the obtaining, unfolding or use of EU funds and related co-financing funds;

Control Body of the Prime Minister

A structure without legal personality, under the Prime Minister's authority, headed by a Secretary of State, appointed and removed from office by Prime Minister's Decision, and funded through the budget of the General Secretariat of the Government; it controls and monitors the activity of Ministries and their decentralized public services, public institutions under Government's authority, specialized bodies of the central public administration subordinated to the Government, offices, departments, commissions, autonomous companies, national companies and societies, trading companies and financial -banking institutions with state majority capital or entirely owned by state; Control Body of the Prime Minister controls the activity of public institutions subordinated to local public administration authorities, while observing the legal provisions on the general regime of local autonomy and the organization and functioning of local public administration authorities;

Department for Interethnic Relations

A structure without legal personality, subordinated to the Prime Minister and under the coordination of the General - Secretary of the Government, headed by a Secretary of State, assisted by two Secretaries of State, appointed, or removed from office by the Prime Minister's decision, and funded through the budget of the Secretariat -General of the Government.

Other departments

Organized as structures with or without legal personality, under Prime Minister's authority, headed by State Secretaries or others with similar rank, whose establishment and / or operation is approved by Government Decision.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution, art. 103
  2. ^ Constitution, art. 89
  3. ^ Constitution, art. 104
  4. ^ Law no. 90/2001, art. 3
  5. ^ Law no. 90, art. 54
  6. ^ Law no. 90/2001, art. 20
  7. ^ a b [1],arhiva.gov.ro
  8. ^ Law no. 90/2001, art. 11
  9. ^ Constitution, art. 91
  10. ^ Constitution, art. 123
  11. ^ Constitution, art. 111
  12. ^ Constitution, art. 112
  13. ^ Constitution, art. 113
  14. ^ Constitution, art. 115
  15. ^ The Ministry of Labor Today[dead link]
  16. ^ "Children's allowance in 2012". Copilul.ro. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Majorarea alocației pentru copii, respinsă la Senat - Mediafax". Mediafax.ro. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "Social Protection, Department of Allowances and Subsidies". Protectiacopilului6.ro. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Unemployment pay, a year only". Libertatea.ro. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  20. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "Only three other countries in the EU plan to increase retirement age above 65". Barcelonareporter.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. [dead link]
  22. ^ "country profiles". Pension Funds Online. Retrieved 24 April 2012. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Romanian Parliament committee sets retirement age at 60 for women, 64 for men | Daily news in English from Romania". Romania-Insider.com. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  24. ^ "The retirement age of Romanians is increasing; see its evolution". Realitatea.net. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2012. 
  25. ^ http://gov.ro/en/government/organization/government-s-working-apparatus Government Working Apparatus

External links[edit]