Graham Steell murmur

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A Graham Steell murmur is a heart murmur typically associated with pulmonary regurgitation. It is a high pitched early diastolic murmur heard best at the left sternal edge in the second intercostal space with the patient in full inspiration.

The murmur is heard due to a high velocity regurgitant flow across the pulmonary valve; this is usually a consequence of pulmonary hypertension. The Graham Steell murmur is often heard in patients with chronic cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart disease) as a result of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

It is named after Graham Steell.[1][2]


  1. ^ McArthur JD, Sukumar IP, Munsi SC, Krishnaswami S, Cherian G (October 1974). "Reassessment of Graham Steell murmur using platinum electrode technique". Br Heart J 36 (10): 1023–7. doi:10.1136/hrt.36.10.1023. PMC 1020054. PMID 4433433. 
  2. ^ Fraser AG, Weston CF (January 1991). "The Graham Steell murmur: eponymous serendipity?". J R Coll Physicians Lond 25 (1): 66–70. PMID 2023159.