Governor-General of the Philippines

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Governor-General of the Philippines
Former political post
Lopez de Legazpi.jpg
Miguel López de Legazpi
First Governor-General of the Philippines
Predecessor Various,
the barangay system
Successor President of the Philippines
First officeholder Miguel López de Legazpi
Last officeholder Tomoyuki Yamashita
Official residence Palacio del Gobernador (1565-1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863-1945)
Mansion House (1942-1945)
Appointer Monarch of Spain
British Sovereign
President of the United States
Emperor of Japan
Office began 27 April 1565
Office ended 6 October 1945
Current pretender Position abolished

The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de Filipinas; Tagalog: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth", as the Chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines.


Under New Spain (1565–1761)[edit]

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Royal Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim   Real Audiencia

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
1 Zumarraga - Plaza de Euskadi, monumento a Legazpi 2.jpg Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565 August 20, 1572 Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg
Philip II
(25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598)
2 Guido de Lavezares.jpg Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572 August 25, 1575
3 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580).svg Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575 April 1580
4 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580).svg Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580 March 10, 1583
5 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583 May 16, 1584
6 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584 May 1590
7 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590 October 25, 1593
8 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro de Rojas October 1593 December 3, 1593
9 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593 July 14, 1596
10 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596 May 1602
PhilipIIISpain.jpg
Philip III
(13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621)
11 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602 June 24, 1606
12 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606 June 15, 1608
13 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608 April 1609
14 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan de Silva April 1609 April 19, 1616
15 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
July 3, 1618
16 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618 July 1624
PhilipIV01.jpg
Philip IV
(31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665)
17 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624 June 1625
18 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Fernándo de Silva July 1624 June 29, 1626
19 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626 July 22, 1632
20 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Lorenzo de Olaza
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 1632 1633
21 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633 June 25, 1635
22 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera.jpg Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635 August 11, 1644
23 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644 July 25, 1653
24 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653 September 8, 1663
25 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663 September 28, 1668
Juan de Miranda Carreno 002.jpg
Charles II
(17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700)
26 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668 September 24, 1669
27 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Manuel de León September 24, 1669 September 21, 1677
28 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Coloma
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 21, 1677
29 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 28, 1678
30 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan de Vargas y Hurtado September 28, 1678 August 24, 1684
31 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola August 24, 1684 April 1689
32 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689 July 1690
33 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690 December 8, 1701
Felipe V de España.jpg
Philip V1

November 1700 – 15 January 1724

34 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8, 1701 August 25, 1709
35 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of Lizárraga August 25, 1709 February 4, 1715
36 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715 August 9, 1717
37 Governor General Fernando Bustamante.JPG Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717 October 11, 1719
38 Francisco de la Cuesta.jpg Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(acting)
October 11, 1719 August 6, 1721
39 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Toribio José Cosio y Campo August 6, 1721 August 14, 1729
Luis I, rey de España.jpg
Louis I

(15 January – 31 August 1724)

Felipe V de España.jpg
Philip V

(6 September 1724 – 9 July 1746)

40 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernándo Valdés y Tamon August 14, 1729 July 1739
41 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gaspar de la Torre July 1739 September 21, 1745
42 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Archbishop Juan Arrechederra
(acting)
September 21, 1745 July 20, 1750
Ferdinand VI 2.jpg

(9 July 1746 – 10 August 1759)

43 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750 July 26, 1754
44 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754 May 31, 1759
45 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(acting)
June 1759 May 31, 1761
Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III

(10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788)

46 Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera.jpg Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(acting)
July 1761 October 6, 1762 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III

British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764)[edit]

Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
47 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga)
October 6, 1762 February 10, 1764 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
48 Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762 May 31, 1764 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III

Under New Spain (1764–1821)[edit]

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
49 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764 July 6, 1765 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
50 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765 July 1770
51 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770 October 30, 1776
52 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de Sarrio October 30, 1776 July 1778
53 José Basco y Vargas.jpg José Basco y Vargas July 1778 September 22, 1787
54 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de Sarrio September 22, 1787 July 1, 1788
55 Félix Berenguer de Marquina.jpg Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788 September 1, 1793
Carlos IV de rojo.jpg
Charles IV
56 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793 August 7, 1806
57  
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg
 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806 March 4, 1810
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
Joseph Bonaparte
58 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg| Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar March 4, 1810 September 4, 1813
59 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Gardoqui Jaraveitia September 4, 1813 December 10, 1816
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
60 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)[edit]

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
60 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras October 30, 1822 Fernando VII, by López.jpg
Ferdinand VII
61 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio Martínez October 30, 1822 October 14, 1825
62 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825 December 23, 1830
63 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo.png Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830 March 1, 1835
Isabel II reina de España.jpg
Isabella II
64 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gabriel de Torres March 1, 1835 April 23, 1835
65 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín de Crámer April 23, 1835 September 9, 1835
66 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona September 9, 1835 August 27, 1837
67 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Andrés García Camba August 27, 1837 December 29, 1838
68 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Luis Lardizábal December 29, 1838 February 14, 1841
69 Oraa-Calbo.jpg Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri February 14, 1841 June 17, 1843
70 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17, 1843 July 16, 1844
71 Narciso Claveria y Zaldua.jpg Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844 December 26, 1849
72 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio María Blanco December 26, 1849 July 29, 1850
73 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850 December 20, 1853
74 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino December 20, 1853 February 2, 1854
75 El marqués de Novaliches con el manto de la Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando.jpg Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854 October 28, 1854
76 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino October 28, 1854 November 20, 1854
77 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel Crespo y Cebrían November 20, 1854 December 5, 1856
78 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino December 5, 1856 March 9, 1857
79 Fernando Escudero Norzagaray.jpg Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857 January 12, 1860
80 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12, 1860 August 29, 1860
81 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Herrera Dávila August 29, 1860 February 2, 1861
82 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861 July 7, 1862
83 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Salvador Valdés July 7, 1862 July 9, 1862
84 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862 March 24, 1865
85 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez March 24, 1865 April 25, 1865
86 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25, 1865 July 13, 1866
88 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Laureano de Sanz y Posse July 13, 1866 September 21, 1866
89 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio Osorio September 21, 1866 September 27, 1866
90 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27, 1866 October 26, 1866
91 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866 June 7, 1869
No Monarch
92 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel Maldonado June 7, 1869 June 23, 1869
93 Carlos Maria de la Torre.jpg Cárlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada June 23, 1869 April 4, 1871
Amadeo I
94 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871 January 8, 1873
95 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel MacCrohon January 8, 1873 January 24, 1873
96 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873 March 17, 1874
No Monarch
97 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(acting)
March 17, 1874 June 18, 1874
98 José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael.jpg José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874 February 28, 1877
Alfonso XII R.jpg
Alfonso XII
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
99 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Moriones y Murillo February 28, 1877 March 20, 1880
100 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael Rodríguez Arias March 20, 1880 April 15, 1880
101 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880 March 10, 1883
102 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(acting)
March 10, 1883 April 7, 1883
103 General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883 April 1, 1885
104 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(acting)
April 1, 1885 April 4, 1885
105 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885 April 25,1888
Roi Alfonso XIII.jpg
Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886)
106 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio Moltó
(acting)
April 25, 1888 June 4, 1888
107 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Federico Lobatón
(acting)
June 4, 1888 June 5, 1888
108 Valeriano Weyler.gif Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888 November 17, 1891
109 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891 March 1, 1893
110 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Federico Ochando
(acting)
March 1, 1893 May 4, 1893
111 Ramon Blanco y Erenas.jpg Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893 December 13, 1896
112 Camilo Polavieja.jpg Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(acting)
December 13, 1896 April 15, 1897
113 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de Lachambre
(acting)
April 15, 1897 April 23, 1897
114 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897 April 11, 1898
115 Basilio Augustin y Dávila.jpg Basilio Augustín[1] April 11, 1898 July 24, 1898
116 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fermín Jáudenes[1]
(acting)
July 24, 1898 August 13, 1898
117 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Rizzo[1]
(acting)
August 13, 1898 September 1898
118 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Diego de los Ríos[1]
(acting)
September 1898 June 3, 1899!

United States Military Government (1898–1901)[edit]

The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-American War. During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Wesley Merritt.jpg Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898[2] August 30, 1898[3] William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
2 Elwell S. Otis.jpg Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898 May 5, 1900
3 Arthur MacArthur Jr.jpg Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900 July 4, 1901
4 AdnaChaffee.jpg Adna Chaffee [4] July 4, 1901 July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)[edit]

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor, William Howard Taft.[5] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[6] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[4] Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[7]

The title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress (Public 43 - February 6, 1905).[4] The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island)[8] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[9][10]

# Picture Name From Until President
1 William Howard Taft.jpg William Howard Taft July 4, 1901 February 1, 1904 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
To September 1901
T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
From September 1901
2 Luke Edward Wright.jpg Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904 November 3, 1905
T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
3 Henry Clay Ide 710x1024.jpg Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905 September 19, 1906
4 GenJFSmith.jpg James Francis Smith September 20, 1906 November 11, 1909
5 William Cameron Forbes William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909 September 1, 1913 William Howard Taft.jpg
William Howard Taft
- Coat of Arms Philippine Islands (1905–1936).svg Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913 October 6, 1913 Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg
Woodrow Wilson
6 Harrison 4332077751 b81624c6ab o.jpg Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913 March 5, 1921
- Coat of Arms Philippine Islands (1905–1936).svg Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921 October 14, 1921 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg
Warren G. Harding
To September 1923

Calvin Coolidge
7 General Leonard Wood Rol BNF Gallica.jpg Leonard Wood October 14, 1921 August 7, 1927
- Coat of Arms Philippine Islands (1905–1936).svg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927 December 27, 1927
Calvin Coolidge
8 Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927 February 23, 1929
- Coat of Arms Philippine Islands (1905–1936).svg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929 July 8, 1929 Herbert Hoover.jpg
Herbert Hoover
9 Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929 January 9, 1932
- Coat of Arms Philippine Islands (1905–1936).svg George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932 February 29, 1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpg Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932 July 15, 1933
11 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy July 15, 1933 November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines
FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935-42 and 1945-46)[edit]

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth was created to replace the governor general as the Philippines' Chief executive, taking many of the duties of the governor general. The American governor general then became known as the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner.

The high commissioner no longer had the executive power of the governor-general but did continue as the colonial power's representative in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved out of Malacañang Palace and into the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence from U.S. sovereignty was granted on July 4, 1946, the last high commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy November 14, 1935 1937 FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt
2 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941.jpg Paul V. McNutt 1937 1939
3 Francis B Sayre.jpg Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. 1939 1942
4 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941.jpg Paul V. McNutt 1945 1946
Following Philippine independence became
1st U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines
Harry S. Truman.jpg
Harry S Truman

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)[edit]

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.[11]

# Picture Name From Until Emperor
1 Honma Masaharu.jpg Masaharu Homma January 3, 1942 June 8, 1942 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg
Emperor Shōwa
2 Tanaka Shizuichi.jpg Shizuichi Tanaka June 8, 1942 May 28, 1943
3 Japanese Imperial Seal.svg Shigenori Kuroda May 28, 1943 September 26, 1944
4 Yamashita.jpg Tomoyuki Yamashita September 26, 1944 September 2, 1945

Timelines[edit]

1750–1800

1800–1850

1850–1900

1900–1935

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  2. ^ Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 116. 
  3. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1. 
  4. ^ a b c Elliott (1917), p. 509
  5. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  6. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  7. ^ Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp. 40. 
  8. ^ "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013=08-07.
  9. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". U.S. Department of the Interior.
  10. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  11. ^ Cahoon (2000)

References[edit]