Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich of Russia

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Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich
AndrejVladimirovitsj.jpg
Spouse Mathilde Kschessinska
Issue Prince Vladimir Romanovsky-Krasinsky
House House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich
Mother Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Born (1879-05-14)14 May 1879
Tsarskoye Selo
Died 30 October 1956(1956-10-30) (aged 77)
Paris

Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich of Russia (Russian: Андрей Владимирович; (14 May 1879 – 30 October 1956) was a son of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, a grandson of Emperor Alexander II and a first cousin of Nicholas II, Russia’s last Tsar.

Grand Duke Andrei followed a military career and graduated from the Alexandrovskaya Military Law academy in 1905. He occupied different military positions during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II, but with no particular distinction. He became senator in 1911 and was appointed Major General in the Russian Army in 1915. In 1900, he began an affair with the famous ballerina Mathilde Kschessinska, the third grand duke to fall for her. He took part in World War I, but was away from real combat spending most of the conflict at Russia's headquarters or in idle time in Saint Petersburg.

In February 1917, shortly before the fall of the Russian monarchy, Grand Duke Andrei left Saint Petersburg joining his mother in Kislovodsk. He remained in the Caucasus for the next three years. After the October Revolution he was briefly arrested with his brother Grand Duke Boris, but they escaped. He departed revolutionary Russia in March 1920, being the last grand duke to leave for exile. In 1921, he married his long time mistress Mathilde Kschessinska and recognized her son as his. The couple lived in the South of France until 1929 when they moved permanently to Paris where Kschessinska opened a ballet school. After World War II, Grand Duke Andrei lived under reduced circumstances. At his death, age 77, he was the last surviving Russian grand duke born in Imperial Russia.

Early life[edit]

From left to right: Grand Duke Andrei, Grand Duke Kirill, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, Grand Duchess Elena and Grand Duke Boris.
Grand Duke Andrei (in the white uniform) with his brothers Kirill and Boris Vladimirovich.

Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich of Russia was born on 14 May [O.S. 2 May] 1879 in Tsarskoye Selo, at his parents country residence, the Vladimir Villa.[1][2] He was, the youngest of the four Vladimirovich sons; a sister followed him few years later and the eldest of his brother died in early childhood.[3] His father, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, a brother of Tsar Alexander III of Russia, was a renowned patron of the arts.[4] Andrei’s mother, Grand Duchess, Maria Pavlovna, née a Princess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, was one of the greatest hostesses of Russian society.[5] Both parents doted on their four surviving children: Andrei, his two eldest brothers, Kirill and Boris, and their younger sister, Grand Duchess Elena.[4] The children were educated at home.[2]

Raised by British nannies, English was Andrei's first language.[6] He also learned Russian, French and German. His father, who loved art, assigned Léon Bakst as a drawing master for the children.[7] Grand Duke Andrei grew up on opulence. The family main residence was the Vladimir Palace in Saint Petersburg, but as his father preferred country life, they spent the greater part of the year at the Vladimir Villa, a mansion in Tsarskoye Selo, returning to Saint Petersburg during the winter. [8] The children also accompanied their parents in many of their travels abroad to France, Germany and Italy, staying in Coburg, Paris, Berlin and Schwerin.[9]

Sitting: Grand Duke Kirill, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and Grand Duke Boris. Standing in the back : Grand Duchess Elena and Grand Duke Andrei.

Following Romanov tradition, Andrei was destined to follow a military career. While his eldest brother, Kirill, chose the Imperial navy, Andrei and his brother Boris joined the infantry. Andrei began his military service in August 1898 as lieutenant in the Guards Horse-Artillery Brigade. In 1899 he was appointed adjutant, graduating in 1902 from the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. He then studied law at the Alexandrovskaya Military Law Academy at Potseluev bridge, graduating with honors in 1905.[10] He was subsequently listed by the military-judicial department. The military law Academy assigned him to translate foreign military criminal statutes. He was appointed Lieutenant in 1902, captain in 1906, colonel on 18 April 1910.[11] In March 1911 he was appointed senator. From 1911 to 26 February 1914, he commanded the Life Guards 2nd Don Cossack artillery. In spite of his appointments, Grand Duke Andrei did not have much interest in his military career. Instead, he pursued a life of leisure enjoying the privileges provided by his royal status and wealth.

Ménage à trois[edit]

Grand Duke Andrei in 1900, the year he met Mathilde Kschessinska.

Grand Duke Andrei was tall, shy and good looking.[12] Efforts to made him settle down with a bride of royal blood were unsuccessful. He was very close to his mother, particularly after the death of his father in 1911, and manipulated her to his advantage, which was resented by his siblings. His pliable personality made him more popular within the Romanov family than his siblings.[13] He was a good friend of his cousin Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, who was a year older.

Mathilde Kschessinska and Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich holding her son.

In February 1900 Grand Duke Andrei was invited by his brothers, Grand Dukes Kirill and Boris, to a dinner party at the house of Mathilde Kschessinska.[14] Kschessinska, the Prima Ballerina Absoluta of the Mariensky Theater, was the eldest among the three most prominent dancers of her generation at the Imperial Russian Ballet with Anna Pavlova and Tamara Karsavina. Grand Duke Andrei sit next to his hostess during the dinner, but accidentally split a glass of red wine on her. Mathilde, attracted to the young grand duke, seven years her junior, took the incident as good omen.[14] Age 28, Mathilde had been the mistress of Tsar Nicholas II when he was heir to the throne.[3] Their two year relationship ended with Nicholas II engagement to his future wife. [15]Mathilde was ambitious and eager to maintain her close relationship with the Romanovs.[14] She subsequently began a long time affair with Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia, Nicholas and Andrei's first cousin once remove. As she was not in love with Sergei, but enjoyed his company and protection, Mathilde pursed a relationship with Grand Duke Andrei, the third Romanov to fall under her spell.[14] By July 1900 they became lovers, traveling together that summer to Biarritz and Paris. [16] In the Autumn 1901 they went together to Italy visiting Venice, Padua, Florence and Rome. Grand Duke Sergei tolerated their affair, remaining a close and loyal friend to the famous ballerina, but the relationship between the two grand dukes was tense.[1] They tried to avoid each other and being civil while sharing the same woman for almost two decades.

Mathilde and Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich with their son.

The ménage à trois complicated further as Mathilde became pregnant while being the mistress of both grand dukes. The baby was conceived around mid September 1901, before her trip to Italy. On 18 June 1902, Mathilde gave birth to a son.[1] Both grand dukes were at first convinced they were the child’s father.[17] [18]After the Revolution, Kschessinska and Grand Duke Andrei maintained that Andrei was the father. The child, who became known within the family by his nickname, Vova, received the name and patronymic of Vladimir Sergeivich, although no surname was made public until 1911. The birth certificate showed Sergei as the father, and he believed he was. Grand Duke Sergei was devoted to the child looking after mother and son until his exile and subsequent assassination at the fall of the Russian monarchy.[19] The question of Vladimir’s paternity remains unresolved. However, most sources attribute the paternity to Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich, who the child resembled.[19][1]

A Russian Grand Duke[edit]

Grand Duke Andrei in his youth.

In 1903 Grand Duke Andrei purchased his own palace. The building, located at 28 English embarkment, had belonged previously to Baron Paul von Derbis, a Russian railway magnate.[20] [21] After the Baron's death, his son inherited the mansion and in 1889, entrusted the architect Alexander Krasovsky (1848-1918), who would work for Nicholas II in the Winter Palace, with remodeling it in the Florentine style. As the mansion upkeep was expensive, it was sold to Grand Duke Andrei for 400 thousand rubles. Grand Duke Andrei seldom lived there. He did not make significant changes not even bothering to replace the von Derbis coats of arms and monograms with his own.[20][21]However, he had some of the rooms redecorated.[22] He used the building to entertain offering concerts, plays and dinners and as gathering place for artist, particularly from the ballet world . [21] [23] The palace has survived to the present. Since 1959, it houses at registry office for weddings.

Grand Duke Andrei neither could live together openly with Mathilda nor there was a chance of contracting a morganatic marriage with her. Only in their trips to Western Europe they enjoy enough freedom to live as a couple, but even abroad they were forced to keep appearances. [16]The couple always had to travel with his Aide-de-camp, Feodor von Kube, and when Grand Duke Andrei was invited to events, Mathilda could not join him.

Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich of Russia in 1907.

As a member of the Russian Imperial family, Grand Duke Andrei took some duties of representation. He was honorary member of the Russian Imperial Fire prevention society and chairman of the committee for the construction of a memorial to Emperor Alexander II in St Petersburg. In 1907 he went to Bulgaria]] on an official visit with his father. In 1911 he visited Ferdinand I of Bulgaria for a second time representing Russia. In 1911 he was appointed senator.

In the summer of 1912 Grand Duke Andrei fell ill with bronchitis.[21] Fearing the unset of tuberculosis, he was sent to recuperate in the Crimea, staying in a palace owned by his cousin Nicholas Nicholaievich jr.[21] His convalesce was long and he went to Saint-Maurice, Switzerland and to the South of France to recuperate. [21]He liked the French Riviera in particular and in the Spring of 1913 he bought a property for Mathilda in Cap-d'Ail.[21] The villa, located on the edge of a mountain looking the sea, was named Alam, Mathilde's nicknamed, Mala, spelled backwards.[24] At his return to Russia, Andrei Vladimirovich took part on the 300 anniversary celebrations of the Romanov family. [25]Villa Alam was completely remodeled and Andrei and Mathilde returned there in the spring 1914, hoping to visit it every year in spring. However, they were able to comeback only six years later after the war and having escaped with their lives the Russian revolution.

War and revolution[edit]

Grand Duke Andrei during the war with a group of officers at Stavka, in Baranovichi 1914-1915. The high command of the armed forces was later moved to Mogilev in 8 August 1915 due to German occupation.

With the outbreak of World War I, Grand Duke Andrei joined the staff at the headquarters of the Northwestern front fighting against Germany.[21] [15]It was a relatively safe position away from combat.[26] On 7 May 1915, he became Commander of the Horse Guard Artillery brigade.[15] This did not mean much as the batteries were scattered in many places and were not a united command. [15]He was made Major-General on August 15, 1915 and served as chief of the 130th Infantry Regiment of Kherson. His military duties were ill defined and he was able to spend a lot of idle time in St Petersburg retaking his social life with Kschessinska so much so that Empress Alexandra complained about it to Nicholas II. [21]

By 1916, Grand Duke Andrei joined other members of his family in political intrigues against the Empress who was in charge of the government in St Petersburg while Nicholas II was away at Russia's war military headquarters.[27][28] In December 1916, the Assassination of Rasputin, in which Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich and Prince Felix Yusupov took part, divided the Romanov family further.[29] Grand Duke Andrei joined many of his relatives asking for clemency for the culprits.[15][28] As Andrei's ambitious mother intrigued against Empress Alexandra, Nicholas II ordered Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna to leave St Petersburg for a time. [28]After a short personal interview with Nicholas II, on 16 January 1917, Grand Duke Andrei left for Kislovodsk, a spa resort town in the Caucasus. He arrived there on January 21.[28] His mother followed him a month later claiming health reasons.[28] Andrei Vladimirovich and his mother were in Kislovodsk when Nicholas II was forced to abdicate at the outbreak of the February revolution. [30]

The diaries of Grand Duke Andrei, written while he was in the army in the North-Eastern Front (1914-1915) and in Petrograd (1916-1917), have survived at the State Archives of the Russian Federation. They have been published, giving a detailed description of the period between the murder of Rasputin and Nicholas II's abdication. [21]

In July 1917, Mathilde Kschessinska and her son escaped the disturbance in St Petersburg joining Andrei in Kislovodsk.[31] However, they could not live together as Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna was reluctant to acknowledge their presence.[32] Andrei found separate living arrangements for them while he settled in a different villa with his brother Grand Duke Boris, who arrived in September.[33] During the period of the Provisional government Grand Duke Andrei, his brother and mother lived mostly undisturbed in Kieslovdosk protected by local Cossack.[32] In the summer of 1918, the Bolsheviks tightened their grip on the members of the former Imperial family. They ordered the assassination of those they have imprisoned, including Tsar Nicholas II and his immediate family. Seventeen of the fifty two Romanovs living in Russia were murdered during the red terror.[34]

Escaping the Bolsheviks[edit]

The Bolsheviks arrested Grand Duke Andrei and his brother Boris on the night 7 August 1918, after a systematic search of their villa.[31] They were taken to Pyatigorsk with other prisoners and detained at the state hotel of that city.[31]Commissar Leshcinsky, the Bolshevik commander sent to execute them, had once been a struggling artist in Paris before the war whom Boris had helped buying some of his paintings. The Bolshevik recognized him and saved Boris and Andrei's from the firing squad.[35] Risking his own life, Leshcinsky returned the two grand dukes to their villa the next day. [36][35]No longer safe, as they would probably be arrested again, the two grand dukes escaped to the surrounding mountains with Andrei's aide the camp, Colonel Feodor Kube, on 26 August 1918. [37]They lived in hiding for almost five weeks, moving from village to village under protection of the Kabarda tribes, sheltered by Colonel Andrei Shkuro and his band of loyal Cossacks. Kislovodsk was captured by the White Army and the Bolsheviks fled in late September, allowing the two brothers to return to the city. On the evening, September 23, Grand Duke Andrei, his brother Boris and Colonel Kube returned to the city on horseback, accompanied by Kabardian nobles who had protected them. During their time hiding in the mountains, Andrei had let his beard overgrown. He so closely resembled his first cousin Tsar Nicholas II, that he was mistaken to be the Tsar.

Under threat of the Red advance, the small group of Romanovs and their entourage were forced to flee two days later, in constant fear for their lives. [38] The white General Viktor Pokrovsky advised them to move to Anapa in the south. Pokrovsky arranged a train and an escort of his own men and they left Piatigorsk on 19 October, with their own companions and other local refugees. At Touapse, a trawler was waiting.[39] They docked at Anapa, a coastal city on the Black Sea, on 4 November 1918.[40] From there it was easy to escape abroad by boat. However, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna was determined to remain in Russia hoping that the White movement would prevail and Andrei's brother, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, would be installed as Tsar. It was suggested that Grand Duke Andrei should join the White army of General Anton Denikin, but the grand duchess opposed the idea, saying that members of the Romanov family should not take part in Russia's civil war. [41]

Against their mother wishes, Grand Duke Boris left with his future wife Zinaida Rashevskaya in March 1919. [41] On March 29, Admiral Edward Hobart Seymour , commander of the British fleet in the Black Sea, offered to take Grand Duke Andrei and his mother to Constantinople, but Grand Duches Maria Pavlovna again flatly refused. After spending seven months in Anapa, they moved back to Kislovodsk on June 7, as the city had been liberated by the White Army.[42] They remained there until December 1919. By Christmas, the red army was to retake Kislovodsk and Grand Duke Andrei, with his mother and their entourage, decided to go to Novorossiysk, on the eastern coast of the Black sea where General Peter Wrangel had kept the reds away.[43] From there it was easier to go abroad. One day before they departure from Kislovodsk, Kube, Adrei's faithful adjutant died of typhus.[43]

The group of refugees arrived in Novorossiysk on January 17.[43] They lived in their railway car parked in the station.[44] By February it was obvious that the whites had lost the civil war. General Wrangel warned them that the situation was beyond hope and they decided to leave.[38] They departed on the Italian liner Semiramisa bound for Venice on March 3, 1920. Grand Duke Andrei and his mother were the last Romanovs to leave Russia for exile.[15][45]

Exile[edit]

The Vladimirovich siblings in exile.

Once in Venice, Grand Duke Andrei took a train to the South of France acompanying his mother to Cannes.[38] Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna died few months later in September 1920. During her illness in Contrexéville, Grand Duke Andrei was reunited for the first time in exile with his three siblings.[46] At her mother's death the last obstacle for Grand Duke Andrei to marry Mathilde Kchessinska was lifted. Andrei asked permission to marry Kchessinska to his brother Grand Duke Kirill and to Empress Maria Fedorovna, widow of Tsar Alexander III, the senior members of the Romanov family. Both gave their consent.[47] Kchessinska, who was of Polish descent, was catholic, but they were married in a simple ceremony in the Russian Orthodox Church of St Michael Archangel in Cannes on 30 January 1921 .[47] [15]Grand Duke Andrei also claimed paternity of Kchessinska's son, Prince Vladimir Romanovsky-Krasinsky (30 June 1902 – 23 April 1974). In 1924, Grand Duke Andrei's eldest brother, Kirill, proclaimed himself as Tsar in exile. Grand Duke Andrei supported his brother claims. Grand Duke Kirill granted to Mathilde and her son, the titles of Princess and Prince Romanovsky-Krasinsky, with the treatment of Serene Highness.

During their first years in exile, Grand Duke Andrei and his wife were in better economic circumstances that many of the other Romanovs. Tsar Nicholas II had made his relatives sold their properties abroad; repatriating their fortune to Russia during the war, but Grand Duke Andrei had kept Villa Alam in Cap-d'Ail because the property was under Mathilda's name. [48][49] To have cash flow and keep his standards of living, Andrei sold the rubies jewel collection he had inherited from his mother and he mortgaged Villa Alam.[49][48] For the next years, they settled there entertaining lavishly and living in style. They traveled frequently to Paris and Grand Duke Andrei was also active in philanthropic work raising funds for Russian refugees.[48]

In 1928 Grand Duke Andrei became one of the few members of the Romanov family to believe the claim of Anna Anderson, the best known of several impostors who claimed to be Tsar Nicholas II's youngest daughter, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia.[50] Anderson was on the eve of her first trip to the United states when Grand Duke Andrei visited her once in January 1928. After their meeting, he said it was "an unshakable recognition ... Her face is striking in its profound sadness, but when she smiles, it is she, it is Anastasia, without a doubt."[51] Although he had not been particularly close to Nicholas II and his family, Grand Duke Andrei had met the real Anastasia in family events through the years and while in service as aide-de-camp to Nicholas II. Grand Duke Kirill protested his brother support to Anderson and discourage his intervention in the case. In later years, Grand Duke Andrei recounted his opinion.

Grand Duke Andrei and his wife liked to gamble.[49] Mathilde dissipated their remaining wealth, including her own valuable jewel collection, at the gambling tables of Montecarlo - the remainder was sequestered by the crash of 1929.[49] [52] With their resources completely depleted, they sold their house in Cap-d'Ail on 4 February 1929 moving the next day to Paris.[53] They settled in Villa Monitor in Paris 16th arrodissement.[52] To provide for the family, Mathilde Kschessinska opened a ballet school in 1929 in a studio close to their house. Her students included some of the greatest classical ballet dancers of all time: Margot Fonteyn, Alicia Markova, André Eglevsky, Tatiana Riabouchinska and Tamara Toumanova.[49]

Last years[edit]

During the 1930s the ballet school of Princess Krasinsky prospered, allowing Grand Duke Andrei and his family to have a comfortable, yet modest life. He helped with the financial part of running the school, but continued to be afflicted by ill health due to his weak lungs.[54] Although uninterested in politics, he remained actively supporting a number of organization; he headed the Guard association, the Russian Historical and Genealogical Society in Paris and was an honorary chairman of the union of Izmaylovsky Regiment.[55] Andrei Vladimirovich also kept in touch with his Romanov relatives particularly with his brothers and many of his cousins like: Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna jr and Prince Gabriel Constantinovich. The relationship with his sister, Elena Vladimirovna, became strained as she never truly accepted Mathilde as a member of the family.[55]

At the outbreak of World War II, under the threat that Germany would bomb Paris, Grand Duke Andrei and his family moved to Le Vésinet.[56] They returned after three months. With the German invasion of France they fleet by train to Grand Duke Boris's Villa in Biarritz.[57] On 26 June, the Germans reached Biarritz and after three months the two couples decided to return to Paris.[58] As their only source of income was the ballet school, they had to keep it opened during the war's years in spite of difficulties and lower attendance. Prince Vladimir Krasinski, spoil by his parents, never had an independent life. Because Vladimir had been a member of the " pro-Soviet " Union of Young Russians in the 1930s, he was regarded as Soviet sympathizer by the Nazi Party. Vladimir was arrested by the Gestapo and held in a camp for Russian emigrants in Compiegne. [59] Grand Duke Andrei visited German Police Headquarters multiple times and asked for help from Russian émigrés to get his son released, but neither group would help him.[60] Vladimir was finally freed after 119 days in detention. During the war years the two other surviving grand dukes died; Grand Duke Dimitri in 1942 and Grand Duke Boris in 1943. With the death of his brother Boris and for the next 13 years, Andrei remained as the last Grand Duke of the Romanov dynasty who had been born in Imperial Russia.[55]

Grand Duke Andrei last years were marked, by increasingly frail health and straitened financial circumstances. He was forced to sell his house; rent it instead. To balance his finances, he relied partially on economical aid from his nephew, Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich. Some of Mathilde's friends and former pupils like and Margot Fonteyn and Diana Gould Menuhin, also provided financial help. In 1954, Grand Duke Andrei was a godfather of Grand Duke Vladimir's only child, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, the current claimant to the headship of the Romanov family.

Despite poor health, Grand Duke Andrei lived to be seventy-seven years. Few in the Romanov family lived that long until then. Andrei Vladimirovich surpassed the longevity record hold by his great-uncle, Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich, by almost six months. [61] In the morning 31 October 1956, Grand Duke Andrei worked on his study.[61] Having finished a letter in his type writer, he felt dizzy, went to his bed to lay down and died suddenly.[61] [62] He was buried wearing the uniform of the Horse Guard Artillery Brigade, which he had commanded during World War I.[62] Matilda Kshesinskaya died in Paris in December 1971 at the age of ninety-nine years.[50] Prince Vladimir Krasisnky died unmarried and childless in France in 1974, three years after his mother.[63][64]

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 25.
  2. ^ a b Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 71
  3. ^ a b Chavchavadze, The Grand Dukes, p. 241
  4. ^ a b Zeepvat, Romanov Autumn, p. 96
  5. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 72
  6. ^ Zeepvat, Romanov Autumn, p.88
  7. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 71
  8. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 41
  9. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 153
  10. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 77
  11. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 78
  12. ^ Zeepvat, The Camera and the Tsars, p. 108
  13. ^ Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 69
  14. ^ a b c d Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 70
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Chavchavadze, The Grand Dukes, p. 242
  16. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 73
  17. ^ Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 70
  18. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 85
  19. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 86
  20. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 94
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 26.
  22. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 73
  23. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 74
  24. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 161
  25. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 160
  26. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 166
  27. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 180
  28. ^ a b c d e Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 27.
  29. ^ Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 207
  30. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 200
  31. ^ a b c Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 28.
  32. ^ a b Zeepvat, Romanov Autumn, p. 171
  33. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 201
  34. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 222
  35. ^ a b Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 212
  36. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 206
  37. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 207
  38. ^ a b c Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 29.
  39. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 209
  40. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 210
  41. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 211
  42. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 212
  43. ^ a b c Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 214
  44. ^ Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 230
  45. ^ Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 231
  46. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 221
  47. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 224
  48. ^ a b c Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 30.
  49. ^ a b c d e Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 264
  50. ^ a b Chavchavadze, The Grand Dukes, p. 243
  51. ^ Peter Kurth, Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson, Back Bay Books, 1983, p. 205
  52. ^ a b Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 31.
  53. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 238
  54. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 256
  55. ^ a b c Korneva & Cheboksarov, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, p. 79
  56. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 259
  57. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 261
  58. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 262
  59. ^ Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 32.
  60. ^ Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 263
  61. ^ a b c Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 340
  62. ^ a b Hall, Imperial Dancer, p. 284
  63. ^ Beéche, The Other Grand Dukes, p. 33.
  64. ^ Perry & Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs, p. 341

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