Government spin-off is civilian goods which are the collateral result of military or governmental research. One prominent example of a type of government spin-off is technology that has been commercialized through NASA funding, research, licensing, facilities, or assistance.
NASA spin-off technologies have been produced for over forty years. The Internet is a specific example of a government spin-off resulting from DARPA funding.  But in the years since the Moore's law driven commercial sector with yearly timeframes has jumped ahead of the defense sector's decade long timeframes to the extent that new "spin-on" Commercial off-the-shelf products are now applied for defense platforms.
- Jack Francis Williams; Robert John Stimson (2001). International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 426. ISBN 0-7623-0695-5.
- "Living Internet: Lawrence Roberts Manages The ARPANET Program". livinginternet.com. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- ADAMS, GORDON (25 November 2013). "The future of the aerospace defense industry is not nearly as bad as the industry would have you believe.". foreignpolicy.com. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved 26 November 2013.