Government of the 2nd Dáil

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The Second Dáil was elected at the 1921 Irish elections on 24 May 1921 and lasted 388 days.

3rd Ministry[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
3rd Ministry
Éamon de Valera 03.jpg
Date formed 26 August 1921
Date dissolved 9 January 1922
People and organizations
Head of government Éamon de Valera
Head of state George V
Total number of ministers 15 (inc. 9 non-members of cabinet)
Member party Sinn Féin
Status in legislature Majority Government
History
Election(s) 1921 general election
Legislature term(s) 2nd Dáil
Previous 2nd Ministry
Successor 4th Ministry

The 3rd Ministry was the Ministry of the Irish Republic that held office from 26 August 1921 – 9 January 1922.[1] It was the appointed soon after the election of the Second Dáil on 24 May 1921.

Contrary to the practice during the first two ministries, when de Valera was re-elected as head of government in 1922 he assumed the title of 'President of the Republic', and therefore explicitly became the republic's head of state, rather than its prime minister. In imitation of the practice in the presidential systems of other nations, the cabinet members of the 3rd Ministry were styled as 'secretaries of state' rather than 'ministers'.

Office Name
President of the Republic Éamon de Valera
Secretary of State for Finance Michael Collins
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Arthur Griffith
Secretary of State for Home Affairs Austin Stack
Secretary of State for Defence Cathal Brugha
Secretary of State for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Secretary of State for Economic Affairs Robert Barton

Ministers not in cabinet[edit]

Office Name
Secretary of State for Local Government Kevin O'Higgins
Secretary of State for Education John J. O'Kelly
Secretary of State for Trade and Commerce Ernest Blythe
Secretary of State for Agriculture Art O'Connor
Postmaster-General James J. Walsh
Secretary of State for Fisheries Seán Etchingham
Secretary of State for Labour Constance Markievicz
Secretary of State for Publicity Desmond FitzGerald
Secretary of State for Fine Arts Count Plunkett

In January 1922 the Anglo-Irish Treaty was ratified and some members, including Éamon de Valera, resigned from the cabinet in protest and were not re-elected.

4th Ministry[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
4th Ministry
Arthur Griffith (1871-1922).jpg
Date formed 10 January 1922
Date dissolved 9 September 1922
People and organizations
Head of government Arthur Griffith
Head of state George V
Total number of ministers 14 (inc. 5 non-members of cabinet & 3 assistant ministers)
Member party Sinn Féin
Status in legislature Majority Government
History
Legislature term(s) 2nd Dáil
Previous 3rd Ministry
Successor 1st Provisional Government

The 4th Ministry was the Ministry of the Irish Republic that held office from 10 January – 9 September 1922.[1] Following the ratification of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 7 January 1922, Éamon de Valera resigned in protest and the 3rd Ministry fell. The 4th Ministry, headed by Arthur Griffith, and composed solely of members of the pro-Treaty faction of Sinn Féin, was elected the following day. Six non-cabinet ministers were appointed on 11 January.

Under the terms of the Treaty another cabinet, the Provisional Government, was also established just six days later, under the chairmanship of Michael Collins. The 4th Ministry therefore held office in parallel with the 1st Provisional Government. In August Griffith died of natural causes and Collins was killed in action, however the remaining members of the Ministry remained in office until, on 9 September, the Third Dáil elected a new Ministry under W. T. Cosgrave. Cosgrave took this opportunity to merge the Ministry and the Provisional Government into a single administration, the 2nd Provisional Government. Henceforth the country was governed by only one cabinet.

Office Name
President of the Republic Arthur Griffith
Minister for Finance Michael Collins
Minister for Foreign Affairs George Gavan Duffy
Minister for Home Affairs Eamonn Duggan
Minister for Defence Richard Mulcahy
Minister for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Economic Affairs Kevin O'Higgins

Ministers not in cabinet[edit]

Office Name
Minister for Education Michael Hayes
Minister for Trade Ernest Blythe
Minister for Agriculture Patrick Hogan
Minister for Labour Joseph McGrath
Minister for Publicity Desmond FitzGerald

Assistant Ministers[edit]

Office Name
Asst. Minister for Local Government Lorcan Robbins[2]
Asst. Minister for Home Affairs George Nicolls[3]
Asst. Minister for Education Frank Fahy[4]

1st Provisional Government[edit]

Government of the 2nd Dáil
1st Provisional Government
Michael Collins 1921.jpg William Thomas Cosgrave.jpg
Michael Collins, W. T. Cosgrave
Date formed 16 January 1922
Date dissolved 30 August 1922
People and organizations
Head of government Michael Collins (Jan.–22 Aug 1922)
W. T. Cosgrave (22–30 Aug 1922)
Head of state George V
Total number of ministers 13 (inc. 4 acting ministers)
Member party Sinn Féin
Status in legislature Majority Government
History
Legislature term(s) 2nd Dáil
Previous 4th Ministry
Successor 2nd Provisional Government

The 1st Provisional Government was the Provisional Government that held office from 16 January – 30 August 1922.[1] The Provisional Government was established under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty as an interim administration that would govern until the establishment of the Irish Free State in December. Its members were nominated by the House of Commons of Southern Ireland on 14 January and they took up office two days later. The British government formally transferred power to the cabinet on 1 April. Headed by Michael Collins as Chairman, its membership consisted solely of partisans of the pro-Treaty wing of Sinn Féin.

At the time the Provisional Government was established there was a pre-existing administration, in the form of the 4th Ministry of the Irish Republic but that cabinet was not recognised by the British government. The 4th Ministry came to office on 10 January, just six days before the Provisional Government, but continued in office after the latter's establishment. Thus, until September there were two parallel administrations, with an overlapping membership. This anomalous situation did not come to an end when the two competing cabinets were merged into the 2nd Provisional Government in September. The Provisional Government was intended to answer to the Third Dáil, which was recognised as a legitimate provisional parliament under British law. However British law did not recognise the Second Dáil, which was in session when the 1st Provisional Government came to office. Therefore the Provisional Government was not officially accountable to any body until the Third Dáil convened on 9 September.

After the Civil War began on 29 June four members of the cabinet were seconded for military service and substitutes were appointed to temporarily take their places as acting ministers. Two new members, Michael Hayes and Ernest Blythe, began serving as acting ministers on 17 July and were added to the cabinet as permanent members on 27 July. Collins was killed in action on 22 August and so the cabinet met and elected Cosgrave as chairman on 25 August. Five days later the entire cabinet was reconstituted as the 2nd Provisional Government. After that date, the newly constituted Provisional Government appointed by that Dáil continued in being as the sole Government, until superseded on 6 December 1922, by the formation of the 1st Executive Council of the Irish Free State.

Office Name
Chairman of the Provisional Government Michael Collins[5]
W. T. Cosgrave[6]
Minister for Finance Michael Collins[7]
W. T. Cosgrave[8]
Minister for Foreign Affairs Arthur Griffith[9]
Michael Hayes[10]
Minister for Home Affairs Eamonn Duggan
Minister for Local Government W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Economic Affairs Kevin O'Higgins
Minister for Education Fionán Lynch
Minister for Agriculture Patrick Hogan
Minister for Labour Joseph McGrath
Postmaster-General James J. Walsh

Substitutes[edit]

Office Name
Acting Minister for Finance W. T. Cosgrave
Acting Minister for Labour Patrick Hogan
Acting Minister for Education Michael Hayes
Acting Minister for Economic Affairs Ernest Blythe

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "History of Government – Second Dáil". Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Served from 11 January 1922 – 9 September 1922.
  3. ^ Served from 17 January 1922 – 9 September 1922.
  4. ^ Served until 3 February 1922, appointment date is unknown.
  5. ^ Served until 22 August 1922.
  6. ^ Served from 25 August 1922 – 30 August 1922.
  7. ^ Served from 16 January 1922 – 17 July 1922.
  8. ^ Served as acting Minister for Finance from 17 July 1922 – 30 August 1922.
  9. ^ Served from 26 July 1922 – 12 August 1922.
  10. ^ Served from 21 August 1922 – 30 August 1922.

Sources[edit]