A Graffito (plural "graffiti"), in an archaeological context, is a deliberate mark made by scratching or engraving on a large surface such as a wall. The marks may form an image or writing. The term is not usually used of the engraved decoration on small objects such as bones, which makes up a large part of the Art of the Upper Paleolithic, but might be used of the engraved images, usually of animals, that are commonly found in caves, though much less well known than the cave paintings of the same period; often the two are found in the same caves. In archaeology, the term may or may not include the more common modern sense of an "unauthorised" addition to a building or monument. A decorative technique of partially scratching off a top layer of plaster or some other material to reveal a differently coloured material beneath is more usually known as graffito.
Listings of graffito
Basic categories of graffiti in archaeology are:
- Written graffiti, or informal inscriptions.
- Images in graffiti,
- Ostraca type graffiti, with pictures.
- Complex, merged, or multiple category graffiti.
Ancient Egypt graffitos
The original history of Ancient Egypt was derived from inscriptions, literature, (Books of the Dead), pharaonic historical records, and reliefs, both from temple statements, and numerous individual objects, pharaonic, or for the Egyptian citizenry. Twentieth century developments led to finding less common sources of the puzzle of information leading to the intricacies of the interrelationships of the pharaoh, his appointees, and the citizenry.
Three minor sources have helped link the major pieces of interrelationships in Ancient Egypt. Ostraca, scarab artifacts, and numerous temple, or quarry, etc., sources have helped fill in minor pieces of the complex dealings in Ancient Egypt. The reliefs, and writings with the reliefs, are often supplemented with a graffito, often in hieratic, and discovered in locations not commonly seen, like a door jamb, hallway, entrance way, or the side or reverse of an object.
Late (Roman) Demotic graffito
Very Late Egyptian Demotic was used only for ostraca, mummy labels, subscriptions to Greek texts, and graffiti. The last dated example of Egyptian Demotic is from the Temple of Isis at Philae, dated to 11 December 452 CE. See Demotic "Egyptian".
Deir el-Bahri religious graffiti
Because of pilgrims, to religious sites, there are ample examples of the Graffito (archaeology) at the Egyptian site of Deir el-Bahri. The pilgrims were of a semi-educated class, and are responsible for some of these graffiti pieces.
Malta temple graffito: Mnajdra
Graffiti in ancient Athens
Large quantities of graffiti have been found in Athens during excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and nearly 850 of these were catalogued by Mabel Lang in 1976. These include a variety of different types of graffiti, such as abecedaria, kalos inscriptions, insults, marks of ownership, commercial notations, dedications, Christian inscriptions, messages, lists and pictures. They date from the eighth century BC through to the late Roman period.
Medieval church graffiti
- Parkinson, R. Cracking Codes, the Rosetta Stone, and Decipherment, Richard Parkinson, with W. Diffie, M. Fischer, and R.S. Simpson, (University of California Press), c. 1999. Section: page 92, "Graffiti" from a temple at Deir el-Bahri. British Museum pieces, EA 1419, 47962, 47963, 47971.
- M. Lang, 1976. The Athenian Agora Volume XXI: Graffiti and Dipinti. Princeton: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
- Campion, Matthew (2011). "Walls have ears, noses, ships". Cornerstone 32 (2): 28–32.
- Norfolk medieval graffiti survey
- Ceram, C.W. The March of Archaeology, C.W.Ceram, translated from the German, Richard and Clara Winston, (Alfred A. Knopf, New York), c 1958.
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