Gradualism

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Gradualism, from Latin gradus (“step”), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature.[1] Similar concepts are: uniformitarianism, incrementalism and reformism.


Geology and biology[edit]

In the natural sciences, gradualism is the theory which holds that profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes, often contrasted with catastrophism. The theory was proposed in 1795 by James Hutton, a Scottish physician and gentleman farmer, and was later incorporated into Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism. Tenets from both theories were applied to biology and formed the basis of early evolutionary theory.

Charles Darwin was influenced by Lyell's Principles of Geology, which explained both uniformitarian methodology and theory. Using uniformitarianism, which states that one cannot make an appeal to any force or phenomenon which cannot presently be observed (see catastrophism), Darwin theorized that the evolutionary process must occur gradually, not in saltations, since saltations are not presently observed, and extreme deviations from the usual phenotypic variation would be more likely to be selected against.

Gradualism is often confused with the concept of phyletic gradualism. It is a term coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge to contrast with their model of punctuated equilibrium, which is gradualist itself, but argues that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability (called stasis), which is punctuated by rare instances of branching evolution.[2]

Phyletic gradualism[edit]

Main article: Phyletic gradualism

Phyletic gradualism is a model of evolution which theorizes that most speciation is slow, uniform and gradual.[3] When evolution occurs in this mode, it is usually by the steady transformation of a whole species into a new one (through a process called anagenesis). In this view no clear line of demarcation exists between an ancestral species and a descendant species, unless splitting occurs.

Punctuated gradualism[edit]

Main article: Punctuated gradualism

Punctuated gradualism is a microevolutionary hypothesis that refers to a species that has "relative stasis over a considerable part of its total duration [and] underwent periodic, relatively rapid, morphologic change that did not lead to lineage branching". It is one of the three common models of evolution. While the traditional model of palaeontology, the phylogenetic model, states that features evolved slowly without any direct association with speciation, the relatively newer and more controversial idea of punctuated equilibrium claims that major evolutionary changes don't happen over a gradual period but in localized, rare, rapid events of branching speciation. Punctuated gradualism is considered to be a variation of these models, lying somewhere in between the phyletic gradualism model and the punctuated equilibrium model. It states that speciation is not needed for a lineage to rapidly evolve from one equilibrium to another but may show rapid transitions between long-stable states.

Politics and society[edit]

In politics, gradualism is the hypothesis that social change can be achieved in small, discrete increments rather than in abrupt strokes such as revolutions or uprisings. Gradualism is one of the defining features of political liberalism and reformism.[4] In Machiavellian politics, Congressmen are pushed to espouse gradualism.

In socialist politics and within the socialist movement, the concept of gradualism is frequently distinguished from reformism, with the former insisting that short-term goals need to be formulated and implemented in such a way that they inevitably lead into long-term goals. It is most commonly associated with the libertarian socialist concept of dual power and is seen as a middle way between reformism and revolutionism.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was opposed to the idea of gradualism as a method of eliminating segregation. The government wanted to try to integrate African-Americans and European-Americans slowly into the same society, but many believed it was a way for the government to put off actually doing anything about racial segregation:

This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.
          –Martin Luther King Jr.'s I Have a Dream speech, delivered August 28, 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC

Linguistics and language change[edit]

In linguistics, language change is seen as gradual, the product of chain reactions and subject to cyclic drift.[5] The view that creole languages are the product of catastrophism is heavily disputed.

Morality[edit]

Gradualism has also been used in a religious sense, especially in Catholicism (specifically, in ethics and moral theology), to describe the fact that certain individuals and families that make up a parish or community may be living anywhere along a sort of spectrum or line as concerns a state free of serious sin and error (living, or not, in the "state of grace", able to receive the sacraments, specifically, the Eucharist). People can still not be living morally acceptable lifestyles, but even these people's lives and relationships may have some merit and elements of good, even very good, relationships, such as sacrificial love and consistent respect. It recognizes that virtues are not all or nothing propositions, and that elements of good may be found in otherwise morally unacceptable situations.

This is applied most often to the debate over whether Catholics who were divorced and then remarried civilly, without a declaration of nullity of the first sacramental marriage, can receive the Eucharist.[6] It is also being used to evaluate the church's stand regarding a more positive and welcoming view of GLBTs and their relationships, and their civil unions and marriages and adoptions of children. A final area where gradualism is being applied by the church is its approach toward couples who cohabitate before marriage and/or engage in premarital sexual relations. This term should not be confused with moral relativism, which is a belief that no, or very few, things exist which are always and everywhere considered good or bad.[7]

Other types of gradualism[edit]

Contradictorial gradualism is the paraconsistent treatment of fuzziness developed by Lorenzo Peña which regards true contradictions as situations wherein a state of affairs enjoys only partial existence.

Gradualism in social change implemented through reformist means is a moral principle to which the Fabian Society is committed. In a more general way, reformism is the assumption that gradual changes through and within existing institutions can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic system and political structures; and that an accumulation of reforms can lead to the emergence of an entirely different economic system and form of society than present-day capitalism. This hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolution is necessary for fundamental structural changes to occur.

In the terminology of NWO related speculations, gradualism refers to the gradual implementation of a totalitarian world government.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Brian McGowran. (2008). Biostratigraphy: Microfossils and Geological Time. Cambridge University Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0521048170
  2. ^ Eldredge, Niles, and S. J. Gould (1972). "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism." In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper and Company, pp. 82-115.
  3. ^ Eldredge, N. and S. J. Gould (1972). "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper. p. 84.
  4. ^ Paul Blackledge (2013). "Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today". International Socialist Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Henri Wittmann (1983). "Les réactions en chaîne en morphologie diachronique." Actes du Colloque de la Société internationale de linguistique fonctionnelle 10.285-92.[1]
  6. ^ Allen, John (October 8, 2014). "The synod's key twist: The sudden return of gradualism". Crux. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
  7. ^ http://press.vatican.va/content/salastampa/en/bollettino/pubblico/2014/10/13/0751/03037.html