Grand Duchy of Cracow

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Grand Duchy of Cracow
Großherzogtum Krakau
Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie
Grand Duchy of Austria/Austria-Hungary

1846–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Kraków (Krakau, Cracow)
50°4′N 19°56′E / 50.067°N 19.933°E / 50.067; 19.933Coordinates: 50°4′N 19°56′E / 50.067°N 19.933°E / 50.067; 19.933
Grand Duke of Cracow¹
 -  1846–48 Ferdinand I
 -  1848–1916 Franz Joseph I
 -  1916–18 Karl I
Historical era Modern Age
 -  Free City May 3, 1815
 -  Annexed November 16 1846
 -  Ausgleich 1867
 -  Collapse of Austria-Hungary October 31, 1918
 -  Treaty of St Germain September 10, 1919
¹ Also the Emperor of Austria.
Map of the Free City of Kraków.
For the Grand Duke, overlord of the Polanes, during the fragmentation of Poland (1138–1320), see Duke of Cracow

The Grand Duchy of Cracow[1][2] (German: Großherzogtum Krakau, Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie) was created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow to Austria on November 16, 1846. The title of Grand Duke of Cracow was just a part of the official titulary of the Emperor of Austria in 1846–1918.

The Free City, a remnant of the Duchy of Warsaw, had been made a protectorate, however functionally independent, as a result of the Congress of Vienna (1815). It was under Prussian, Austrian, and Russian trilateral influence until, in the aftermath of the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising, it was annexed by the Austrian Empire (1846).

At the same time the official name of the Austrian administrative entity containing approximately Galicia, and some Polish areas west of it, was changed to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator.

These entities (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Cracow, Duchy of Oświęcim, and Duchy of Zator) were formally separate; they were listed each in the Austrian emperor's titles, each had its distinct coat of arms and flag. For administrative purposes, however, they formed a single province.

The Duchy had its own local government, Governorate Commission (Polish: Komisja Gubernialna).

Literature[edit]

  1. ^ Frederic Austin Ogg: The Governments of Europe, Volume 2, 2009 p. 89
  2. ^ "Grand Duchy of Cracow" used in many English language books
  • Alfred Regele: Die Einverleibung des Freistaates Krakau 1846. Ungedr. Diss., Wien 1951