Government of South Korea

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Government of South Korea
Emblem of South Korea.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
South Korea
Constitution
Government of South Korea
Hangul 대한민국정부
Hanja
Revised Romanization Daehanminguk Jeongbu
McCune–Reischauer Taehanmin’guk Chŏngbu

The government of South Korea is divided into executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The executive and judicial branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels. The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948 (for details, see History of South Korea). However, it has retained many broad characteristics; with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea, the country has always had a presidential system with a relatively independent chief executive.

As with most stable three-branch systems, a careful system of checks and balances is in place. For instance, the judges of the Constitutional Court are partially appointed by the executive, and partially by the legislature. Likewise, when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision.

Legislative branch[edit]

National Assembly building, Seoul (seen from distance)
National Assembly building, Seoul
Main chamber of National Assembly

At the national level, the legislative branch consists of the National Assembly of South Korea. This is a unicameral legislature; it consists of a single large assembly. Most of its 299 members are elected from single-member constituencies; however, 56 are elected through proportional representation. The members of the National Assembly serve for four years; in the event that a member is unable to complete his or her term, a by-election is held. The National Assembly is charged with deliberating and passing legislation, auditing the budget and administrative procedures, ratifying treaties, and approving state appointments. In addition, it has the power to impeach or recommend the removal of high officials.

The Assembly forms 17 standing committees to deliberate matters of detailed policy. For the most part, these coincide with the ministries of the executive branch.

Bills pass through these committees before they reach the floor. However, before they reach committee, they must already have gained the support of at least 20 members, unless they have been introduced by the president. To secure final passage, a bill must be approved by a majority of those present; a tie vote is not sufficient. After passage, bills are sent to the president for approval; they must be approved within 15 days.

Each year, the budget bill is submitted to the National Assembly by the executive. By law, it must be submitted at least 90 days before the start of the fiscal year, and the final version must be approved at least 30 days before the start of the fiscal year. The Assembly is also responsible for auditing accounts of past expenditures, which must be submitted at least 120 days before the start of the fiscal year.

Sessions of the Assembly may be either regular (once a year, for no more than 100 days) or extraordinary (by request of the president or a caucus, no more than 30 days). These sessions are open-door by default, but can be closed to the public by majority vote or by decree of the Speaker. In order for laws to be passed in any session, a quorum of half the members must be present.

Currently, four political parties are represented in the National Assembly.

Executive branch[edit]

Main buildings of Cheongwadae (official residence of South Korea's President), Seoul

The executive branch is headed by the president.[1] The president is elected directly by the people, and is the only elected member of the national executive.[2] The president serves for one five-year term; additional terms are not permitted.[3] The president is head of government, head of state, and commander in chief of the South Korean armed forces.[4][5] The president is vested with the power to declare war, and can also propose legislation to the National Assembly.[6][7] He or she can also declare a state of emergency or martial law, subject to the Assembly's subsequent approval.[8] The President can veto bills, subject to a two-thirds majority veto override by the National Assembly.[9] However, the president does not have the power to dissolve the National Assembly. This safeguard reflects the experience of authoritarian governments under the First, Third, and Fourth Republics.

In the event that they are suspected of serious wrongdoing, the president and cabinet-level officials are subject to impeachment by the National Assembly.[10] Once the National Assembly votes in favor of the impeachment the Constitutional Court should either confirm or reject the impeachment resolution, once again reflecting the system of checks and balances between the three branches of the government.[11]

The Cabinet (국무회의, 國務會議) is the highest body for policy deliberation and resolution in the executive branch of the Republic of Korea. The Constitution of the Republic of Korea mandates that the Cabinet be composed of between 15 and 30 members including the Chairperson, and currently the Cabinet includes the President, the Prime Minister, the Vice Prime Minister (the Minister of Strategy and Finance), and the cabinet-level ministers of the 17 ministries.[12] By Constitution the President is the chairperson of the Cabinet, and the Prime Minister the vice chairperson [13] Nevertheless the Prime Minister frequently holds the meetings without the presence of the President as the meeting can be lawfully held as long as the majority of the Cabinet members are present at the meeting. Also, as many government agencies have recently been moved out of Seoul into other parts of the country the need to hold Cabinet meetings without having to convene in one place at the same time has been growing, and therefore the law has been amended to allow Cabinet meetings in a visual teleconference format.[14] Although not the official members of the Cabinet, the Presidential Chief of Staff (대통령비서실장, 大統領祕書室長), the Minister of the Office for Government Policy Coordination (국무조정실장, 國務調整室長), the Minister of Government Legislation (법제처장, 法制處長), the Minister of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처장, 國家報勳處長), the Minister of Food and Drug Safety (식품의약품안전처장, 食品醫藥品安全處長), the Chairperson of Korea Fair Trade Commission (공정거래위원장, 公正去來委員長), the Chairperson of Financial Services Commission (금융위원장, 金融委員長), the Mayor of Seoul Special City (서울특별시장, 서울特別市長), and other officials designated by law or deemed necessary by the Chairperson of the Cabinet can also attend the Cabinet meetings and speak in front of the Cabinet without the right to vote on the matters discussed in the meetings [15] The Mayor of Seoul, although being the head of a local autonomous region in South Korea and not directly related to the central executive branch, has been allowed to attend the Cabinet meeting considering the special status of Seoul (Special City) and its mayor (the only cabinet-level mayor in Korea).

It has to be noted that the Cabinet of the Republic of Korea performs somewhat different roles than those of many other nations with similar forms. As the Korean political system is basically a presidential system yet with certain aspects of parliamentary cabinet system combined, the Cabinet of the Republic of Korea also is a combination of both systems. More specifically, the Korean Cabinet performs policy resolutions as well as policy consultations to the President. Reflecting that the Republic of Korea is basically a presidential republic the Cabinet resolutions cannot bind the president's decision, and in this regard the Korean Cabinet is similar to those advisory counsels in strict presidential republics. At the same time, however, the Constitution of the Republic of Korea specifies in details 17 categories including budgetary and military matters, which necessitates the resolution of the Cabinet in addition to the President's approval, and in this regard the Korean Cabinet is similar to those cabinets in strict parliamentary cabinet systems.[16]

The official residence and office of the President of the Republic of Korea is Cheongwadae (청와대, 靑瓦臺), located in Jongno-gu, Seoul. The name "Cheongwadae" literally means "the house with blue-tiled roof" and is named as such due to its appearance. The president is assisted in his/her duties by the Prime Minister of South Korea as well as the Office of the President (대통령비서실, 大統領祕書室).[17] In addition to the Office of the President, Cheongwadae (청와대, 靑瓦臺) also houses the Office of National Security (국가안보실, 國家安保室) and the Presidential Security Service (대통령경호실, 大統領警護室) to assist the President.[18] The Prime Minister is appointed by the president upon the approval of the National Assembly, and has the power to recommend the appointment or dismissal of the Cabinet ministers.[19] The Prime Minister is assisted in his/her duties by the Prime Minister's Office which houses both the Office for Government Policy Coordination (국무조정실, 國務調整室) and the Office of the Prime Minister (국무총리비서실, 國務總理祕書室), the former of which is headed by a cabinet-level minister and the latter by a vice minister-level chief of staff.[20] In the event that the president is unable to fulfill his duties, the Prime Minister assumes the president's powers and takes control of the state until the President can once again fulfill his/her duties or until a new president is elected.[21]

Ministries [22][edit]

Central Government Complex (Main Building), Seoul
Central Government Complex (Annex), Seoul
Government Complex, Gwacheon (the brown buildings in the top left side of the photo)
Government Complex, Daejeon

Currently 17 ministries exist in the South Korean government. The 17 ministers are appointed by the President and report to the Prime Minister. Also, some ministries have affiliated agencies (listed below), which report both to the Prime Minister and to the minister of the affiliated ministry. Each affiliated agency is headed by a vice-minister-level commissioner except Prosecution Service which is led by a minister-level Prosecutor General.

※ The minister of Strategy and Finance, by law, automatically assumes the position of Vice Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea.
- National Tax Service (국세청, 國稅廳)
· The commissioner of National Tax Service, a vice-minister-level official by law, is customarily considered to be a minister-level official due to the importance of National Tax Service. For example, the vice-commissioner of the agency will attend meetings where other agencies would send their commissioners, and the commissioner of the agency will attend meetings where minister-level officials convene.
- Korea Customs Service (관세청, 關稅廳)
- Public Procurement Service (조달청, 調達廳)
- Statistics Korea (통계청, 統計廳)
※ This ministry includes Korea Post, the postal service in the Republic of Korea.
- Prosecution Service (검찰청, 檢察廳)
- Military Manpower Administration (병무청, 兵務廳)
- Defense Acquisition Program Administration (방위사업청, 防衛事業廳)
- Korean National Police Agency (경찰청, 警察廳)
- National Emergency Management Agency (소방방재청, 消防防災廳)
- Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청, 文化財廳)
- Rural Development Administration (농촌진흥청, 農村振興廳)
- Korea Forest Service (산림청, 山林廳)
- Small and Medium Business Administration (중소기업청, 中小企業廳)
- Korean Intellectual Property Office (특허청, 特許廳)
- Korea Meteorological Administration (기상청, 氣象廳)
- Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency (행정중심복합도시건설청, 行政中心複合都市建設廳)
- Saemangeum Development Agency (새만금개발청, 새萬金開發廳) [23]
- Korea Coast Guard (해양경찰청, 海洋警察廳) [24]

※ Note that the respective ministers of the above ministries assume the President's position in the above order, in the event that the President cannot perform his/her duty and the Prime Minister cannot assume the President's position. Also note that the Constitution and the affiliated laws of the Republic of Korea stipulates only so far as the Prime Minister and the 17 ministers as those who can assume the President's position.[21] Moreover, in the event that the Prime Minister cannot perform his/her duty the Vice Prime Minister will assume the Prime Minister's position, and if both the Prime Minister and the Vice Prime Minister cannot perform the Prime Minister's role the President can either pick one of the 17 ministers to assume the Prime Minister's position or let the 17 ministers assume the position according to the above order.[25]

Independent Agencies[edit]

  • The following agencies report directly to the President:
- Board of Audit and Inspection (감사원, 監査院) [26]
※ The chairperson of the board, responsible for general administrative oversight, must be approved by the National Assembly to be appointed by the President. Also, although the law provides no explicit regulation regarding the chairperson's rank in the Korean government hierarchy, it is customary to consider the chairperson of the board to enjoy the same rank as a Vice Prime Minister. This is because the law stipulates that the secretary general of the board, the second highest position in the organization, be a Minister rank and therefore the Chairperson, directly over the secretary general in the organization, should be at least a Vice Prime Minister rank to be able to control the whole organization without any power clash.
- National Intelligence Service (국가정보원, 國家情報院) [27]
- Korea Communications Commission (방송통신위원회, 放送通信委員會) [28]
  • The following councils advise the president on pertinent issues:
- National Security Council (국가안전보장회의, 國家安全保障會議) [29]
- National Unification Advisory Council (민주평화통일자문회의, 民主平和統一諮問會議) [30]
- National Economic Advisory Council (국민경제자문회의, 國民經濟諮問會議) [31]
- Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology (국가과학기술자문회의, 國家科學技術諮問會議) [32]
  • The following agencies report directly to the Prime Minister:
- Ministry of Government Legislation (법제처, 法制處) [33]
- Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처, 國家報勳處) [34]
- Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (식품의약품안전처, 食品醫藥品安全處) [35]
- Fair Trade Commission (공정거래위원회, 公正去來委員會) [36]
- Financial Services Commission (금융위원회, 金融委員會) [37]
- Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission (국민권익위원회, 國民權益委員會) [38]
- Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (원자력안전위원회, 原子力安全委員會) [39]
  • The following agency report to neither the President nor the Prime Minister:
- National Human Rights Commission of Korea (국가인권위원회, 國家人權委員會) [40]
※ This commission, by law, is guaranteed an independent status regarding all human rights issues in Korea. To ensure its independent status it is legally separated from all three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of the government of South Korea. Moreover, to further ensure its independence, 4 of 11 commissioners are chosen by the National Assembly, another 4 by the President, and the rest 3 by the Chief Justice, so that no branch can hold the majority in the commission.[41]

※ Relocation of Government Agencies [42][43][edit]

Until recently almost all of the central government agencies were located in either Seoul or Gwacheon government complex, with the exception of a few agencies located in Daejeon government complex. Considering that Gwacheon is a city constructed just outside of Seoul to house the new government complex, virtually all administrative functions of South Korea were concentrated in Seoul. It has been recently decided, however, that the majority of the government agencies relocate themselves to Sejong Special Self-Governing City established in South Chungcheong Province so that the government agencies are better accessible from most parts of South Korea and at the same time the concentration into Seoul might be deterred. So far only the first phase of the project has been finished and the selected agencies will move one by one to the new government complex in Sejong City during the next few years. Here is a brief description of where the agencies will settle when the project is finished.

  • The following agencies will settle in Seoul government complex:
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (외교부, 外交部)
- Ministry of Unification (통일부, 統一部)
- Ministry of Security and Public Administration (안전행정부, 安全行政部)
- Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (여성가족부, 女性家族部)
  • The following agencies will settle in Seoul, but in separate locations:
- Ministry of National Defense (국방부, 國防部) will continue to stay in Yongsan-gu, Seoul.
- Prosecution Service (검찰청, 檢察廳) will continue to stay in Seocho-gu, Seoul.
- Defense Acquisition Program Administration (방위사업청, 防衛事業廳) will continue to stay in Yongsan-gu, Seoul.
- National Police Agency (경찰청, 警察廳) will continue to stay in Seodaemun-gu, Seoul.
- Korea Meteorological Administration (기상청, 氣象廳) will continue to stay in Dongjak-gu, Seoul.
- Board of Audit and Inspection (감사원, 監査院) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- National Intelligence Service (국가정보원, 國家情報院) will continue to stay in Seocho-gu, Seoul.
- National Security Council (국가안전보장회의, 國家安全保障會議) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- National Unification Advisory Council (민주평화통일자문회의, 民主平和統一諮問會議) will continue to stay in Jung-gu, Seoul.
- National Economic Advisory Council (국민경제자문회의, 國民經濟諮問會議) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology (국가과학기술자문회의, 國家科學技術諮問會議) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- Financial Services Commission (금융위원회, 金融委員會) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (원자력안전위원회, 原子力安全委員會) will continue to stay in Jongno-gu, Seoul.
- National Human Rights Commission of Korea (국가인권위원회, 國家人權委員會) will continue to stay in Jung-gu, Seoul.
  • The following agencies will settle in Gwacheon government complex:
- Ministry of Justice (법무부, 法務部)
- Korea Communications Commission (방송통신위원회, 放送通信委員會)
  • The following agencies will settle in Daejeon government complex:
- Korea Customs Service (관세청, 關稅廳)
- Public Procurement Service (조달청, 調達廳)
- Statistics Korea (통계청, 統計廳)
- Military Manpower Administration (병무청, 兵務廳)
- Cultural Heritage Administration (문화재청, 文化財廳)
- Korea Forest Service (산림청, 山林廳)
- Small and Medium Business Administration (중소기업청, 中小企業廳)
- Korean Intellectual Property Office (특허청, 特許廳)
  • The following agencies will settle in Sejong government complex:
- Prime Minister's Office (국무조정실, 國務調整室) / (국무총리비서실, 國務總理祕書室)
- Ministry of Strategy and Finance (기획재정부, 企劃財政部)
- Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (미래창조과학부, 未來創造科學部)
- Ministry of Education (교육부, 敎育部)
- Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (문화체육관광부, 文化體育觀光部)
- Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (농림축산식품부, 農林畜産食品部)
- Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (산업통상자원부, 産業通商資源部)
- Ministry of Health and Welfare (보건복지부, 保健福祉部)
- Ministry of Environment (환경부, 環境部)
- Ministry of Employment and Labor (고용노동부, 雇用勞動部)
- Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (국토교통부, 國土交通部)
- Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (해양수산부, 海洋水産部)
- National Tax Service (국세청, 國稅廳)
- National Emergency Management Agency (소방방재청, 消防防災廳)
- Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency (행정중심복합도시건설청, 行政中心複合都市建設廳)
- Ministry of Government Legislation (법제처, 法制處)
- Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처, 國家報勳處)
- Fair Trade Commission (공정거래위원회, 公正去來委員會)
- Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission (국민권익위원회, 國民權益委員會)
  • The following agencies will settle in separate locations:
- Rural Development Administration (농촌진흥청, 農村振興廳) will move to Jeonju, North Jeolla Province.
- Saemangeum Development Agency (새만금개발청, 새萬金開發廳) will move to Saemangeum development project area.
- Korea Coast Guard (해양경찰청, 海洋警察廳) will continue to stay in Songdo, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon Metropolitan City.
- Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (식품의약품안전처, 食品醫藥品安全處) will continue to stay in Osong-eup, Cheongwon-gun, North Chungcheong Province.

※ Key Personnel in the Executive Branch (as of Apr. 27th, 2014) [44][edit]

Title Rank In Office Since Name (English / Korean) Birthdate (Birthplace) Gender Education Previous Occupation(s) / Major Post(s) Remarks
President President 2013/02/25 PARK Geun Hye / 박근혜 1952/02/02
(Daegu)
Female * Sogang University (B.A. in Electronic Engineering)
* Seongshim Girls' High School (Seoul)
* Politician
* National Assembly (5-term member; 15, 16, 17, 18, 19th)
* Saenuri Party (President)
* Daughter of former president PARK Chung Hee
Presidential Chief of Staff Minister 2013/08/05 KIM Ki Choon / 김기춘 1939/11/25
(Geoje, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Seoul National University (LL.D.)
* Seoul National University (LL.M.)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Kyungnam High School (Busan)
* Politician, Public Official, Prosecutor
* National Assembly (3-term member; 15, 16, 17th)
* Ministry of Justice (Minister)
* Prosecution Service (Prosecutor General)
* Passed the 12th Bar Examination (1960)
Chief of the Office of National Security Minister 2013/03/25 KIM Jang Soo / 김장수 1948/02/26
(Gwangju)
Male * Konyang University (Honorary Doctorate in Public Administration)
* Yonsei University (M.P.A.)
* Korea Military Academy (B.A.)
* Gwangju Jeil High School (Gwangju)
* Politician, Public Official, Military Serviceman
* National Assembly (1-term member; 18th)
* Ministry of National Defense (Minister)
* Republic of Korea Army (Chief of Staff / General)
* 27th Class of Korea Military Academy
Chief of the Presidential Security Service Minister 2013/03/25 PARK Heung Ryul / 박흥렬 1949/03/18
(Busan)
Male * Daejeon University (Honorary Doctorate in Public Administration)
* Korea Military Academy (B.A.)
* Busan High School (Busan)
* Military Serviceman
* Republic of Korea Army (Chief of Staff / General)
* 28th Class of Korea Military Academy
Prime Minister Prime Minister 2013/02/26 CHUNG Hong Won / 정홍원 [45] 1944/10/09
(Hadong, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Sungkyunkwan University (LL.B.)
* Jinju School of Education (Jinju)
* Prosecutor, Lawyer
* Legal Research and Training Institute (President)
* Passed the 14th Bar Examination (1972)
Minister of the Office for Government Policy Coordination Minister 2013/03/25 KIM Dong Yeon / 김동연 1957/01/28
(Eumseong, North Chungcheong Province)
Male * University of Michigan - Ann Arbor (Ph.D in Public Policy Studies)
* University of Michigan - Ann Arbor (M.P.P.)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Kookje University (LL.B.)
* Duksoo Commercial High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Ministry of Strategy and Finance (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 26th Senior Civil Service Examination (1982)
* Passed the 6th Legislative Civil Service Examination (1982)
Prime Ministerial Chief of Staff Vice Minister 2013/03/25 LEE Ho Young / 이호영 1958/08/07
(Uiryeong, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Sheffield (M.A. in International Studies)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Geography Education)
* Kyunghee High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* 2nd Division for Government Operation, Office of the Prime Minister (Division Chief)
* Passed the 29th Senior Civil Service Examination (1986)
Vice Prime Minister /
Minister of Strategy and Finance
Vice Prime Minister 2013/03/22 HYUN Oh Seok / 현오석 1950/05/05
(Cheongju, North Chungcheong Province)
Male * University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Business Administration)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Public Official, Professor
* Korea Development Institute (President)
* College of Business, KAIST (Professor)
* Passed the 14th Senior Civil Service Examination (1973)
Commissioner of National Tax Service ** Vice Minister 2013/04/15 KIM Duk Jung / 김덕중 1959/03/30
(Daejeon)
Male * Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Chungang University (B.A. in Economics)
* Daejeon High School (Daejeon)
* Public Official
* Jungbu Regional Tax Office (Head of Office)
* Passed the 27th Senior Civil Service Examination (1983)
Commissioner of Korea Customs Service Vice Minister 2013/04/15 BAEK Un Chan / 백운찬 1956/02/13
(Hadong, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Seoul (Ph.D. in Taxation)
* University of Wisconsin - Madison (M.P.A.)
* Donga University (LL.B.)
* Jinju High School (Jinju)
* Public Official
* Department of Taxation, Ministry of Strategy and Finance (Director)
* Tax Tribunal (President)
* Passed the 24th Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Commissioner of Public Procurement Service Vice Minister 2013/04/15 MIN Hyeong Jong / 민형종 1958/02/05
(Gwangju)
Male * Chungnam National University (Ph.D. in Business)
* University of Illinois (M.A. in Economics)
* Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (B.A. in Economics)
* Gwangju Jeil High School (Gwangju)
* Public Official
* Public Procurement Service (Vice Commissioner)
* Passed the 24th Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Commissioner of Statistics Korea Vice Minister 2013/04/15 PARK Hyung Soo / 박형수 1967
(Hwasun, South Jeolla Province)
Male * University of California - Los Angeles (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Economics)
* Dongshin High School (Gwangju)
* Researcher
* Research Planning & Coordination Group, Korea Institute of Public Finance (Director)
Minister of Science, ICT and Future Planning Minister 2013/04/17 CHOI Moon Gi / 최문기 1951/04/07
(Yeongdeok, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of North Carolina (Ph.D. in Operations Research)
* KAIST (M.S. in Industrial Engineering)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Applied Mathematics)
* Gyeongbuk High School (Daegu)
* Professor, Researcher
* Department of Management Science, KAIST (Professor)
* Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (President)
Minister of Education Minister 2013/03/23 SEO Nam Soo / 서남수 1952/03/22
(Seoul)
Male * Dongguk University (Ph.D. in Education)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (M.A. in Education)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Philosophy)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Educator, Public Official
* Uiduk University (President)
* Ministry of Education (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 22nd Senior Civil Service Examination (1978)
Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister 2013/03/11 YUN Byung Se / 윤병세 1953/08/03
(Seoul)
Male * Johns Hopkins University (M.A. in International Studies)
* Seoul National University (LL.M.)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Diplomat
* Senior Presidential Secretary for Foreign, Security and Unification Policy
* Passed the 10th Senior Foreign Service Examination (1976)
Minister of Unification Minister 2013/03/11 RYOO Kihl Jae / 류길재 1959/01/15
(Seoul)
Male * Korea University (Ph.D. in Political Science)
* Korea University (M.A. in Political Science)
* Korea University (B.A. in Political Science)
* Yongmoon High School (Seoul)
* Professor, Researcher
* Korean Association of North Korean Studies (President)
* University of North Korean Studies (Professor)
Minister of Justice Minister 2013/03/11 HWANG Kyo Ahn / 황교안 1957/04/15
(Seoul)
Male * Sungkyunkwan University (LL.M.)
* Sungkyunkwan University (LL.B.)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Prosecutor, Lawyer
* Busan High Prosecutors' Office (Chief Prosecutor)
* Passed the 23rd Bar Examination (1981)
Prosecutor General ** Minister 2013/12/02 KIM Jin Tae / 김진태 1952/08/15
(Sacheon, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Seoul National University (coursework in LL.M. program)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Jinju High School (Jinju)
* Prosecutor, Lawyer
* Prosecution Service (Vice Prosecutor General)
* Passed the 24th Bar Examination (1982)
Minister of National Defense Minister 2010/12/04 KIM Kwan Jin / 김관진 1949/08/27
(Jeonju, North Jeolla Province)
Male * Korea Military Academy (B.A.)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Military Serviceman
* Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces (Chairperson / General)
* 28th Class of Korea Military Academy
* Appointed by the previous President
Commissioner of Military Manpower Administration Vice Minister 2013/04/15 PARK Chang Myung / 박창명 1951/03/15
(Sacheon, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Gyeongsang National University (Honorary Doctorate in Public Administration)
* Gyeongsang National University (M.P.A.)
* Gyeongsang National University (B.A. in Animal Science)
* Jinju High School (Jinju)
* Military Serviceman
* Korea National Defense University (President / Lieutenant General)
* The 1st Republic of Korea Army (Vice Commander / Major General)
* 12th Class of ROTC
Commissioner of Defense Acquisition Program Administration Vice Minister 2013/04/15 LEE Young Geol / 이용걸 1957/11/27
(Busan)
Male * Vanderbilt University (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Economics)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Ministry of National Defense (Vice Minister)
* Ministry of Strategy and Finance (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 23rd Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Minister of Security and Public Administration Minister 2014/04/02 KANG Byung Kyu / 강병규 1954/11/16
(Uiseong, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Sungkyunkwan University (Ph.D. in Public Administration)
* University of Kansas (M.A. in Public Policy)
* Korea University (LL.B.)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Korea Institute of Local Finance (President)
* Ministry of Security and Public Administration (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 21st Senior Civil Service Examination (1977)
Commissioner-General of Korean National Police Agency ** Vice Minister 2013/04/15 LEE Sung Han / 이성한 1956/08/02
(Seoul)
Male * Dongguk University (B.S. in Police Administration)
* Hongik High School (Seoul)
* Police Serviceman
* Busan Metropolitan Police Agency (Commissioner)
* 31st Class of Police Senior Official Candidates
Commissioner of National Emergency Management Agency Vice Minister 2013/04/15 NAM Sang Ho / 남상호 1953/08/09
(Goesan, North Chungcheong Province)
Male * Yongin University (Ph.D. in Security Science)
* Chungnam National University (M.P.A.)
* Dongguk University (B.S. in Police Administration)
* Cheongju Commercial High School (Cheongju)
* Professor, Public Official
* Department of Fire Prevention and Emergency Management, Daejeon University (Professor)
* Korea Fire Equipment Inspection Corporation (President)
* Bureau of Fire Service, Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (Director)
* 2nd Class of Fire Service Senior Official Candidates (1980)
Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism Minister 2013/03/11 YOO Jin Ryong / 유진룡 1956/09/02
(Incheon)
Male * Hanyang University (Ph.D. in Public Administration)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Commerce and Trade)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Educator, Public Official
* Hallyu Graduate School, Catholic University of Korea (Dean)
* Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 22nd Senior Civil Service Examination (1978)
Commissioner of Cultural Heritage Administration Vice Minister 2013/12/26 NA Sun Hwa / 나선화 1949/06/26
(Seoul)
Female * Far Eastern Federal University (Russia) (M.A.)
* Ewha Womans University (B.A. in Art History)
* Sookmyung Girls' High School (Seoul)
* Researcher, Curator
* Cultural Heritage Administration (Cultural Heritage Panel)
* Ewha Womans University Museum (Chief Curator)
* Korean Art Museum Curators Association (President)
Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Minister 2013/03/11 LEE Dong Phil / 이동필 1955/08/29
(Uiseong, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Missouri (Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics)
* Seoul National University (M.A. in Economics)
* Yeungnam University (B.A. in Livestock Management)
* Daegeon High School (Daegu)
* Researcher
* Korea Rural Economic Institute (President)
Commissioner of Rural Development Administration Vice Minister 2013/04/15 LEE Yang Ho / 이양호 1959/05/05
(Gumi, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand) (M.A. in Agriculture and Food Science)
* Yeungnam University (B.A. in Public Administration)
* Yeungnam High School (Daegu)
* Public Official
* Division of Policy Planning and Coordination, Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Division Chief)
* Passed the 26th Senior Civil Service Examination (1982)
Commissioner of Korea Forest Service Vice Minister 2013/04/15 SHIN Won Sop / 신원섭 1959/09/15
(Jincheon, North Chungcheong Province)
Male * Toronto University (Ph.D. in Forestry)
* New Brunswick University (M.A. in Forestry)
* Chungbuk National University (B.A. in Forestry)
* Unho High School (Cheongju)
* Professor, Researcher
* Department of Forestry, Chungbuk National University (Professor)
Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy Minister 2013/03/11 YOON Sang Jick / 윤상직 1956/05/25
(Gyeongsan, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Wisconsin - Madison (S.J.D.)
* University of Wisconsin - Madison (LL.M)
* Korea University (LL.M.)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in International Economics)
* Busan High School (Busan)
* Public Official
* Ministry of Knowledge Economy (Vice Minister)
* Passed the 25th Senior Civil Service Examination (1982)
Commissioner of Small and Medium Business Administration Vice Minister 2013/04/15 HAN Jung Wha / 한정화 1954/07/30
(Gwangju)
Male * University of Georgia (Ph.D. in Business)
* University of Georgia (M.A. in Business)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Business)
* Choongang High School (Seoul)
* Professor, Researcher
* Hanyang University Business School (Dean)
* Korea Academy of Management (President)
Commissioner of Korean Intellectual Property Office Vice Minister 2013/04/15 KIM Young Min / 김영민 1958
(Sangju, North Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Wisconsin - Madison (M.A. in Policy Economics)
* Kyungpook National University (coursework in M.P.A. program)
* Kyungpook National University (B.A. in Public Administration)
* Hamchang High School (Sangju)
* Public Official
* Korean Intellectual Property Office (Vice Commissioner)
* Passed the 25th Senior Civil Service Examination (1982)
Minister of Health and Welfare Minister 2013/12/02 MOON Hyung Pyo / 문형표 1956/10/11
(Seoul)
Male * University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Yonsei University (M.A. in Economics)
* Yonsei University (B.A. in Economics)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Researcher
* Senior Economist Group, Korea Development Institute (Head Economist)
* Committee for the Development of the Korean National Pension System (Chairperson)
* Korean Social Security Association (President)
Minister of Environment Minister 2013/03/11 YOON Seong Kyu / 윤성규 1956/05/08
(Chungju, North Chungcheong Province)
Male * Hanyang University (Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering)
* Hanyang University (M.S. in Environmental Engineering)
* Clausthal University of Technology (Germany) (coursework in M.S. program)
* Hanyang University (B.S. in Mechanical Engineering)
* Chungju Technical School
* Public Official
* Center for Waste Eco-Energy and Greenhouse Gases (Director)
* Korea Meteorological Administration (Deputy Commissioner)
* Passed the 13th Senior Technological Service Examination (1977)
Commissioner of Korea Meteorological Administration Vice Minister 2013/09/23 KO Yun Hwa / 고윤화 1954/01/15
(Yesan, South Chungcheong Province)
Male * University of Leeds (Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering
* University of Leeds (M.S. in Environmental Engineering
* Hanyang University (B.S. in Mechanical Engineering)
* Gyeonggi Mechanical Technical High School (Seoul)
* Public Official, Researcher
* Korea Society of Climate Change Research (President)
* Korea LGP Association (President)
* National Institute of Environmental Research (President)
* Clean Air Conservation Bureau, Ministry of Environment (Director)
Minister of Employment and Labor Minister 2013/03/11 PHANG Ha Nam / 방하남 1957/12/16
(Wando, South Jeolla Province)
Male * University of Wisconsin - Madison (Ph.D. in Sociology)
* Vanderbilt University (M.A. in Sociology)
* Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (B.A. in English)
* Researcher
* Korean Pension Association (President)
* Korean Social Security Association (President)
Minister of Gender Equality and Family Minister 2013/03/11 CHO Yoon Sun / 조윤선 1966/07/22
(Seoul)
Female * Columbia University (LL.M.)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Diplomatic Science)
* Sewha Girls' High School (Seoul)
* Politician, Lawyer
* National Assembly (1-term member; 18th)
* Hannara Party (Spokesperson)
* Citibank Korea (Vice President)
* Passed the 33rd Bar Examination (1991)
Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Minister 2013/03/11 SUH Seoung Hwan / 서승환 1956/06/28
(Seoul)
Male * Princeton University (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Yonsei University (M.A. in Economics)
* Yonsei University (B.A. in Economics)
* Professor, Researcher
* Department of Economics, Yonsei University (Dean)
* Korean Regional Science Association (President)
Commissioner of Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency Vice Minister 2013/04/15 LEE Choong Jae / 이충재 1955
(Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi Province)
Male * Dankook University (Ph.D. in Urban Planning and Real Estates)
* Inha University (M.A. in Economics)
* Korea National Open University (B.A. in Public Administration)
* Yongmoon High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency (Vice Commissioner)
Commissioner of Saemangeum Development Agency Vice Minister 2013/09/12 LEE Byeong Guk / 이병국 1960
(Seoul)
Male * Sungkyunkwan University (B.A. in Politics and Diplomacy)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Division for Government Policy Evaluation, Office for Government Policy Coordination (Division Chief)
* Passed the 28th Senior Civil Service Examination (1985)
Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Minister 2014/03/05 LEE Ju Young / 이주영 1951/09/30
(Masan, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Seoul National University (LL.M.)
* Kyungnam University (M.A. in Politics)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Politician, Judge
* National Assembly (4-term member; 16, 17, 18, 19th)
* Busan District Court (Judge)
* Passed the 20th Bar Examination (1978)
Commissioner-General of Korea Coast Guard Vice Minister 2013/04/15 KIM Suk Kyun / 김석균 1965/04/20
(Hadong, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Hanyang University (Ph.D. in Public Administration)
* Indiana University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Hanyang University (B.A. in Public Administration)
* Dongmyoung High School (Jinju)
* Police Serviceman
* Korea Coast Guard (Vice Commissioner)
* Passed the 37th Senior Civil Service Examination (1993)
Chairperson of Board of Audit and Inspection Vice Prime Minister 2013/12/02 HWANG Chan Hyun / 황찬현 1953/07/02
(Masan, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * University of Seoul (coursework in law Ph.D. program)
* Seoul National University (coursework in LL.M. program)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Masan High School (Masan)
* Judge
* Seoul Central District Court (Chief Judge)
* Passed the 22nd Bar Examination (1980)
Director of National Intelligence Service ** Minister 2013/03/22 NAM Jae Joon / 남재준 1944/10/20
(Seoul)
Male * Paichai University (Honorary Doctorate in Business Administration)
* Kyungnam University (M.B.A.)
* Korea Military Academy (B.A.)
* Paichai High School (Seoul)
* Military Serviceman
* Republic of Korea Army (Chief of Staff / General)
* 25th Class of Korea Military Academy
Chairperson of Korea Communications Commission Minister 2014/04/08 CHOI Sung Jun / 최성준 1957/07/12
(Seoul)
Male * Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Judge
* Seoul High Court (Senior Judge)
* Chuncheon District Court (Chief Judge)
* Passed the 23rd Bar Examination (1981)
Minister of Government Legislation Vice Minister 2013/03/25 JE Jung Boo / 제정부 1956/05/10
(Goseong, South Gyeongsang Province)
Male * Donga University (LL.M.)
* Donga University (LL.B.)
* Masan High School (Masan)
* Public Official
* Ministry of Government Legislation (Vice Minister)
* Public Procurement Service (Commissioner)
* Passed the 25th Senior Civil Service Examination (1981)
Minister of Patriots and Veterans Affairs Vice Minister 2013/03/25 PARK Sung Choon / 박승춘 1947/12/25
(Gangneung, Gangwon Province)
Male * Kyunghee University (M.A. in North Korean Policy Studies)
* Korea Military Academy (B.A.)
* Gangneung Commercial High School (Gangneung)
* Military Serviceman
* Korean Defense Intelligence Agency (Agency Chief / Lieutenant General)
* The 9th Corps, Republic of Korea Army (Commander / Lieutenant General)
* 27th Class of Korea Military Academy
Minister of Food and Drug Safety Vice Minister 2013/03/25 CHUNG Seung / 정승 1958
(Wando, South Jeolla Province)
Male * Kangwon National University (Ph.D. in Economics)
* Iowa State University (M.P.A.)
* Chonnam National University (B.A. in Economics)
* Dongshin High School (Gwangju)
* Public Official
* Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Vice Minister)
* Public Procurement Service (Commissioner)
* Passed the 23rd Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Chairperson of Fair Trade Commission Minister 2003/04/21 NOH Dae Lae / 노대래 1956/02
(Seocheon, South Chungcheong Province)
Male * Kyungwon University (Ph.D. in Public Administration)
* Seoul National University (M.P.A.)
* Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Seoul High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Defense Acquisition Program Administration (Commissioner)
* Public Procurement Service (Commissioner)
* Passed the 23rd Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Chairperson of Financial Services Commission Minister 2013/03/22 SHIN Je Yoon / 신제윤 1958/03/25
(Seoul)
Male * Seoul National University (B.A. in Economics)
* Whimoon High School (Seoul)
* Public Official
* Ministry of Strategy and Finance (Vice Minister)
* Financial Services Commission (Vice Chairperson)
* Passed the 24th Senior Civil Service Examination (1980)
Chairperson of Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission Minister 2012/12/11 LEE Sung Bo / 이성보 1956
(Busan)
Male * Seoul National University (LL.B.)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Judge
* Seoul Central District Court (Chief Judge)
* Passed the 20th Bar Examination (1978)
* Appointed by the previous President
Chairperson of Nuclear Safety and Security Commission Vice Minister 2013/04/15 LEE Eun Cheol / 이은철 1947/09/05
(Seoul)
Male * University of Maryland (Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering)
* Seoul National University (M.S. in Nuclear Engineering)
* Seoul National University (B.A. in Nuclear Engineering)
* Gyeonggi High School (Seoul)
* Professor, Researcher
* Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University (Professor)
Chairperson of National Human Rights Commission of Korea Minister 2009/07/20 HYUN Byung Chul / 현병철 1944/03/19
(Yeongam, South Jeolla Province)
Male * Sungkyunkwan University (Ph.D. in Law)
* Sungkyunkwan University (LL.M.)
* Wonkwang University (LL.B.)
* Professor
* Hanyang Cyber University (Dean)
* Hanyang University Law School (Professor)
* Appointed by the previous President

※ ** denotes the heads of the so-called "four most powerful government agencies" of South Korea. The four agencies are National Tax Service, Prosecution Service, Korean National Police Agency, and National Intelligence Service. Of course there is no such classification in the South Korean law; it is rather a consensus among the Korean media considering the significant powers vested in those agencies (exclusive power in taxation, prosecution, maintenance of public security, and intelligence, respectively).

Judicial branch[edit]

The judicial branch includes the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, regional appellate courts, and local district, branch, municipal, and specialized courts. All courts are under the jurisdiction of the national judiciary; independent local courts are not permitted. Judges throughout the system are required to have passed a rigorous training system including a two-year program and two-year apprenticeship. All judicial training is provided through the Judicial Research and Training Institute, and is limited to those who have already passed the National Judicial Examination.

The Constitutional Court is the head of the judicial branch of government. The Constitutional Court is charged purely with constitutional review and with deciding cases of impeachment. Other judicial matters are overseen by the Supreme Court. This system was newly established in the Sixth Republic, to help guard against the excesses shown by past regimes. The Constitutional Court consists of nine justices. Of these, three are recommended by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, three by the National Assembly, and three by the president; however, all must be appointed by the president. The President of the Constitutional Court is appointed by the national president, subject to the approval of the National Assembly. The members of the court serve for six-year renewable terms, and cannot be older than 65 (except for the President of the court, who may be as old as 70).

The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal for all cases in South Korean law. The Supreme Court, seated in Seoul, consists of fourteen Justices, including one Chief Justice. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has the power over all court administration, and can recommend court-related legislation to the National Assembly. The Justices must be at least 40 years old, and have at least 15 years of experience practicing law. They serve for six-year terms; the Chief Justice cannot be reappointed, but the other justices can.

Below the Supreme Court come appellate courts, stationed in five of the country's major cities. Appellate courts typically consist of a panel of three judges. Below these are district courts, which exist in most of the large cities of South Korea. Below these are branch and municipal courts, positioned all over the country and limited to small claims and petty offenses. Specialized courts also exist for family, administrative, and patent cases.

Because the Constitution of the Republic of Korea defines the territory of South Korea as "the Korean Peninsula and its adjacent islands," the courts of South Korea have allowed representatives of North Koreans to appear in South Korean courts with respect to inheritance in cases of deceased South Koreans with North Korean heirs. Funds are held in trust and dispersed only with government approval.[46]

Local government[edit]

Local autonomy was established as a constitutional principle of South Korea beginning with the First Republic. However, for much of the 20th century this principle was not honored. From 1965 to 1995, local governments were run directly by provincial governments, which were run directly by the national government. However, since the elections of 1995, a degree of local autonomy has been restored. Local magistrates and assemblies are elected in each of the primary and secondary administrative divisions of South Korea, that is, in every province, metropolitan or special city, and district. Officials at lower levels, such as eup and dong, are appointed by the city or county government.

As noted above, local autonomy does not extend to the judicial branch. It also does not yet extend to many other areas, including fire protection and education, which are managed by independent national agencies. Local governments also have very limited policy-making authority; generally, the most that they can do is decide how national policies will be implemented. However, there is some political pressure for the scope of local autonomy to be extended.

Although the chief executive of each district is locally elected, deputy executives are still appointed by the central government. It is these deputy officials who have detailed authority over most administrative matters.

Civil service[edit]

The South Korean civil service is large, and remains a largely closed system, although efforts at openness and reform are ongoing. In order to gain a position in civil service, it is usually necessary to pass one or more difficult examinations. Positions have traditionally been handed out based on seniority, in a complex graded system; however, this system was substantially reformed in 1998.

There are more than 800,000 civil servants in South Korea today. More than half of these are employed by the central government; only about 300,000 are employed by local governments. In addition, only a few thousand each are employed by the national legislative and judicial branches; the overwhelming majority are employed in the various ministries of the executive branch. The size of the civil service increased steadily from the 1950s to the late 1990s, but has dropped slightly since 1995.

The civil service, not including political appointees and elected officials, is composed of career civil servants and contract civil servants. Contract servants are typically paid higher wages and hired for specific jobs. Career civil servants make up the bulk of the civil service, and are arranged in a nine-tiered system in which grade 1 is occupied by assistant ministers and grade 9 by the newest and lowest-level employees. Promotions are decided by a combination of seniority, training, and performance review. Civil servants' base salary makes up less than half of their annual pay; the remainder is supplied in a complex system of bonuses. Contract civil servants are paid on the basis of the competitive rates of pay in the private sector.[citation needed]

Elections[edit]

Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly. South Korea has a multi-party system, with two dominant parties and numerous third parties. Elections are overseen by the National Election Commission (Republic of Korea). The most recent presidential election was held on 19 December 2012.

The president is directly elected for a single five-year term by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a four-year term, 245 in single-seat constituencies and 54 members by proportional representation. Each individual party willing to represent its policies in the National Assembly must be qualified on the legislative (general) election that: i) if the national party-vote reaches over 3.00% on proportional contest or ii) if more than 5 members of their party that has been elected in each of their first-past-the-post election constituencies.[47]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

President[edit]

Ministries[edit]

Independent Agencies (President)[edit]

Independent Agencies (Prime Minister)[edit]

Presidential Commissions[edit]

Legislative[edit]

Judicial[edit]

Election[edit]

References[edit]

  • Korea Overseas Information Service (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11th ed. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-212-8. 
  1. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제66조
  2. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제67조
  3. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제70조
  4. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제66조 제1항, 제4항
  5. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제74조
  6. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제73조
  7. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제3장 제52조
  8. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제76조, 제77조
  9. ^ Article 53 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea.
  10. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제3장 제65조
  11. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제6장 제111조 제1항의2
  12. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제88조 제2항
  13. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제88조 제3항
  14. ^ 대한민국 국무회의 규정 제6조 제2항
  15. ^ 대한민국 국무회의 규정 제8조
  16. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제89조
  17. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제2장 제14조
  18. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제2장 제15조, 제16조
  19. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제1관 제86조
  20. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제3장 제20조, 제21조
  21. ^ a b 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제1절 제71조
  22. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제4장 행정각부
  23. ^ Established to consolidate most Saemangeum development projects and their support functions (currently provided by many different government bodies) into a single government agency for maximum efficiency. Commenced operation on September 12th, 2013.
  24. ^ On May 19th, 2014, the President announced during a press conference that Korea Coast Guard will be disbanded on the grounds of demonstrating a serious incompetence coping with the tragic sinking of the cruise ship Sewol occurred on April 16th, 2014. This page will be updated when a more concrete plan to dismantle the organization is released from the government.
  25. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제3장 제22조
  26. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제4관 감사원
  27. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제2장 제17조
  28. ^ 대한민국 방송통신위원회의 설치 및 운영에 관한 법률 제2장 제3조
  29. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제91조
  30. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제92조
  31. ^ 대한민국 헌법 제4장 제2절 제2관 제93조
  32. ^ 대한민국 국가과학기술자문회의법 제1조
  33. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제3장 제23조
  34. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제3장 제24조
  35. ^ 대한민국 정부조직법 제3장 제25조
  36. ^ 대한민국 독점규제 및 공정거래에 관한 법률 제9장 제35조
  37. ^ 대한민국 금융위원회의 설치 등에 관한 법률 제2장 제1절 제3조
  38. ^ 대한민국 부패방지 및 국민권익위원회의 설치와 운영에 관한 법률 제2장 제11조
  39. ^ 대한민국 원자력안전위원회의 설치 및 운영에 관한 법률 제2장 제3조
  40. ^ 대한민국 국가인권위원회법 제1장 제3조 제2항
  41. ^ 대한민국 국가인권위원회법 제2장 제5조
  42. ^ 안전행정부 정부청사관리소
  43. ^ 국토교통부 행정중심복합도시건설청
  44. ^ This section is a collage of information available from homepages of the respective government units, press releases from the government, news articles published by the Korean media, and key Korean personnel database provided by http://www.naver.com and http://www.nate.com. Although minor inaccuracies may still exist as the listed information sources themselves may contain errors, the utmost level of attention has been applied to verify every information fragment by cross-checking more than two of the listed sources.
  45. ^ Mr. Chung announced his resignation on Apr. 27th amid the criticisms regarding the government's dealing with the tragic ship accident occurred on Apr. 16th. The president acknowledged his intent to resign, but noted that his resignation request will be processed once the accident has fully been taken care of.
  46. ^ Choe Sang-Hun (August 1, 2013). "Court Rules North Koreans Can Inherit Property From South". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  47. ^ Representation System(Elected Person), the NEC, Retrieved on April 10, 2008