List of Governors of Ohio

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Governor of Ohio
Seal of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Standard of the Governor of Ohio.svg
Governor John Kasich.jpg
Incumbent
John Kasich

since January 10, 2011
Style The Honorable
Residence Ohio Governor's Mansion
Term length Four years, two consecutive with four-year pause thereafter
Inaugural holder Edward Tiffin
Formation March 3, 1803
Deputy Lieutenant Governor
Salary $139,000 (2009)[1]
Website governor.ohio.gov

The Governor of the state of Ohio is the head of the executive branch of Ohio's government[2] and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[3] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws; the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio Legislature;[4] the power to convene the legislature;[5] and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[6]

There have been 63 governors of Ohio, serving 69 distinct terms. The longest term was held by Jim Rhodes, who was elected four times and served just under sixteen years in two non-consecutive periods of two terms each (1963–1971 and 1975–1983). The shortest terms were held by John William Brown and Nancy Hollister, who each served for only 11 days after the governors preceding them resigned in order to begin the terms to which they had been elected in the United States Senate; the shortest-serving elected governor was John M. Pattison, who died in office five months into his term. The current governor is John Kasich, who took office on January 10, 2011.

Governors[edit]

Initially after the American Revolution, parts of the area now known as Ohio were claimed by New York, Virginia, and Connecticut; however, New York ceded its claim in 1782, Virginia in 1784, and Connecticut in 1786, though it maintained its Western Reserve in the area until 1800.[7] On July 13, 1787, the Northwest Territory was formed. As territories were split from it, it eventually came to represent just present-day Ohio.[8]

Governors of Northwest Territory[edit]

Throughout its 15-year history, Northwest Territory had only one governor, Arthur St. Clair. He was removed from office by President Thomas Jefferson November 22, 1802, and no successor was named, with Charles Willing Byrd, Secretary of the Territory, becoming Acting Governor, serving until Tiffin was inaugurated March 3, 1803.[9] There was no Ohio Territory; Ohio is considered the successor state to the Northwest Territory.

# Picture Governor Appointed Left office Party Appointed by
1 ArthurStClairOfficialPortrait.jpg Arthur St. Clair
(1737–1818)
October 5, 1787 November 22, 1802[10] Federalist Continental Congress
[note 1]
2 Charles Willing Byrd
(1770–1828)
November 22, 1802[9] March 3, 1803 Democratic-Republican not appointed, assumed acting governor when St. Clair removed[9]

Governors of the State of Ohio[edit]

Edward Tiffin, 1st Governor of Ohio
Thomas Corwin, 15th Governor of Ohio, and 20th U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Salmon P. Chase, 23rd Governor of Ohio, and 6th Chief Justice of the United States
Jacob Dolson Cox, 28th Governor of Ohio, and 10th U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Rutherford B. Hayes, 29th and 32nd Governor of Ohio, and 19th President of the United States
William McKinley, 39th Governor of Ohio, and 25th President of the United States
James M. Cox, 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio
John W. Bricker, 54th Governor of Ohio
Frank J. Lausche, 55th and 57th Governor of Ohio
George Voinovich, 65th Governor of Ohio

Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. Since then, it has had 62 governors, six of whom served non-consecutive terms.

The first constitution of 1803 allowed governors to serve for two years, limited to six of any eight years, commencing on the first Monday in the December following an election.[12] The current constitution of 1851 removed the term limit, and shifted the start of the term to the second Monday in January following an election.[11] In 1908, Ohio switched from holding elections in odd-numbered years to even-numbered years, with the preceding governor (from the 1905 election) serving an extra year.[13] A 1957 amendment[11] lengthened the term to four years and allowed governors to only succeed themselves once, having to wait four years after their second term in a row before being allowed to run again.[14] An Ohio Supreme Court ruling in 1973 clarified this to mean governors could theoretically serve unlimited terms, as long as they waited four years after every second term.[11]

Should the office of governor become vacant due to death, resignation, or conviction of impeachment, the lieutenant governor assumes the title of governor. Should the office of lieutenant governor also become vacant, the president of the senate becomes the acting governor.[15] If the vacancy of both offices took place during the first twenty months of the term, a special election is to be held on the next even-numbered year to elect new officers to serve out the current term.[16] Prior to 1851, the speaker of the senate acted as governor for the term.[17] Since 1974, the governor and lieutenant governor have been elected on the same ticket; prior to then, they could be (and often were) members of different parties.[11]

      Democratic (23)       Democratic-Republican (8)       Federalist (2)       National Republican (1)       Republican (29)       Unionist (1)       Whig (5)

# picture Governor Took office Left office Party Lt. Governor
[note 2]
Terms
[note 3]
1 Portrait of Senator Edward Tiffin of Ohio.jpg   Edward Tiffin
(1766–1829)
March 3, 1803 March 4, 1807 Democratic-
Republican
None 1 12
[note 4]
2 Thomas Kirker.png   Thomas Kirker
(1760–1837)
March 4, 1807 December 12, 1808 Democratic-
Republican
12
[note 5]
3 Samuel H. Huntington 002.png   Samuel H. Huntington
(1765–1817)
December 12, 1808 December 8, 1810 Democratic-
Republican
1
[note 6]
4 Return J. Meigs, Jr.jpg   Return J. Meigs, Jr.
(1764–1825)
December 8, 1810 March 24, 1814 Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 7]
5 Othniel Looker 002.png   Othniel Looker
(1757–1845)
March 24, 1814 December 8, 1814 Democratic-
Republican
12
[note 5]
6 Thomas Worthington (governor) 002.png   Thomas Worthington
(1773–1827)
December 8, 1814 December 14, 1818 Democratic-
Republican
2
7 Ethan Brown.jpg   Ethan Allen Brown
(1776–1852)
December 14, 1818 January 4, 1822 Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 4]
8 Allen Trimble 002.png   Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
January 4, 1822 December 28, 1822 Federalist 12
[note 5]
9 Jeremiah Morrow.jpg   Jeremiah Morrow
(1771–1852)
December 28, 1822 December 19, 1826 Democratic-
Republican
2
10 Allen Trimble.png   Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
December 19, 1826 December 18, 1830 Federalist 2
11 Duncan McArthur 002.png   Duncan McArthur
(1772–1839)
December 18, 1830 December 7, 1832 National
Republican
1
12 Robert lucas.jpg   Robert Lucas
(1781–1853)
December 7, 1832 December 12, 1836 Democratic 2
13 Joseph Vance.jpg   Joseph Vance
(1786–1852)
December 12, 1836 December 13, 1838 Whig 1
14 WShannon.jpg   Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
December 13, 1838 December 16, 1840 Democratic 1
15 Thomas Corwin.png   Thomas Corwin
(1794–1865)
December 16, 1840 December 14, 1842 Whig 1
16 Wilson Shannon (History of Ohio).png   Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
December 14, 1842 April 15, 1844 Democratic 12
[note 8]
17 Thomas W. Bartley.png   Thomas W. Bartley
(1812–1885)
April 15, 1844 December 3, 1844 Democratic 12
[note 5]
18 Mordecai Bartley 002.png   Mordecai Bartley
(1783–1870)
December 3, 1844 December 12, 1846 Whig 1
19 William Bebb.png   William Bebb
(1802–1873)
December 12, 1846 January 22, 1849 Whig 1
[note 9]
20 Seabury Ford 002.png   Seabury Ford
(1801–1855)
January 22, 1849 December 12, 1850 Whig 1
[note 9]
21 Reuben Wood 002.png   Reuben Wood
(1792–1864)
December 12, 1850 July 13, 1853 Democratic None 1 12
[note 10]
[note 11]
  William Medill
22 William Medill 002.png   William Medill
(1802–1865)
July 13, 1853 January 14, 1856 Democratic vacant 1 12
[note 12]
  James Myers
23 Salmon-chase.jpg   Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
January 14, 1856 January 9, 1860 Republican   Thomas H. Ford 2
  Martin Welker
24 William Dennison, Jr.jpg   William Dennison
(1815–1882)
January 9, 1860 January 13, 1862 Republican   Robert C. Kirk 1
25 Governor David Tod.jpg   David Tod
(1805–1868)
January 13, 1862 January 11, 1864 Republican   Benjamin Stanton 1
26 JohnBrough.jpg   John Brough
(1811–1865)
January 11, 1864 August 29, 1865 Unionist   Charles Anderson 12
[note 13]
27 CharlesAnderson1814.jpg   Charles Anderson
(1814–1895)
August 29, 1865 January 8, 1866 Republican vacant 12
[note 14]
28 Jacob Dolson Cox.png   Jacob Dolson Cox
(1828–1900)
January 8, 1866 January 13, 1868 Republican   Andrew McBurney 1
29 Rutherford B Hayes - head and shoulders.jpg   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
January 13, 1868 January 8, 1872 Republican   John C. Lee 2
30 Edward Follansbee Noyes by Henry Howe.png   Edward F. Noyes
(1832–1890)
January 8, 1872 January 12, 1874 Republican   Jacob Mueller 1
31 WilliamAllen.jpg   William Allen
(1803–1879)
January 12, 1874 January 10, 1876 Democratic   Alphonso Hart 1
32 Appleton's Hayes Rutherford.jpg   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
January 10, 1876 March 2, 1877 Republican   Thomas L. Young 12
[note 15]
33 TLYoung.jpg   Thomas L. Young
(1832–1888)
March 2, 1877 January 14, 1878 Republican   H. W. Curtiss (acting) 12
[note 14]
34 Richard M. Bishop - Brady-Handy.jpg   Richard M. Bishop
(1812–1893)
January 14, 1878 January 12, 1880 Democratic   Jabez W. Fitch 1
35 Charles Foster, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1865-1880.jpg   Charles Foster
(1828–1904)
January 12, 1880 January 14, 1884 Republican   Andrew Hickenlooper 2
  Rees G. Richards
36 George Hoadly from goss 1912.png   George Hoadly
(1826–1902)
January 14, 1884 January 11, 1886 Democratic   John George Warwick 1
37 Joseph Benson Foraker.jpg   Joseph B. Foraker
(1846–1917)
January 11, 1886 January 13, 1890 Republican   Robert P. Kennedy 2
  Silas A. Conrad
  William C. Lyon
38 James E. Campbell 002.png   James E. Campbell
(1843–1924)
January 13, 1890 January 11, 1892 Democratic   Elbert L. Lampson 1
  William V. Marquis
39 William mckinley.jpg   William McKinley
(1843–1901)
January 11, 1892 January 13, 1896 Republican   Andrew L. Harris 2
40 Asa S. Bushnell (Ohio Governor).png   Asa S. Bushnell
(1834–1904)
January 13, 1896 January 8, 1900 Republican   Asa W. Jones 2
41 George K Nash with signature.png   George K. Nash
(1842–1904)
January 8, 1900 January 11, 1904 Republican   John A. Caldwell 2
  Carl L. Nippert
  Harry L. Gordon
42 MTHerrick.jpg   Myron T. Herrick
(1854–1929)
January 11, 1904 January 8, 1906 Republican   Warren G. Harding 1
43 John M. Pattison 002.png   John M. Pattison
(1847–1906)
January 8, 1906 June 18, 1906 Democratic   Andrew L. Harris 12
[note 13]
[note 16]
44 Andrew Lintner Harris - oval.jpg   Andrew L. Harris
(1835–1915)
June 18, 1906 January 11, 1909 Republican vacant 12
[note 14]
[note 16]
45 JudsonHarmonLOC.jpg   Judson Harmon
(1846–1927)
January 11, 1909 January 13, 1913 Democratic   Francis W. Treadway 2
  Atlee Pomerene
  Hugh L. Nichols
46 Collier's 1921 Cox James M.png   James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
January 13, 1913 January 11, 1915 Democratic   W. A. Greenlund 1
47 Frank Bartlett Willis.jpg   Frank B. Willis
(1871–1928)
January 11, 1915 January 8, 1917 Republican   John H. Arnold 1
48 James M. Cox 1913.png   James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
January 8, 1917 January 10, 1921 Democratic   Earl D. Bloom 2
  Clarence J. Brown
49 HarryLDavis.jpg   Harry L. Davis
(1878–1950)
January 10, 1921 January 8, 1923 Republican   Clarence J. Brown 1
50 Alvin Victor Donahey.jpg   A. Victor Donahey
(1873–1946)
January 8, 1923 January 14, 1929 Democratic   Earl D. Bloom 3
  Charles H. Lewis
  Earl D. Bloom
  William G. Pickrel
  George C. Braden
51 Myers Y. Cooper.png   Myers Y. Cooper
(1873–1958)
January 14, 1929 January 12, 1931 Republican   John T. Brown 1
52 George White (Ohio).png   George White
(1872–1953)
January 12, 1931 January 14, 1935 Democratic   William G. Pickrel 2
  Charles W. Sawyer
53 MartinDavey.jpg   Martin L. Davey
(1884–1946)
January 14, 1935 January 9, 1939 Democratic   Harold G. Mosier 2
  Paul P. Yoder
54 John William Bricker (Gov., Sen. OH).jpg   John W. Bricker
(1893–1986)
January 9, 1939 January 8, 1945 Republican   Paul M. Herbert 3
55 L000122.jpg   Frank J. Lausche
(1895–1990)
January 8, 1945 January 13, 1947 Democratic   George D. Nye 1
56 Thomas J. Herbert (1921).png   Thomas J. Herbert
(1894–1974)
January 13, 1947 January 10, 1949 Republican   Paul M. Herbert 1
57 L000122.jpg   Frank J. Lausche
(1895–1990)
January 10, 1949 January 3, 1957 Democratic   George D. Nye 3 12
[note 4]
  John William Brown
58 John William Brown.jpeg   John William Brown
(1913–1993)
January 3, 1957 January 14, 1957 Republican vacant 12
[note 14]
59 C. William O'Neill.jpg   C. William O'Neill
(1916–1978)
January 14, 1957 January 12, 1959 Republican   Paul M. Herbert 1
60 Michael Disalle at 54th birthday -crop.jpg   Michael DiSalle
(1908–1981)
January 12, 1959 January 14, 1963 Democratic   John W. Donahey 1
61 Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg   Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
January 14, 1963 January 11, 1971 Republican   John William Brown 2
[note 17]
62 John J. Gilligan crop.tif   John J. Gilligan
(1921–2013)
January 11, 1971 January 13, 1975 Democratic   John William Brown 1
63 Jim Rhodes in Bettsville, Ohio October 15, 1981.jpg   Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
January 13, 1975 January 10, 1983 Republican   Dick Celeste 2
[note 17]
  George Voinovich
vacant
64 Crop from March 10, 2000 photo of Dick Celeste.jpg   Dick Celeste
(born 1937)
January 10, 1983 January 14, 1991 Democratic   Myrl Shoemaker 2
vacant
  Paul Leonard
65 George Voinovich official portrait.jpg   George Voinovich
(born 1936)
January 14, 1991 December 31, 1998 Republican   Mike DeWine 1 12
[note 4]
vacant
  Nancy Hollister
66   Nancy Hollister
(born 1949)
December 31, 1998 January 11, 1999 Republican vacant 12
[note 14]
67 Hyland software thirdfrontiersummit 2002 Taft Hyland close cropped.jpg   Bob Taft
(born 1942)
January 11, 1999 January 8, 2007 Republican   Maureen O'Connor 2
  Jennette Bradley
  Bruce Edward Johnson
vacant
68 Tedstrickland.JPG   Ted Strickland
(born 1941)
January 8, 2007 January 10, 2011 Democratic   Lee Fisher 1
69 Governor John Kasich.jpg   John Kasich
(born 1952)
January 10, 2011 Incumbent Republican   Mary Taylor 1
[note 18]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of other governorships, congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions in foreign countries held by Ohio governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Ohio.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Name Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
House Senate
Arthur St. Clair 1789–1802 President of the United States in Congress Assembled [19]
Edward Tiffin 1803–1807 S* Commissioner of the General Land Office, Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory [20]
Return J. Meigs, Jr. 1810–1814 S† District Judge for Michigan Territory, U.S. Postmaster General [21]
Thomas Worthington 1814–1818 S† [22]
Ethan Allen Brown 1818–1822 S* Commissioner of the General Land Office, Minister to Brazil [23]
Jeremiah Morrow 1822–1826 H S [24]
Duncan McArthur 1830–1832 H [25]
Robert Lucas 1832–1836 Governor of Iowa Territory [26]
Joseph Vance 1836–1838 H [27]
Wilson Shannon 1838–1840
1842–1844
H Minister to Mexico*, Governor of Kansas Territory [28]
Thomas Corwin 1840–1842 H S Minister to Mexico, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [29]
Mordecai Bartley 1844–1846 H [30]
William Medill 1853–1856 H First Comptroller of the United States Treasury, Commissioner of Indian Affairs [31]
Salmon P. Chase 1856–1860 S U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Chief Justice of the United States [32]
William Dennison 1860–1862 U.S. Postmaster General, President of the D. C. Board of Commissioners [33]
David Tod 1862–1864 Minister to Brazil [34]
Jacob Dolson Cox 1866–1868 H U.S. Secretary of the Interior [35]
Rutherford B. Hayes 1868–1872
1876–1877
H President of the United States* [36]
Edward F. Noyes 1872–1874 Minister to France [37]
William Allen 1874–1876 H S [38]
Thomas L. Young 1877–1878 H [39]
Charles Foster 1880–1884 H U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [40]
Joseph B. Foraker 1886–1890 S [41]
James E. Campbell 1890–1892 H [42]
William McKinley 1892–1896 H President of the United States [43]
Myron T. Herrick 1904–1906 Ambassador to France [37]
John M. Pattison 1906 H [44]
Judson Harmon 1909–1913 U.S. Attorney General [45]
James M. Cox 1913–1915
1917–1921
H† [46]
Frank B. Willis 1915–1917 H† S [47]
A. Victor Donahey 1923–1929 S [48]
George White 1931–1935 H [49]
Martin L. Davey 1935–1939 H [50]
John W. Bricker 1939–1945 S [51]
Frank J. Lausche 1945–1947
1949–1957
S* [52]
John J. Gilligan 1971–1975 H [53]
Dick Celeste 1983–1991 Ambassador to India [54]
George Voinovich 1991–1998 S* [55]
Ted Strickland 2007–2011 H [56]
John Kasich 2011— H [57]

Living former governors[edit]

As of August 2014, there are five living former governors, the oldest being George Voinovich (1991-1998, born 1936). The most recent death of a former governor was that of John J. Gilligan (1971-1975) on August 26, 2013, aged 92. The death of a former governor that served most recently was that of Jim Rhodes (1963–1971 and 1975–1983), on March 4, 2001, aged 91.

Name Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Dick Celeste 1983–1991 (1937-11-11) November 11, 1937 (age 76)
George Voinovich 1991–1998 (1936-07-15) July 15, 1936 (age 78)
Nancy Hollister 1998–1999 (1949-05-22) May 22, 1949 (age 65)
Bob Taft 1999–2007 (1942-01-08) January 8, 1942 (age 72)
Ted Strickland 2007–2011 (1941-08-04) August 4, 1941 (age 73)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ St. Clair was appointed governor by the Continental Congress; being governor of the first territory of the United States, he predated presidential appointments (and indeed the presidency itself).[11]
  2. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was not created until the 1851 Constitution, first being filled in 1852.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  4. ^ a b c d Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  5. ^ a b c d As speaker of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  6. ^ The 1808 election was actually won by Return J. Meigs, Jr., but he was declared ineligible for office for failing the residency requirements.
  7. ^ Resigned to be U.S. Postmaster General.
  8. ^ Resigned to be Minister to Mexico.
  9. ^ a b William Bebb's term officially ended in December 1848. However, due to the large number of close elections that year, the general assembly was delayed in qualifying governor-elect Seabury Ford, and William Bebb remained in office for an extra few weeks.
  10. ^ Wood's first term was truncated to one year, due to the 1851 constitution moving elections one year back to odd-numbered years.
  11. ^ Resigned to be consul in Valparaíso, Chile.
  12. ^ As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, with no lieutenant, and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  13. ^ a b Died in office.
  14. ^ a b c d e As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  15. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  16. ^ a b A 1905 amendment to the state constitution shifted elections forward one year, to take place on even years; thus, Pattison's term (completed by Lt. Governor Harris) was extended to three years.[18]
  17. ^ a b Was prevented from running for a third term due to a limit on consecutive terms; ran successfully for a third term against the governor who followed his first terms, John Gilligan.
  18. ^ Governor Kasich's first term expires on January 12, 2015. He is not yet term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "Ohio governor releases tax forms showing income". Associated Press. April 28, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  2. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 5
  3. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 10
  4. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 16
  5. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 8
  6. ^ Ohio Constitution article III § 11
  7. ^ "Ownership of the Northwest". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved June 16, 2008. 
  8. ^ "Evolution of Territories and States from the Old "Northwest Territory"". John Lindquist. Retrieved June 16, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Smith, William Henry, ed. (1882). The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair 1. Robert Clarke and Company. p. 246. 
  10. ^ "History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County". Heritage Pursuit. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Steinglass, Steven H.; Scarselli, Gino J. (2004). The Ohio State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 0-313-26765-0. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  12. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 3
  13. ^ Article XVII (adopted November, 1905) of Constitution, section 2: "And the General Assembly shall have power to so extend existing terms of office as to effect the purpose of section 1 of this article." and section 3 : "Every elective officer holding office when this amendment is adopted shall continue to hold such office for the full term for which he was elected and until his successor shall be elected and qualified as provided by law." source: Sandles, A P; Doty, E W (eds.). The biographical annals of Ohio 1906-1907-1908 : A handbook of the Government and Institutions of the State of Ohio. State of Ohio. p. 123. 
  14. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 2
  15. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 15
  16. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 17
  17. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 12
  18. ^ "Andrew L. Harris". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  19. ^ "St. Clair, Arthur". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Tiffin, Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Meigs, Return Jonathan, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  22. ^ "Worthington, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  23. ^ "Brown, Ethan Allen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Morrow, Jeremiah". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  25. ^ "McArthur, Duncan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Robert Lucas". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Vance, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Shannon, Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Corwin, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Bartley, Mordecai". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Medill, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Chase, Salmon Portland". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  33. ^ "William Dennison Jr.". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Chiefs of Mission for Brazil". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Cox, Jacob Dolson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Hayes, Rutherford Birchard". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b "Chiefs of Mission for France". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Allen, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Young, Thomas Lowry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Foster, Charles". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Foraker, Joseph Benson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Campbell, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  43. ^ "McKinley, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Pattison, John M.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Judson Harmon". Office of the Attorney General. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Cox, James Middleton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  47. ^ "Willis, Frank Bartlett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  48. ^ "Donahey, Alvin Victor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  49. ^ "White, George". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
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