Governor-General

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A Governor-General or Governor General is a vice-regal representative of a monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial state. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors.[1]

Current uses[edit]

In modern usage, the term "Governor General" originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which each of the previously constituent colonies of these federated colonies already had a Governor, namely Canada, Australia, and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown's representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of Governor General. The first exception to this rule was New Zealand, which was granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor General of New Zealand. Another non-federal state, Newfoundland, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of Governor throughout this time.

Since the 1950s, the title Governor General has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered (sometimes for the same incumbent) to become Governor General upon independence, as the nature of the office became an entirely independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the Governor General acts as the Monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a Head of State.

The only other nation which uses the Governor General designation is Iran, which has no connection with either the British (or any other) monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a Governor General[2] (Persian: استاندار ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior.

British colonialism and the Governors-General[edit]

Lord Tweedsmuir was Governor General of Canada from 1935 to 1940. The uniform shown here was the customary ceremonial dress for Commonwealth Governors General until recently.

Until the 1920s, Governors-General were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British Government, who acted as agents of the British Government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch. As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, and also held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The Governor-General could be instructed by the Colonial Secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; history shows many examples of Governors General using their prerogative and executive powers. The monarch or Imperial government could overrule any Governor General, though this could often be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London.

The Governor-General was also the head of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the Governor-General's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one. Indeed, until the late 20th century, the Governor-General's official attire was the court dress, Windsor uniform or other military uniform.

Modern Commonwealth[edit]

Commonwealth realms[edit]

Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the Governor General began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions (which were in 1952 renamed Realms; a term which includes the UK itself). As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country's national affairs (as opposed to a single British monarch ruling all the Dominions as a conglomerate and advised only by an imperial parliament), so too did the Governor General become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "...it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, and that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government."[3] These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.

In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a Governor General answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was clearly displayed. Canada, Australia and New Zealand were clearly not controlled by the United Kingdom. The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, and Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. The monarch appoints a Governor General as a personal representative only on the advice of the Prime Minister of each realm. The Governor General of Canada is appointed by the Queen of Canada on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the Governor-General of Australia is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Australian Prime Minister, and the Governor-General of New Zealand is appointed by the Queen of New Zealand on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister.

Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the Governor General is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state, and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. The Governor General, however, is still appointed by the monarch, and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is also vested in the monarch, though it can be placed with the Governor General on behalf of the sovereign of the independent realm. Letters of Credence or Letters of Recall are now sometimes received or issued in the name of the monarch, though in some countries, such as Canada and Australia, the Letters of Credence and Recall are issued in the name of the Governor General alone.

At diplomatic functions where the Governor General is present, the visiting diplomat or head of state toasts "The King" or "The Queen" of the relevant realm, not the Governor General, with any reference to the Governor General being subsidiary in later toasts if featuring at all, and will involve a toast to them by name, not office. (E.g., "Mr. and Mrs. Smith," not "Her Excellency, the Governor General." Sometimes a toast might be made using name and office, e.g., "Governor General Smith.")

Except in rare cases, the Governor General only acts in accordance with constitutional convention and upon the advice of the national Prime Minister.[4] The Governor General is still the local representative of the sovereign, and performs the same duties as they carried out historically, though their role is almost purely ceremonial. Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General Lord Byng refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.[5] In principle, the Crown could overrule a Governor General, but this has not happened in modern times.

The term de facto head of state, though having no constitutional status, has been used informally in Commonwealth realms to describe the role of a Governor General.

The Governor General is usually a person with a distinguished record of public service, often a retired politician, judge or military commander; but some countries have also appointed prominent academics, members of the clergy, philanthropists, or figures from the news media to the office. The Governor General is formally appointed by the Monarch, following the specific request of the Prime Minister of the country concerned; Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are the only realms that elect their Governor General, in both cases by a parliamentary vote.

Traditionally, the Governor General's official attire was a military uniform, but this practice has been abandoned except on occasions when it is appropriate to be worn. In South Africa, the Governor General of the Union nominated by the Afrikaner Nationalist government chose not to wear uniform on any occasion. Most Governors General continue to wear appropriate medals on their clothing when required.

The Governor General's official residence is usually called Government House. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State resided in the then Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera sought to downgrade the office, and the last Governor General, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there. The office was abolished there in 1936.

In most Commonwealth realms, the flag of the Governor General has been the standard pattern of a blue field with the Royal Crest (a lion standing on a crown) above a scroll with the name of the jurisdiction. In Canada, however, this was replaced with a crowned lion clasping a maple leaf. In the Solomon Islands, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji, the former Governor General's flag featured a whale's tooth. In New Zealand, the flag was replaced in 2008 with the shield of the coat of arms of New Zealand surmounted by a crown on a blue field.

Governors General are accorded the style of His/Her Excellency. This style is also extended to their spouses, whether female or male (for an example of the latter, see Jean-Daniel Lafond).

In former colonies which are now Commonwealth republics, the Governor General and Monarch have been replaced by an elected or appointed (sometimes non-executive) Head of State.

Appointment[edit]

Until the 1920s, the Governors General were British, and appointed on the advice of the British Government.

In December 1922, Tim Healy, an Irish Catholic politician, was appointed as the first Governor-General of the Irish Free State. This was the first time that someone other than a British Peer was appointed as the Governor-General of a dominion within the British Empire. Following the changes to the structure of the Commonwealth in the late 1920s, in 1929, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin established the right of a Dominion Prime Minister to advise the Monarch directly on the appointment of a Governor General, by insisting that his choice (Sir Isaac Isaacs, an Australian) prevail over the recommendation of the British Government. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the Governor General would be a citizen of the country concerned, and would be appointed on the advice of the government of that country, with no input from the British Government; Governor General of Canada since 1952 and Governor General of New Zealand since 1967. Since 1931 as each former Dominion has patriated its constitution from the UK, the convention has become law and no government of any realm can advise the Monarch on any matter pertaining to another realm, including the appointment of a Governor General. Today a country's Governor-General is appointed by the Sovereign solely on the advice of the prime minister of the country concerned. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, the Prime Minister's advice is based on the result of a vote in the national Parliament.

Commonwealth countries with a Governor General[edit]

Commonwealth realm From
Antigua and Barbuda 1981 [6]
Australia 1901 [7]
Bahamas 1973 [8]
Barbados 1966 [9]
Belize 1981 [10]
Canada 1867 [11]
Grenada 1974 [12]
Jamaica 1962 [13]
New Zealand 1917 [14]
Papua New Guinea 1975
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 [15]
Saint Lucia 1979 [16]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 [17]
Solomon Islands 1978
Tuvalu 1978 [18]

Clicking on the country above will take you the relevant Governor-General article.

A list of current Governors-General in Commonwealth countries may be found here: Representatives of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Other attributes[edit]

Different realms have different constitutional arrangements governing who acts in place of the Governor General in the event of his or her death, resignation, or incapacity.

  • In Australia, an Administrator of the Commonwealth may be appointed to perform the necessary official functions, pending a decision by the Sovereign, on the advice of the Prime Minister, about a permanent replacement as Governor General. The Administrator has usually been the senior state governor. Each state governor normally holds what is known as a dormant commission. There have been cases where a governor has fallen out of favor with the government, causing their dormant commission to be revoked. The most recent example was that of Sir Colin Hannah, Governor of Queensland, in 1975.
  • Many Caribbean countries have a specific office of "Deputy Governor-General".

Former British colonies[edit]

The title has been used in many British colonial entities that either no longer exist or are now independent countries.

In the Americas[edit]

In Asia[edit]

See also: British Raj

Former Commonwealth realms[edit]

Most Commonwealth countries that are now republics have a President as head of state, where previously they had a Governor General. Some became parliamentary republics, like India, where the presidency is a ceremonial post, similar to that of the British monarch, while others, like Ghana, adopted a presidential system like the United States. Australia held a referendum on becoming a parliamentary republic in 1999, but this was rejected.

The current governments of Barbados and Jamaica, while having announced plans to hold referendums on becoming republics (in each case with a non-executive President replacing the Queen as head of state, as occurred in Trinidad and Tobago in 1976), have not proceeded any further.

In Africa[edit]

Zambia and the Seychelles became republics within the Commonwealth on independence.

In the Americas[edit]

  • Guyana:
    • 26 May 1966–16 December 1966 Sir Richard Luyt (b. 1915–d. 1994), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 16 December 1966–10 November 1969 Sir David James Gardiner Rose (b. 1923–d. 1969)
    • 10 November 1969–22 February 1970 Sir Edward Luckhoo (acting) (b. 1912–d. 1998); succeeded by the first President
  • Trinidad and Tobago:
    • 31 August 1962–15 September 1972 Sir Solomon Hochoy (b. 1905–d. 1983), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 15 September 1972–1 August 1976 Sir Ellis Clarke (b. 1917)

Dominica became a republic on independence in 1978, with a ceremonial President as head of state.

In Asia[edit]

In Europe[edit]

Cyprus became a republic on independence.

In Oceania[edit]

  • Fiji:
    • 10 October 1970–13 January 1973 Sir Robert Sidney Foster (b. 1913–d. 2005), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 13 January 1973–12 February 1983 Ratu Sir George Cakobau (b. 1912–d. 1989)
    • 12 February 1983–6 October 1987 Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau (b. 1918–d. 1993); it became a republic under a President on 5 December 1987

Other colonial and similar usage[edit]

Belgium[edit]

France[edit]

The equivalent word in French is gouverneur général, used in the following colonies:

Furthermore, in Napoleonic Europe successive French Governors-general were appointed by Napoleon I in:

  • the German states of Brandenburg (various other got 'mere' Governors), two incumbents between 27 October 1806 and 10 December 1808, during the French occupation
  • Province of Courland under the French occupation (from 1 August 1812, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and District of Pilten nominally re-established under joint French-Saxon protectorate 8 October 1812 - 20 December 1812) : Jacques David Martin, baron de Campredon (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
  • Parma and Piacenza under occupation, (after a Commissioner) 15 February 1804 - 23 July 1808, later annexed as département under a Prefect of Taro
  • principality of Piombino May 1806 - 1811 : Adolphe Beauvais (d. 1811)
  • annexed Tuscany, two incumbents, over prefects for Arno, Méditerranée [Mediterranean] and Ombrone:
    • May 1808 - 3 March 1809 Jacques François de Boussay, baron de Menou (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
    • 3 March 1809 - 1 February 1814 Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany) (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
  • the Illyrian provinces (comprising present Croatia, Slovenia and even adjacent parts of Austria and Italy), annexed as part of the French Empire proper, 14 October 1809 - August 1813

Greece[edit]

The Balkan Wars of 1912–13 led to the Greek acquisition of the so-called "New Lands" (Epirus, Macedonia, Crete and the islands of the eastern Aegean), almost doubling the country's territory. Instead of fully incorporating these new lands into Greece by dividing them into prefectures, the Ottoman administrative system continued in existence for a while, and Law ΔΡΛΔ΄ of 1913 established five governorates-general (Γενικές Διοικήσεις, sing. Γενική Διοίκησις): Epirus, Macedonia, Crete, Aegean and SamosIkaria. The governors-general had wide-ranging authority in their territories, and were almost autonomous of the government in Athens.

Law 524 in 1914 abolished the governorates-general and divided the "New Lands" into regular prefectures, but in 1918 Law 1149 re-instated them as a superordinate administrative level above the prefectures, with Macedonia now divided in two governorates-general, those of Thessaloniki and KozaniFlorina. The governors-general of Thessaloniki, Crete and Epirus were also given ministerial rank. To these was added the Governorate-General of Thrace in 1920–22, comprising Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace (returned to Turkey in the Armistice of Mudanya in 1922). The extensive but hitherto legally rather undefined powers of the governors-general created friction and confusion with other government branches, until their remit was exactly delineated in 1925. The governorates-general, except for that of Thessaloniki, were abolished in 1928, but re-established in December 1929—for Crete, Epirus, Thrace, and Macedonia—and delegated practically all ministerial authorities for their respective areas. Over the next decade, however, in a see-saw of legislative measures that in turns gave and took away authority, they gradually lost most of their powers in favour of the prefectures and the central government in Athens.

Following liberation from the Axis occupation, in 1945 the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was established, initially with subordinate governorates for West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, East Macedonia, and Thrace, the first three of which were then grouped anew into a new Governorate-General of Macedonia, albeit still subject to the Governorate-General of Northern Greece. This awkward arrangement lasted until 1950, when the administration of Macedonia was streamlined, the junior governorates abolished and only the Governorate-General of Northern Greece retained. Finally, in 1955, the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was transformed into the Ministry of Northern Greece, and all other governorates-general elsewhere in Greece were abolished.

Netherlands[edit]

From 1691 to 1948 the Dutch appointed a Gouverneur-generaal ("Governor-General") to govern the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia.

While in the Caribbean, various other titles were used, Curaçao had three Governors-General between 1816 and 1820:

  • 1816–1819 Albert Kikkert
  • 1819–1820 Petrus Bernardus van Starkenborgh
  • 1820 Isaäk Johannes Rammelman Elsevier

Portugal[edit]

The equivalent word in Portuguese is governador-geral. This title was only used for the governors of the major colonies, indicating that they had, under their authority, several subordinate governors. In most of the colonies, lower titles, mainly governador (governor) or formerly captain-major (capitão-mor), prevailed

  • In the Portuguese State of India (Estado da Índia, capital Goa) the style was changed repeatedly for another, mostly Vice-Rei (Viceroy). The Viceroy title was usually reserved for members of the Portuguese Royal Family, the remaining governors receiving the title of governador-general;
  • In Brazil, after a few governors, from 1578 till its promotion in 1763 to a Viceroyalty (though various members of the nobility since 1640 had assumed, without sovereign authority, the title of Viceroy).
  • in Africa, from 1837 Portugal appointed a governor-general to govern the overseas province of Angola, and another to govern the province of Moçambique. For some time, a governor-general was also appointed to rule Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea, while these territories were united in a single province. Between 1921 and 1930, additional powers were given to some of the Angola and Mozambique governors, who were restyled in full Alto-comissário e governador-geral (High commissioner and governor-general).

Philippines[edit]

The Philippines from the 16th through the 20th century had a series of Governors-General during the Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II

Spain[edit]

From 21 November 1564 the Spanish East Indies had a Governor-General, which was under the Viceroy of New Spain based in Mexico. After the successful Mexican War of Independence in 1821, the governor-general reported directly to Spain.

United States of America[edit]

From 1899 to 1935 under the Insular Government, the Philippines was administered by a series of Governors General, first military and then civilian, appointed by the United States Federal Government.

Other Western usages[edit]

Asian counterparts[edit]

  • From 1644 to 1911, in Qing Dynasty China, a Governor General or zongdu (Chinese: 总督) was the highest official of joint military and civil affairs in one or several provinces (alternately translated as Viceroy)
  • The hereditary shoguns of Japan who ruled in the name of the Emperor from 1185 until 1868 were equivalent to governors-general, though they often had far greater power than a governor-general would ordinarily have.
  • Imperial Japan:
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
    • The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General[2] (Persian: استاندار ostāndār).

See also[edit]

Note[edit]

In Canada the title "Governor General" is always used unhyphenated. In Australia and New Zealand, the term is always hyphenated.[19][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Governor General" definition on dictionary.com (retrieved 14 February 2006)
  2. ^ a b IRNA, Online Edition. "Paris for further cultural cooperation with Iran". Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  3. ^ Heard, Andrew (1990), "Canadian Independence", Vancouver: Simon Fraser University http://www.sfu.ca/~aheard/324/Independence.html, retrieved 25 August 2010  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ In particular, see the history of the Governor General of Australia
  5. ^ Letter from the Queen's Private Secretary to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia of 17 November 1975, at The Whitlam Dismissal, retrieved 15 February 2006.
  6. ^ http://ab.gov.ag/gov_v4/article_details.php?id=182&category=66
  7. ^ gg.gov.au
  8. ^ "The Government of Bahamas - Landing Page". Bahamas.gov.bs. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ [2][dead link]
  11. ^ gg.ca
  12. ^ "Office of the Governor General". GOV.gd. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  13. ^ kingshouse.gov.jm
  14. ^ gg.govt.nz
  15. ^ [3][dead link]
  16. ^ [4][dead link]
  17. ^ [5][dead link]
  18. ^ "Government". Tuvaluislands.com. 1999-04-26. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  19. ^ Governor General of Australia ~ Welcome Message - Main Home Page
  20. ^ gov-gen.govt.nz

External links[edit]