Grand Duchy of Hesse
|Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine|
|Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein|
|State of the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and the German Empire|
Gott, Ehre, Vaterland
"God, Honour, Fatherland"
"Song of Hesse"
The Grand Duchy of Hesse within the German Empire.
|-||1821–1829||Carl Grolman (first)|
|-||1906–1918||Christian Ewald (last)|
|Historical era||Napoleonic Wars / WWI|
|-||Established||13 August 1806|
|-||German Revolution||9 November 1918|
|-||1910||7,688.36 km² (2,968 sq mi)|
|Density||166.8 /km² (431.9 /sq mi)|
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or, between 1806 and 1816, Grand Duchy of Hesse (German: Großherzogtum Hessen)—as it was also known after 1816—was a member state of the German Confederation from 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to a Grand Duchy, until 1918, when all the German monarchies were overthrown. Before 1866, its northern neighbour was its former sister Landgraviate, since 1803 an Electorate, of Hesse-Kassel – for this reason, this state was sometimes colloquially known as Hesse-Darmstadt.
Hesse-Darmstadt's was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Rapidly expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse-Darmstadt became an amalgamation of smaller German states, such as the Electorate of Cologne. The legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse-Darmstadt "from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, absolute monarch." During the Congress of Vienna it was forced to cede the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt had received in 1803, to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, Hesse-Darmstadt received some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz.
In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy (Upper Hesse) became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main (Starkenburg and Rhenish Hesse) remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire. The last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig (a grandson of Queen Victoria and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia), was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, and the state was renamed the People's State of Hesse (Volksstaat Hessen).
The majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area (Rhine-Province) and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau to form the new state of Hesse following the Second World War. Excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine (Rhenish Hesse), which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. (Bad) Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim. After the vote, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim district to Heilbronn one in 29 April 1951. This change to Heilbronn was carried out on May 1, 1952.
Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the:
- Main-Neckar Railway with Frankfurt and Baden
- Main-Weser Railway with Frankfurt and Kurhessen
- Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway with the Free City of Frankfurt
In addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the privately owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. Finally, in 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was finally merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company in 1897.
Subdivisions of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces:
- Starkenburg (capital at Darmstadt): Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main.
- Rhenish Hesse (capital at Mainz): Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna.
- Upper Hesse (capital at Giessen): North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt.
- Constitution of Hesse (in German)
- Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918
- Großherzogtum Hessen (Kreise und Gemeinden) 1910
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