|Classification and external resources|
Gradenigo's syndrome, also called Gradenigo-Lannois syndrome and petrous apicitis, is a complication of otitis media and mastoiditis involving the apex of the petrous temporal bone. It was first described by Giuseppe Gradenigo in 1904 when he reported a triad of symptoms consisting of periorbital unilateral pain related to trigeminal nerve involvement, diplopia due to sixth nerve palsy and persistent otorrhea, associated with bacterial otitis media with apex involvement of the petrous part of the temporal bone (petrositis). The classical syndrome related to otitis media has become very rare after the antibiotic era.
Other symptoms of the syndrome include:
- retroorbital pain due to pain in the area supplied by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve),
- Bell's palsy caused by involvement of the facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve), and
- otitis media.
Other symptoms can include photophobia, excessive lacrimation, fever, and reduced corneal sensitivity.
The syndrome is usually caused by the spread of an infection into the petrous apex of the temporal bone.
- Devic M, Boucher M, Raveau M (Apr 1966). "Some cases of Gradenigo-Lannois syndrome". Journal de médecine de Lyon 47 (96): 537–547. ISSN 0021-7883. PMID 4286558.
- Bléry M, Chagnon S, Picard A, Babin C (Nov 1980). "Cranial osteitis: a report on four cases, including a Gradenigo-Lannois syndrome (author's transl)". Journal de radiologie 61 (11): 677–681. ISSN 0221-0363. PMID 7452536.
- synd/738 at Who Named It?