Grace O'Malley

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Grace O'Malley
— Pirate  —
Grace2.jpg
The meeting of Grace O'Malley and Queen Elizabeth I
Nickname Gráinne Mhaol, Granuaile
Born c. 1530
Place of birth Connaught, Ireland
Died c. 1603
Place of death most likely Rockfleet Castle
Allegiance Ó Máille Clan
Battles/wars Nine Years War (Ireland)

Grace O'Malley (c. 1530 – c. 1603; also Gráinne O'Malley,[1] Irish: Gráinne Ní Mháille) was Queen of Umaill, chieftain of the Ó Máille clan following in the footsteps of her father Eoghan Dubhdara Ó Máille. Upon his death, she inherited his large shipping and trading business (sometimes accused of being a piracy trade). The income from this business, the land inherited from her mother, and the property and holdings from her first husband, Dónal an Chogaidh Ó Flaithbheartaigh, allowed her to become very wealthy (reportedly owning as much as 1000 head of cattle and horses). In 1593, when her sons, Tibbot Burke and Murrough O'Flaherty, and her half-brother, Donal-na-Piopa, were taken captive by the English governor of Connacht, Sir Richard Bingham, O'Malley sailed to England to petition Elizabeth I for their release. She formally presented her request to Elizabeth at her court in Greenwich Palace.

She is commonly known by her nickname Granuaile in Irish folklore, is a well-known historical figure in 16th-century Irish history, and is sometimes known as "The Sea Queen of Connacht". Biographies of her have been written primarily in the 20th and 21st centuries by the historian Anne Chambers. Her name was rendered in contemporary documents various ways including Grany O'Maly, Graney O'Mally or Grany Imallye, Granny Nye Male, Grany O'Mayle, Granie ny Maille, Granny ni Maille, Grany O'Mally, Grayn Ny Mayle, Grane ne Male, Grainy O'Maly, and Granee O'Maillie.[2]

Early life[edit]

O'Malley was born in Ireland around 1530, when Henry VIII was King of England and (at least in name) Lord of Ireland. Under the policies of the English government at the time, the semi-autonomous Irish princes and lords were left mostly to their own devices. However this was to change over the course of O'Malley's life as the Tudor conquest of Ireland gathered pace.

Eoghan Dubhdara Ó Máille, O'Malley's father[3] and his family were based in Clew Bay, County Mayo. He was chieftain of the Ó Máille clan and a direct descendant of its eponym, Maille mac Conall. The O'Malleys were one of the few seafaring families on the west coast, and they built a row of castles facing the sea to protect their territory. They controlled most of what is now the barony of Murrisk[3] in South-West County Mayo and recognised as their nominal overlords Mac William Íochtar Bourkes, who controlled much of what is now County Mayo (the Bourkes were originally Anglo-Irish but by her lifetime completely Gaelicised). Her mother, Margaret or Maeve, was also a Ní Mháille. Although she was the only child of Dubhdara and his wife, O'Malley had a half-brother, called Dónal na Piopa (Donal of the Pipes), who was the son of her father.[4]

The O'Malleys taxed all those who fished off their coasts, which included fishermen from as far away as England. Their leader bore the ancient Irish title of "An Ó Máille" ("The O'Malley", or "The O'Mealey" – as the name is also anglicised). According to Irish legend, as a young girl O'Malley wished to go on a trading expedition to Spain with her father. Upon being told she could not because her long hair would catch in the ship's ropes, she cut off most of her hair to embarrass her father into taking her, thus earning her the nickname "Gráinne Mhaol" (Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡrɑːnʲə veːl]; from maol bald or having cropped hair). The name stuck, and was usually anglicised as Granuaile.[5] As a child she most likely lived at her family's residence of Belclare and Clare Island,[2] but she may have been fostered to another family since fosterage was traditional among Irish nobility at the time. She was probably formally educated, since she is believed to have spoken in Latin with Queen Elizabeth I at their historic meeting in 1593.[6] Because of her extensive travels and trade, she may have spoken some English, Spanish and French as well.[citation needed]

Marriage to O'Flaherty[edit]

Clare Island, associated with Gráinne O'Malley

O'Malley was married in 1546 to Dónal an Chogaidh Ó Flaithbheartaigh (Donal of the Battle), tánaiste or heir to the Ó Flaithbheartaigh (O'Flaherty) title, which would have been a good political match for the daughter of the Ó Máille chieftain. As O'Flaherty tánaiste, Dónal an Chogaidh one day expected to rule Iar Connacht, the area roughly equivalent to modern Conamara.[7]

She bore three children during her marriage to an Chogaidh:

  • Owen:[8] The eldest child and son, known to be extremely kind and forgiving. When Owen was in his late twenties, or early thirties, Richard Bingham tricked him and, as a result, Owen was murdered and Bingham and his troops took over Owen's castle.
  • Margaret:[8] Sometimes called 'Maeve', Margaret was much like her mother. She married and had several children. Ní Mháille and Margaret's husband[who?] were supposedly very close, and more than once Ní Mháille's son-in-law saved her from death.
  • Murrough:[8] Murrough was said to take after his father as he enjoyed warfare. He was also sexist, many times beating his sister, Margaret, and refusing to listen to his mother because of her gender. Many sources report that Murrough, who seems to have had no sense of loyalty, betrayed his family and joined forces with Richard Bingham after the murder of Owen. When O'Malley heard of this, she swore she'd never speak to Murrough again for the rest of her life, though she would often insult him.

She returned after his death to Mayo and took up residence at the family castle or tower-house on Clare Island. After her an Chogaidh's death, O'Malley left Iar-Connacht and returned to O'Mháille territory, taking with her many O'Flaherty followers who were loyal to her.[9]

Marriage to Burke[edit]

Rockfleet Castle

By 1566, O'Malley had married a second time, this time to Risdeárd an Iarainn Bourke, called "Iron Richard",[10] an appropriate corruption of his Irish name as he is reputed to have always worn a coat of mail inherited from his Anglo-Norman ancestors. The nickname may also have come from the fact that he controlled the ironworks at Burrishoole, where his principal castle and residence were.[11]

Traditionally it is said that the Bourke marriage was motivated by O'Malley's desire to enlarge her holdings and prestige. Bourke was owner of Rockfleet Castle, also called Carraigahowley Castle, which was strategically situated near Newport, County Mayo, as well as other lands like Burrishoole, with sheltered harbours in which a pirate ship could hide. Bourke held a high position as chieftain of a senior branch of his sept.[12] Because of his sept leadership he would eventually be eligible for election as Mac William, the second most powerful office in Connacht.[13]

According to tradition the couple married under Brehon law 'for one year certain', and it is said that when the year was up O'Malley divorced Risdeárd and kept the castle. Legend says that O'Malley and her followers locked themselves in Rockfleet Castle and she called out a window to Burke, "Richard Burke, I dismiss you." Those words had the effect of ending the marriage, but since she was in possession of the castle she kept it.[14] Rockfleet remained for centuries in the O'Malley family and is today open to the public. Despite the divorce story, O'Malley and Bourke appear as mentioned as husband and wife in English documents of the period, so appeared to remain married, or at least allied, as far as the English were concerned. In her answers to the questions from Queen Elizabeth I, O'Malley said she was his widow.

The pair had one son, Theobald nicknamed "Tibbot of the Ships" (Irish: Tiobóid na Long), who was born about 1567.[15] Tibbot was later knighted as Sir Theobald Bourke, and was created first Viscount Mayo in 1626 by Charles I. Bourke had at least four other children from other marriages: Edmund, Walter, John, and Catherine.[16]

Other relationships[edit]

O'Malley was accused of promiscuity and it was said that she may have had a son out of wedlock. Biographer Anne Chambers points out that despite hints at these facts in certain state documents, allegations such as these were frequently made against women who acted in a manner contrary to the social norms of the day.[17]

The Chambers biography relates that the legendary reason for her seizure of Doona Castle in Ballycroy was because the MacMahons, who owned the castle, killed her lover, Hugh de Lacy, a young boy who was easily fifteen years younger than she was, the shipwrecked son of a Wexford merchant O'Malley had rescued.[18]

Career[edit]

Even as a young woman O'Malley was involved in the business of sailing ships and international trade.[19] She probably learned the business from her father who plied a busy international shipping trade. It is known that she always wanted to join his fleets, but he always refused. Bunowen Castle, where she lived with her first husband was situated on the most western point in Connacht and was apparently the first base for her shipping and trade activities. By the time of an-Chogaidh's death in the early 1560s, she commanded the loyalty of so many O'Flaherty men that many of them left the area when she did and followed her to Clare Island in Clew Bay, where she moved her headquarters.[20]

Her first husband had taken a fortress in the Lough Corrib from the Joyce clan. Because of an-Chogaidh's attitude, the Joyces began calling that particular fortress "Cock's Castle." When they heard of his death, they decided to take back the castle. However, O'Malley successfully defended it and apparently the Joyces were so impressed with her abilities in battle that they renamed it Caisleán na Circe, the "Hen's Castle," the name by which it is still known. The English later attacked her at the Hen's Castle, but despite being outnumbered, O'Malley withstood the siege. According to legend, she took lead from the roof of the fortress and melted it, then poured it onto the heads of the attacking soldiers. She summoned help by sending a man to light a beacon on the nearby Hill of Doon. Help arrived and the English were beaten back, never to attack the fortress again.[21]

Around the time of her first husband's death came the initial complaints to the English Council in Dublin from Galway's city leaders that O'Flaherty and O'Malley ships were behaving like pirates. Because Galway imposed taxes on the ships that traded their goods there, the O'Flahertys, led by O'Malley, decided to extract a similar tax from ships travelling in waters off their lands. O'Malley's ships would stop and board the traders and demand either cash or a portion of the cargo in exchange for safe passage the rest of the way to Galway. Resistance was met with violence and even murder. Once they obtained their toll, the O'Flaherty ships would disappear into one of the many bays in the area.[22][23]

By the early 1560s, O'Malley had left O'Flaherty territory and returned to her father's holdings on Clare Island.[24] She recruited fighting men from both Ireland and Scotland, transporting the gallowglass mercenaries between their Scottish homes and Irish employers and plundering Scotland's outlying islands on her return trips.[25] In an apparent effort to curry favour with the English, who were engaged in a re-conquest of Ireland at the time, O'Malley went to the Lord Deputy of Ireland and offered two hundred fighting men to serve English interests in Ireland and Scotland.[25]

She also attacked other ships at least as far away as Waterford on the south central coast of Ireland, as well as closer to her home port in northwestern Ireland. She did not limit her attacks to other ships as she also attacked fortresses on the shoreline, including Curradh Castle at Renvyle and the O'Loughlin castle in the Burren and the O'Boyle and MacSweeney clans in their holdings in Burtonport, Killybegs and Lough Swilly.[26]

In 1577, she met with Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, who already knew of her since she had met his son, Sir Philip Sidney, in 1576. Although Philip Sidney would have been a very young man at the time, O'Malley evidently made an impression on him since he mentioned her in favourable terms to his father.[6] O'Malley was wealthy on land as well as by sea. She inherited her father's fleet of ships and land holdings, as well as the land her mother had owned. Around the time of her meeting with Queen Elizabeth I of England, she owned herds of cattle and horses that numbered at least one thousand, which would have meant she was wealthy.[26]

Legendary exploits[edit]

Many folk stories and legends about O'Malley have survived since her actual days of pirating and trading. There are also traditional songs and poems about her.

A widespread legend concerns an incident at Howth, which apparently occurred in 1576. During a trip from Dublin, O'Malley attempted to pay a courtesy visit to Howth Castle, home of Lord Howth. However, she was informed that the family was at dinner and the castle gates were closed against her. In retaliation, she abducted the Earl's grandson and heir, Christopher St Lawrence, 10th Baron Howth. He was eventually released when a promise was given to keep the gates open to unexpected visitors and to set an extra place at every meal. Lord Howth gave her a ring as pledge on the agreement. The ring remains in the possession of a descendant of O'Malley and, at Howth Castle today, this agreement is still honoured by the Gaisford St. Lawrence family, descendants of the Baron.[27] (Commemorating these events, there is in Howth a street of 1950s local council housing named 'Grace O'Malley Road'.)

The legendary reason for O'Malley seizure of Doona Castle in Ballycroy was that the MacMahons, who owned the castle, killed her lover, Hugh de Lacy, the shipwrecked son of a Wexford merchant she had rescued. When the guilty members of the MacMahon clan landed on the holy island of Caher for a pilgrimage, O'Malley captured their boats. She and her men then captured the MacMahons and killed those responsible for her lover's death. Still not satisfied with her revenge, O'Malley then sailed for Ballycroy and attacked the garrison at Doona Castle, overpowering the defenders and taking the castle for herself.[18] Her attack against the MacMahons was not the first time she interrupted someone at their prayers. Legend tells of another chieftain who stole property from O'Malley and fled to a church for sanctuary. She was determined to wait out the thief, maintaining that he could starve or surrender. The thief dug a tunnel and escaped, however, and the hermit who took care of the church broke his vow of silence to scold her for attempting to harm someone who had sought sanctuary. Her reply is not included in the legend.[28]

More than 20 years after her death, an English lord deputy of Ireland recalled her ability as a leader of fighting men, noting her fame and favour that still existed among the Irish people.[29][30]

Revolutionary activity[edit]

In 1593, in his letter to protesting O'Malley's claims against him, Richard Bingham claimed that she was "nurse to all rebellions in the province for this forty years".[25][31] Bingham was Lord President of Connacht, with the task of increasing control over the local lords that had been effectively self-governing.

O'Malley had every reason, and used every opportunity, to limit the power of the Kingdom of Ireland over her part of the country. Her castle at Clare Island was attacked by an expedition from Galway led by Sheriff William Óge Martyn in March 1579. However, they were put to flight and barely escaped.

Meeting with Elizabeth[edit]

In the later 16th century, English power steadily increased in Ireland and O'Malley's power was steadily encroached upon. Finally, in 1593, when her sons, Tibbot Burke and Murrough O'Flaherty, and her half-brother, Donal-na-Piopa, were taken captive by the English governor of Connacht, Sir Richard Bingham, O'Malley sailed to England to petition Elizabeth I for their release. Elizabeth I famously sent O'Malley a list of questions, which she answered and returned to Elizabeth. O'Malley then came to England and met with Elizabeth at Greenwich Palace, wearing a fine gown, the two of them surrounded by guards and the members of Elizabeth's royal Court. O'Malley refused to bow before Elizabeth because she did not recognise her as the Queen of Ireland. It is also rumoured that O'Malley had a dagger concealed about her person, which guards found upon searching her. Elizabeth's courtiers were said to be very upset and worried, but O'Malley informed the queen that she carried it for her own safety. Elizabeth accepted this and, though the dagger was removed from Ní Mháille's possession, did not seem to worry. Some also reported that O'Malley sneezed and was given a lace-edged handkerchief from a noblewoman. She apparently blew her nose into the handkerchief and then threw the piece of cloth into a nearby fireplace, much to the shock of the court. O'Malley bemusedly informed Elizabeth and her court that, in Ireland, a used handkerchief was considered dirty and was destroyed. Their discussion was carried out in Latin, as O'Malley spoke no English and Elizabeth spoke no Irish.

After much talk, the two women came to an agreement. Included in the stipulations for each party, Elizabeth was to remove Sir Bingham from his position in Ireland and O'Malley was to stop supporting the Irish Lords' rebellions. The meeting seemed to have done some good for Richard Bingham was removed from service. However, several of O'Malley's other demands (including the return of the cattle and land that Bingham had stolen from her) remained unmet and within a rather short period of time, Elizabeth sent Bingham back to Ireland. Upon Bingham's return, O'Malley realised that the meeting with Elizabeth had been useless, and went back to supporting Irish rebellions during the Nine Years War. She most likely died at Rockfleet Castle around 1603, the same year as Elizabeth, though the year and place of her death are disputed.

Westport House[edit]

Westport House in County Mayo, Ireland, is home to the 11th Marquess of Sligo and his family, direct descendants of O'Malley. She owned several castles in the West of Ireland and it was on the foundations of one of these that Westport House, was actually built. There is still an area of her original castle in the basement of the House (the dungeons), which is on view to visitors. The original House was built by Colonel John Browne, a Jacobite, who was at the Siege of Limerick, and his wife Maude Bourke. Maude Bourke was O'Malley's great-great granddaughter.

There is a Bronze statue of O'Malley by the artist Michael Cooper – the Marquess of Sligo's brother-in-law – situated on the grounds of Westport House.[32] Westport House also contains a comprehensive exhibition on the life of O'Malley compiled by author Anne Chambers, the World's leading authority on Granuaile.

Cultural impact[edit]

O'Malley's life has inspired musicians, novelists and playwrights to create works based on her adventures.

  • There have been several songs recorded about the Pirate Queen.
    • In 1985 Irish composer Shaun Davey composed a suite of music which is a blend of Classical and Irish Folk Music for singer Rita Connolly, based on the life and times of Grace O'Mally, The album was recorded using a 35 piece chamber orchestra joined by uilleann pipe soloist Liam O'Flynn, acoustic guitar, Irish harp and percussion, and special guest Donal Lunny on bouzouki.
    • In 1986, famed Irish composer and music producer Shaun Davey released a concept album entitled Granuaile that was thematically based on O'Malley's life. The album featured a 22-piece chamber orchestra and his wife, Rita Connolly, on all lead vocals. The duo have performed the work live periodically over the years.
    • The Indulgers' 2000 album "In Like Flynn" includes a song entitled Granuaile centred on the legend of Ní Mháille.[35]
    • The Saw Doctors mention O'Malley in their 1997 song "The Green and Red of Mayo".
    • Patrick Pearse rewrote the Jacobite song Óró sé do bheatha abhaile to figure her as the metaphorical saviour of Ireland, rather than Charles Edward Stuart, as per the original song.
    • Cathie Ryan wrote a song called "Grace O'Malley" for her album Somewhere Along the Road.
    • The Canadian folk-punk band The Dreadnoughts have a song (titled Grace O'Malley) on their 2009 album Victory Square.
    • The world rock band Dead Can Dance have a song on their 2012 album Anastasis titled Return of the She-King, which was inspired by O'Malley.[36]
  • There have been many theater productions written about O'Malley:
    • The escaped prisoner in Lady Gregory's play, "The Rising of the Moon", sings folk ballads about O'Malley and styles himself as a "friend of Granuaile".
    • A musical drama written in 1989, Grannia, story and lyrics by Thomas A. Power and music by Larry Allen, also tells the story of O'Malley from childhood to her meeting with Elizabeth I. It won the 1990 Moss Hart Award.
    • The play Bald Grace by Marki Shalloe debuted at Chicago's Stockyards Theatre in 2005 and was featured at Atlanta's Theatre Gael (America's oldest Irish-American theatre) in 2006.[37]
    • American actress Molly Lyons wrote and starred in a one-woman show titled "A Most Notorious Woman", detailing the life of O'Malley. It has been produced internationally at theatres and festivals.[38]
    • Maggie Cronin's first one woman show, A Most Notorious Woman directed by Paddy Scully, premiered at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1989 and was revised in 1995. The following year it won the Stewart Parker Trust/BBC Radio Drama Award and Maggie was awarded the Tyrone Guthrie Centre Regional Bursary at Annaghmakerrig. The play subsequently toured throughout the UK, Ireland and the US, to much critical acclaim.
    • In 2005, theatre camp Stagedoor Manor premiered a play, The Heart Rising, focusing around a family of Irish immigrants to America. The show included O'Malley as a common thread throughout the many generations of the family.
    • The musical play The Pirate Queen by Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg, Richard Maltby, Jr. and John Dempsey, which debuted at Chicago's Cadillac Palace Theater in October 2006, with American stage actor Stephanie J. Block as Grania (Gráinne). The play is based on Morgan Llywelyn's 1986 novel about O'Malley's life, Grania: She-King of the Irish Seas. Morgan Llewellyn's book, in turn, takes from Anne Chambers' biography, who was credited as consultant. The musical moved to Broadway in March 2007, but closed in June due to lack of interest and less-than-stellar reviews.
    • In June 2007 the Knock School of Irish Dancing did a dance drama based on O'Malley's story. The production was called Grainne O'Malley, The Pirate Queen and was performed by the entire Knock School at the Winspear Center in downtown Edmonton, Alberta (Canada).
  • There have been several books written about O'Malley:
    • James Joyce used the legend of Gráinne Ní Mháille ("her grace o'malice") and the Earl of Howth in chapter 1 of Finnegans Wake, but added the kidnapping of another fictional son, Hilary, to match his Shem and Shaun theme. Christopher/Tristopher is turned into a Luderman (happy Lutheran) and Hilary into a Tristian (sad Christian).
    • Grace O'Malley, Princess and Pirate was a novel written in 1898 by Robert Machray.
    • Romance author Bertrice Small portrays O'Malley in several of her books, particularly in Skye O'Malley, where she is a kinswoman to the main character, who is based largely on her.
    • Alan Gold's book The Pirate Queen: The Story of Grace O'Malley, an Irish Pirate (2004) tells of her life from age 14 until her meeting with Elizabeth I.
    • The Wild Irish: A Novel of Elizabeth I & the Pirate O'Malley, by Robin Maxwell, tells O'Malley's story from birth up until a few years before her death. Although the book focuses on her life, it is highly fictional — the main part of the story is O'Malley telling her life story to Elizabeth I on the night of their meeting.
    • Irish author O.R. Melling portrays O'Malley in her novel The Summer King (part two of the Chronicles of Faerie) as a ghost who haunts Achill Island and later as her live self when heroes Laurel and Ian go back in time to win her as an ally.
    • Morgan Llywelyn's novel "Grania: She-King of the Irish Seas" tells the story of Grace O'Malley.
    • Jon Courtenay Grimwood's novel End of the World Blues features an Irish Bar in Tokyo called Pirate Mary's, named after O'Malley's (supposed) daughter Máirín Ni Mhaille. 'Some reports said she ended on the gallows in Dublin, others that she took James Stuart's offer of a small castle on the Connemara coast. A revisionist version, recorded by the bishop of Santiago, had her repenting of her sins and living out her final years as a nun in Spain...' A main character in the novel, a female London gangster and gang leader, Mary O'Malley is assumed to be one of Máirín Ni Mhaille's descendants.
    • In 2004, A Most Notorious Woman, based upon Maggie Cronin's one woman show by the same name, was published by Lagan Press, Belfast.
    • A children's book titled The Pirate Queen was also written about the subject.
    • In August 2012 writer Tony Lee announced that the fourth book in his 'Heroes & Heroines' series of graphic novels (with Sam Hart) would be called Pirate Queen: The Legend of Grace O'Malley.
  • Since 1948, the Commissioners of Irish Lights have sailed three vessels named Granuaile. Their current sole light tender, commissioned in 2005, is the most modern serving the coasts of Britain and Ireland.[39][40]
  • In Tampa, FL, Grace O'Malley is the inspiration for Ye Loyal Krewe of Grace O'Malley, one of many krewes that participate in the legendary Gasparilla Pirate Festival. Founded in 1992, the women of Ye Loyal Krewe of Grace O'Malley participate in the parades as well many philanthropic activities in the community and throughout the state of Florida. At over 250 members, YLKGOM is noted for being the first all female krewe and members are only accepted through a selective lottery and through legacy from mother to daughter. For the parades as well as their charitable activities, the woman wear Elizabethan dress with strict rules to maintain authenticity of the costumes.[41]
  • In the NCIS episode 'Blowback', one of the arms dealers the NCIS field agents had attempted to track down used the name Grace O'Malley as an alias.
  • Episode 12 Season 3 of the cartoon series Archer features a reference to O'Malley.
  • A low budget dramatisation of the life of Granuaile is being filmed in Galway and Wexford by Loose Gripp productions during summer 2013.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ * O'Dowd, Mary (2008). "O'Malley, Gráinne (fl. 1577–1597)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 
  2. ^ a b (Chambers 2003, p. 39)
  3. ^ a b (Chambers 2003, p. 20)
  4. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 21)
  5. ^ as used to name the ships ILV Granuaile of the Commissioners of Irish Lights
  6. ^ a b (Chambers 2003, p. 36)
  7. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 42)
  8. ^ a b c (Chambers 2003, p. 44)
  9. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 45)
  10. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 63)
  11. ^ (Chambers 2003, pp. 64, 66)
  12. ^ Risdeard / Richard's family tree online
  13. ^ (Chambers 2003, pp. 64–65)
  14. ^ (Chambers 2003, pp. 65–66)
  15. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 67)
  16. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 64)
  17. ^ (Chambers 2003, pp. 53–54)
  18. ^ a b (Chambers 2003, pp. 55–56)
  19. ^ 1593 Petition of Gráinne Ní Mháille to Queen Elizabeth, State Papers Relating to Ireland (on microfilm, originals in the Public Record Office, London) SP 63/171/18
  20. ^ (Chambers 2003, pp. 45, 50)
  21. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 49)
  22. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 45-46. New York: MJF, 2003.
  23. ^ Calendar of State Papers Relating to Ireland (Elizabeth I), vol. 207, p. 5. (London 1860–1912)
  24. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 51)
  25. ^ a b c (Chambers 2003, p. 52)
  26. ^ a b (Chambers 2003, p. 54)
  27. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 56-58. New York: MJF, 2003.
  28. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 56)
  29. ^ (Chambers 2003, p. 53)
  30. ^ Calendar of State Papers Relating to Ireland (James I) 1623, no. 997. (London 1860–1912)
  31. ^ Lambeth Palace Library MS 601, p. 111
  32. ^ 'Westport House A Brief History' Westport House 2008
  33. ^ Hardiman, James (1831). Irish Minstrelsy; or Bardic Remains of Ireland, Volume 2. p. 140. 

    Her name has been frequently used by our Bards, to designate Ireland. Hence our Countrymen have been often called “Sons of old Grana Weal.”

  34. ^ "Granuaile". Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  35. ^ "The Indulgers Music Page". The Indulgers. Retrieved 18 August 2008. 
  36. ^ Reesman. "Interview with Dead Can Dance". The Aquarian. The Aquarian. Retrieved 22 Aug 2012. 
  37. ^ "Current Events: The Marki Shalloe Theatre Festival, October 21 – November 5, 2006". Theatre Gael. Retrieved 8 April 2007. 
  38. ^ http://www.amnwtheplay.com
  39. ^ "Ships in the Irish Lighthouse Service". Commissioners of Irish Lights. Retrieved 10 February 2007. 
  40. ^ Granuaile the latest vessel in the National Seabed Survey
  41. ^ "Ye Loyal Krewe of Grace O'Malley". sites.google.com. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
Sources
  • Chambers, Anne. Granuaile: Ireland's pirate queen Grace O'Malley c. 1530–1603. Dublin: Wolfhound Press. ISBN 0-86327-913-9. 
  • Chambers, Anne (2003). Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley. New York: MJF Books. ISBN 1-56731-858-4; ISBN 978-1-56731-858-6 Check |isbn= value (help).  (This is a second, American edition of the book above)
  • Cook, Judith (2004). Pirate Queen, the life of Grace O'Malley 1530–1603. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-443-1. 
  • Druett, Joan (2000). She Captains: Heroines and Hellions of the Sea. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 
  • Lynch, Patricia (1954). Orla of Burren. Leicester: Knight Books, Brockhampton Press Ltd.  SBN 340-03990-6 (children's literature, historical novel)

Further reading[edit]

  • O'Dowd, Mary (2008). "O'Malley, Gráinne (fl. 1577–1597)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 
  • Schwind, Mona L. (1978). "Nurse to all rebellions: Grace O'Malley and sixteenth-century Connacht". Éire-Ireland 13: 40–61. 

External links[edit]