Grand Canyon National Park
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|Grand Canyon National Park|
View of the North Rim of the Grand Canyon
|Location||Coconino and Mohave counties, Arizona, United States|
|Nearest city||Fredonia, Arizona (North Rim)
Tusayan, Arizona (South Rim)
|Area||1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 492,608 ha; 4,926.08 km2)|
|Established||February 26, 1919|
|Visitors||4,298,178 (in 2011)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
|Criteria||vii, viii, ix, x|
|Designated||1979 (3rd session)|
|State Party||United States|
|Region||Europe and North America|
Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park. Named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979, the park is located in Arizona. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. The park covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 492,608 ha; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties.
Grand Canyon National Park was named as an official national park in 1919, but the landmark had been well known to Americans for over thirty years prior. In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt visited the site and said: "The Grand Canyon fills me with awe. It is beyond comparison—beyond description; absolutely unparalleled through-out the wide world... Let this great wonder of nature remain as it now is. Do nothing to mar its grandeur, sublimity and loveliness. You cannot improve on it. But what you can do is to keep it for your children, your children's children, and all who come after you, as the one great sight which every American should see."
Despite Roosevelt's enthusiasm and his strong interest in preserving land for public use, the Grand Canyon was not immediately designated a national park. The first bill to create Grand Canyon National Park was introduced in 1882 by then-Senator Benjamin Harrison, which would have made Grand Canyon National Park the nation's second, after Yellowstone National Park. Harrison unsuccessfully reintroduced his bill in 1883 and 1886; after his election to the presidency, he established the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve in 1893. Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon Game Preserve by proclamation on 28 November 1906 and Grand Canyon National Monument in 1908. Further Senate bills to establish the site as a national park were introduced and defeated in 1910 and 1911, before the Grand Canyon National Park Act was finally signed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. The National Park Service, established in 1916, assumed administration of the park.
The creation of the park was an early success of the conservation movement. Its national park status may have helped thwart proposals to dam the Colorado River within its boundaries. (Later, the Glen Canyon Dam would be built upriver.) In 1975, the former Marble Canyon National Monument, which followed the Colorado River northeast from the Grand Canyon to Lee's Ferry, was made part of Grand Canyon National Park. In 1979, UNESCO declared the park a World Heritage Site.
The Grand Canyon, including its extensive system of tributary canyons, is valued for its combination of size, depth, and exposed layers of colorful rocks dating back to Precambrian times. The canyon itself was created by the incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries after the Colorado Plateau was uplifted, causing the Colorado River system to develop along its present path.
The primary public areas of the park are the North and South Rims of the Grand Canyon itself. The rest of the park is extremely rugged and remote, although many places are accessible by pack trail and backcountry roads. Only the Navajo Bridge near Page connects the rims by road in Arizona; this journey can take around five hours by car. Otherwise, the two rims of the Canyon are connected via the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge and the Hoover Dam.
The park headquarters are at Grand Canyon Village, not far from the south entrance to the park, near one of the most popular viewpoints. Park accommodations are operated by Xanterra Parks and Resorts.
The South Rim is more accessible than the North Rim; most visitors to the park come to the South Rim, arriving on Arizona State Route 64. The highway enters the park through the South Entrance, near Tusayan, Arizona, and heads eastward, leaving the park through the East Entrance. Interstate 40 provides access to the area from the south. From the north, U.S. Route 89 connects Utah, Colorado, and the North Rim to the South Rim. Overall, some thirty miles of the South Rim are accessible by road.
The Grand Canyon Village is located at the north end of U.S. Route 180, coming from Flagstaff. It is a full-service community, including lodging, fuel, food, souvenirs, a hospital, churches, and access to trails and guided walks and talks.
Several lodging facilities are available along the South Rim. Hotels and other lodging include: El Tovar in the village, Bright Angel Lodge, Kachina Lodge, Thunderbird Lodge, Maswik Lodge, Yavapai Lodge and Phantom Ranch, located on the canyon floor. There is also an RV Park named Trailer Village. All of these facilities are managed by Xanterra Parks & Resorts.
A variety of activities at the South Rim cater to park visitors. The South Rim Drive (35 miles (56 km) is a driving tour split into two segments. The western drive to Hermit's Point is 8 miles (13 km) with several overlooks along the way, including Mohave Point, Hopi Point, and the Powell Memorial. From March to December, access to Hermit's Rest is restricted to the free shuttle provided by the Park Service. The eastern portion to Desert View is 25 miles (40 km), and is open to private vehicles year round.
Walking tours include the Rim Trail, which runs west from the Pipe Creek viewpoint for about 8 miles (13 km) of paved road, followed by 7 miles (11 km) unpaved to Hermit's Rest. Hikes can begin almost anywhere along this trail, and a shuttle can return hikers to their point of origin. Mather Point, the first view most people reach when entering from the South Entrance, is a popular place to begin.
Private canyon flyovers are provided by helicopters and small airplanes out of Las Vegas, Phoenix, and the Grand Canyon National Park Airport. Due to a crash in the 1990s, scenic flights are no longer allowed to fly within 1,500 feet (460 m) of the rim within the Grand Canyon National Park. Several companies offer flights that land 3,500 feet (1,100 m) in the Grand Canyon in Hualapai Indian territory.
On the North Rim there are few roads, however, there are some notable vehicle accessible lookout points including Point Imperial, Roosevelt Point, and Cape Royal. Mule rides are also available that go to a variety of places including several thousand feet down into the canyon.
Many visitors to the North Rim choose to make use of the variety of hiking trails including the Wildforss Trail, Uncle Jim's Trail, the Transept Trail, and the North Kaibab Trail which can be followed all the way across the canyon to the Bright Angel Trail on the South side.
The US government had halted development of a 1.6 million acres area including the National Park from 1966 to 2009, during the "Bennett Freeze", because of an ownership dispute between Hopi and Navajo.
In 2007, a skywalk over the western rim was completed which has attracted" thousands of visitors a year, most from Las Vegas". That land is owned by the Hualapai tribe, which co-developed the site.
In 2014, a developer announced plans to build a multimedia complex on the canyon's rim called the Grand Canyon Escalade. On 420 acres there would be shops, an IMAX theater, hotels and an RV park. A gondola would enable easy visits to the canyon floor where a "riverwalk" of "connected walkways, an eatery, a tramway station, a seating area and a wastewater package plant" would be situated. Navajo Nation President Ben Shelly has indicated agreement; the tribe would have to invest $65 million for road, water and communication facilities for the $1 billion complex. One of the developers is Navajo and has cited an 8 to 18 percent share of the gross revenue for the tribe as an incentive.
Grand Canyon Association
The Grand Canyon Association (GCA) is the National Park Service's official nonprofit partner. It raises private funds to benefit Grand Canyon National Park by operating retail shops and visitor centers within the park, and providing educational opportunities about the natural and cultural history of the region.
A rockfall as seen from the North Rim.
- "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Yanagihara, Wendy; Denniston, Jennifer (2008). Grand Canyon National Park. Lonely Planet. p. 95. ISBN 1741044839.
- Pryputniewicz, Vanya; Peterson, Peter. "Grand Canyon National Park Presents Living History Performance of President Theodore Roosevelt". nps.gov. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Grand Canyon Coin Introduced" (PDF). United States Mint. 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
The Grand Canyon National Park Quarter is the fourth coin of 2010 in the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program. The reverse image features a view of the granaries above the Nankoweap Delta in Marble Canyon near the Colorado River.
- South Rim, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona; National Park Service; US Government Printing Office; 1972
- Rand McNally; National Park Buide; Michael Frome; Rand McNally & Company, Chicago; 1970; pg 47
- Rand McNally, Road Atlas, United States, Canada, Mexico; 2010
- "How far into the Canyon does helicopter tours land?".
- Kate Linthicum (November 5, 2009). "Trying to be rebuild after 40 frozen years". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Adam Nagourney (3 December 2014). "Where 2 Rivers Meet, Visions for Grand Canyon Clash". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Chiara Sottile and Kristen Dahlgren (8 February 2015). "Grand Canyon Development Plan Sparks Dispute Among Navajo". NBC News. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
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- Official website
- Grand Canyon National Park Lodge
- Grand Canyon National Park at DMOZ
- Interactive Google Maps Hiking Guide
- Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) No. AZ-6, "Mather Point Overlook, South Entrance Road, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ", 23 photos, 3 measured drawings, 2 data pages