Governorate of New Castile

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For Castilla la Nueva, a historic region of Spain, see New Castile (Spain).
Governorship of New Castile
Gobernación de Nueva Castilla
Spanish colony



Military flag

Spanish map of the administrative division of New Castile made in 1535
Capital Jauja 1533–1535
Lima after 1535
Languages Official: Spanish (de facto); common: Quechua, Kichwa, Aymara, Puquina.
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
 -  1516–1556 Charles I
 -  1528–1541 Francisco Pizarro
 -  1541–1544 Cristóbal Vaca de Castro
 -  1544–1548 Gonzalo Pizarro
(Self-proclaimed; unrecognized by Spanish court until death)
Historical era Spanish Empire
 -  Capitulation of Toledo 1528
 -  Atahualpa captured by the Spaniards
 -  Fall of Cuzco
 -  Appointment of Blasco Nunez Vela as Viceroy of Peru 1542
Currency Peso

The Governorate of New Castile (Gobernación de Nueva Castilla) was the gubernatorial region administered to Francisco Pizarro in 1528 by King Charles I of Spain, of which he was appointed governor. The region roughly consisted of modern Peru and was after the foundation of Lima in 1535 divided. The conquest of the Inca empire in 1531–1533, performed by Pizarro and his brothers set the basis for the territorial boundaries of New Castile. After the territorial division of South America between Spain and Portugal, the Peruvian colonial administration was divided into four enclaves: New Castile, consisting of the territories from roughly the Ecuadorian-Colombian border in the north to Cuzco in the south, New Toledo, forming the previous southern half of the Inca empire, stretching towards central Chile, New Andalusia, which was not formally conquered for Spain until decades later, and New Léon (later the New Kingdom of León), the southernmost part of the continent. This territorial division set the basis for the colonial administration of Southern America for decades to come, even though it was formally dissolved in 1544 when Charles sent his personal envoy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to govern the recently founded Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1548, with the defeat and death of Gonzalo Pizarro in the battle of Jaquijahuana, the era of New Castile was at a final end.

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Coordinates: 12°02′36″S 77°01′42″W / 12.04333°S 77.02833°W / -12.04333; -77.02833