Governor of Hong Kong

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Governor of Hong Kong
Former political post
Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong.svg
Standard of the Governor, 1959–1997
First officeholder Sir Henry Pottinger, Bt
Last officeholder Chris Patten
Style His/Her Excellency
Official residence Government House, Hong Kong
Appointer Monarch of the United Kingdom
Office began 26 June 1843
Office ended 30 June 1997
Salary HK$3,036,000 per annum

The Governor of Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港總督/港督; Jyutping: Hoeng1gong2zung2duk1) was the representative in Hong Kong of the British Crown from 1843 to 1997. In this capacity, the Governor was President of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong. The Governor's roles were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions. Upon the end of British rule and the transfer of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997, most of the civil functions of this office went to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and military functions went to the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison.

The Governor[edit]

Uniform of the Governor of Hong Kong

Authorities and duties of the Governor were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions in 1843. The Governor, appointed by the British monarch (on the advice of the Foreign Secretary), exercise the executive branch of Hong Kong Government throughout British sovereignty and, with the exception of a brief experiment after World War II, no serious attempt was made to introduce representative government, until the final years of British rule.

The Governor of Hong Kong chaired the colonial cabinet, the Executive Council (ExCo), and until 1993, also the President of Legislative Council. The Governor appointed most, if not all, of the members of the colony's legislature, (known colloquially as LegCo), which was largely an advisory body until the first indirect elections of LegCo was held in 1985. Initially both Councils were dominated by British expatriates, but this progressively gave way to local Hong Kong Chinese appointees in later years. Historically, the Governors of Hong Kong were professional diplomats, save the last Governor, Chris Patten, who was a career politician. In December 1996, the Governor's salary was HK$3,036,000 per annum, tax-free. It was fixed at 125% of the Chief Secretary's salary.[1]

In the absence of the Governor, the Chief Secretary immediately became the acting Governor of the colony. The Chief Secretaries were historically drawn from the Colonial Office or British military. One Royal Navy Vice Admiral served as administrator after World War II. Four Japanese military officers (3 Army officers and 1 naval Vice Admiral) served as administrator during World War II.

Transport[edit]

The Governor of Hong Kong used a Daimler DS420 for day to day transport and a Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulette for ceremonial occasions. Both vehicles were removed by the Royal Navy immediately following the handover to China on 1 July 1997.

Residences[edit]

List of Governors[edit]

No. Picture Name & Chinese Translation From Until Origin
Charles Elliot.png Sir Charles Elliot
Administrator
26 January 1841 12 August 1841
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Alexander Robert Johnston
Acting Administrator
22 June 1841 December 1841
Sir Henry Pottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
Administrator
12 August 1841 26 June 1843
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Alexander Robert Johnston
Acting Administrator
June 1842 December 1842
1 Sir Henry Pottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍
26 June 1843 8 May 1844
2 John Francis Davis.jpg Sir John Davis, 1st Bt.
戴維斯
8 May 1844 18 March 1848
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg William Staveley
Administrator
18 March 1848 21 March 1848
3 Sir Samuel George Bonham.jpg Sir George Bonham
文咸
21 March 1848 13 April 1854
4 JohnBowring1826.PNG Sir John Bowring
寶靈
13 April 1854 5 May 1859
Captain William Caine.jpg William Caine
Administrator
5 May 1859 9 September 1859
5 LordRosmead.jpg Sir Hercules Robinson
羅士敏
9 September 1859 15 March 1865
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg William Thomas Mercer
Administrator
15 March 1865 11 March 1866
6 Richard Graves MacDonnell.jpg Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell
麥當奴
11 March 1866 11 April 1872
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Henry Wase Whitfield
Administrator
11 April 1872 16 April 1872
7 ArthurEdwardKennedy.jpg Sir Arthur Kennedy
堅尼地
16 April 1872 1 March 1877
John Gardiner Austin.jpg John Gardiner Austin
Administrator
1 March 1877 22 April 1877
8 Sir John Hennessy.gif Sir John Pope Hennessy
軒尼詩
22 April 1877 7 March 1882
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Malcolm Struan Tonnochy
Administrator
7 March 1882 28 March 1882
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir William Henry Marsh
Administrator
28 March 1882 30 March 1883
9 Sir George Furguson.jpg Sir George Bowen
寶雲
30 March 1883 21 December 1885
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir William Henry Marsh
Administrator
21 December 1885 25 April 1887
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg William Gordon Cameron
Administrator
25 April 1887 6 October 1887
10 Sir G. William Des Voeux.jpg Sir William Des Voeux
德輔
6 October 1887 7 May 1891 Portarlington, Ireland (born in Baden-Baden, Germany)
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir George Digby Barker
Administrator
7 May 1891 10 December 1891
11 Sir William Robinson.jpg Sir William Robinson
羅便臣
10 December 1891 1 February 1898
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Wilsone Black
Administrator
1 February 1898 25 November 1898
12 Henry Arthur Blake.jpg Sir Henry Arthur Blake
卜力
25 November 1898 21 November 1903
Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
Administrator
21 November 1903 29 July 1904
13 Sir Matthew Nathan.jpg Sir Matthew Nathan
彌敦
29 July 1904 20 April 1907
Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
Administrator
20 April 1907 29 July 1907
14 LordLugard.jpg Sir Frederick Lugard
盧吉
29 July 1907 16 March 1912
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
Administrator
16 March 1912 24 July 1912
15 Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理
24 July 1912 12 September 1918
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
Administrator
12 September 1918 30 September 1919
16 SirReginaldStubbs.jpg Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs
司徒拔
30 September 1919 19 March 1925
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
Administrator
19 March 1925 1 November 1925
17 SIRCECILCLEMENTIHKU.jpg Sir Cecil Clementi
金文泰
1 November 1925 1 February 1930
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
Administrator
1 February 1930 9 March 1930
18 SirWilliamPeel HK.jpg Sir William Peel
貝璐
9 May 1930 17 May 1935
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Thomas Southorn
Administrator
17 May 1935 13 September 1935
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Norman Lockhart Smith
Administrator
13 September 1935 1 November 1935
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Thomas Southorn
Administrator
1 November 1935 12 December 1935
19 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Andrew Caldecott
郝德傑
12 December 1935 16 April 1937
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Norman Lockhart Smith
Administrator
16 April 1937 28 October 1937
20 Sir Geoffry Northcote.jpg Sir Geoffry Northcote
羅富國
28 October 1937 6 September 1941
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Norman Lockhart Smith
Administrator
6 September 1941 10 September 1941
21 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Mark Young
楊慕琦
10 September 1941 25 December 1941
Under Japanese occupation
Sakai Takashi.jpg Takashi Sakai
酒井隆
Administrator
25 December 1941 20 February 1942
Niimi Masaichi.jpg Masaichi Niimi
新見政一
Administrator
Isogai Rensuke.jpg Rensuke Isogai
磯谷廉介
20 February 1942 24 December 1944
Hisakazu.jpg Hisakazu Tanaka
田中久一
1 February 1945 16 August 1945
Restoration of British rule
Frank Gimson.jpg Sir Franklin Gimson
Provisional Government
28 August 1945 30 August 1945
Cecil Harcourt.jpg Sir Cecil Harcourt
夏愨
Military Government
1 September 1945 1 May 1946
21 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Mark Young
楊慕琦
1 May 1946 May 1947
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg David Mercer MacDougall
Administrator
May 1947 25 July 1947
22 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Alexander Grantham
葛量洪
25 July 1947 December 1957
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Edgeworth Beresford David
Administrator
December 1957 23 January 1958
23 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Robert Brown Black
柏立基
23 January 1958 March 1964
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Edmund Brinsley Teesdale
Administrator
March 1964 14 April 1964
24 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir David C.C. Trench
戴麟趾
14 April 1964 October 1971
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Hugh Norman-Walker
Administrator
October 1971 19 November 1971
25 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Murray MacLehose
麥理浩
19 November 1971 April 1982
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Philip Haddon-Cave
夏鼎基
Administrator
April 1982 20 May 1982 Hobart, Australia
26 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Edward Youde
尤德
20 May 1982 4 December 1986 Penarth, Wales
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir David Akers-Jones
鍾逸傑
Acting Governor
4 December 1986 9 April 1987 Sussex, England
27 David Wilson 2008.jpg Sir David Wilson
衛奕信
9 April 1987 9 July 1992 Alloa, Scotland
28 Chris Patten -2008-10-31-.jpg Chris Patten
彭定康
9 July 1992 30 June 1997

Firsts[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]