Grand Forks Air Force Base
|Grand Forks Air Force Base|
|Part of Air Mobility Command (AMC)|
|Located near: Emerado, North Dakota|
KC-135R at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota
|In use||1957 – present|
|Controlled by||United States Air Force|
319th Air Base Wing
|IATA: RDR – ICAO: KRDR – FAA LID: RDR|
|Elevation AMSL||913 ft / 278 m|
Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB) (IATA: RDR, ICAO: KRDR, FAA LID: RDR) is a United States Air Force base located north of Emerado, North Dakota and approximately 16 miles (26 km) west of Grand Forks, North Dakota. In the 2010 census, the base was counted as a CDP with a total population of 2,367.
Grand Forks AFB was established in 1955. The 319th Air Base Wing is commanded by Colonel Christopher R. Mann and the wing Command Chief Master Sergeant is CMSgt David E. Carlson.
- 319th Mission Support Group
- 319th Civil Engineer Squadron
- 319th Communications Squadron
- 319th Contracting Flight
- 319th Logistics Readiness Squadron
- 319th Force Support Squadron
- 319th Security Forces Squadron
- 319th Operations Support Squadron
- 319th Medical Group
- 319th Medical Operations Squadron
- 319th Medical Support Squadron
- 319th Wing Staff Agencies
- 319th Comptroller Squadron
Tenant Units at Grand Forks AFB are:
- Air Force Office of Special Investigations
- 10th Space Warning Squadron (Air Force Space Command unit)
- United States Customs and Border Protection (operating MQ-9 Predator Bs)
- 69th Reconnaissance Group (Air Combat Command unit operating RQ-4 Global Hawks)
Grand Forks Air Force Base was established on 1 December 1955, with construction beginning in the fall of that year. It was occupied for use on 28 January 1957. It was named after the neighboring city of Grand Forks, North Dakota.
Air Defense Command 
Due to the continuance of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, Grand Forks AFB was originally built as an Air Defense Command (ADC) fighter-interceptor air base. The site for the base was chosen in 1954 and the land was paid for by the citizens of Grand Forks, the site was located 15 miles (24 km) west of the city. The beginning of the 5,400-acre (22 km2) air base started in 1956 with the construction of a 12,300-foot (3,700 m) runway.
On 18 February 1957 the 478th Fighter Group (Defense) was activated at Grand Forks. The 18th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron was moved from Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan on 1 May 1960, and flew F-101B Voodoos until 15 April 1971 when it was inactivated and the Voodoos were retired. It was replaced by the 460th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron which was moved from Kingsley Field, Oregon. The 460th FIS flew F-106 Delta Darts until it also was inactivated on 15 July 1974.
In addition to the interceptor squadrons, In 1958 a Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Data Center (DC-11) was established at Grand Forks. The SAGE system was a network linking Air Force (and later FAA) General Surveillance Radar stations into a centralized center for Air Defense, intended to provide early warning and response for a Soviet nuclear attack. DC-11 was operated by the Grand Forks Air Defense Sector (GFADS), activated on 8 December 1957 under the 31st Air Division at Snelling AFS, Minnesota. On 1 January 1959, GFADS was transferred to the operational control of the 29th Air Division at Malmstrom AFB, Montana.
SAGE operations were extremely expansive and GFADS was inactivated on 1 December 1963, when it was merged with the Minot Air Defense Sector at Minot AFB. With the inactivation of DC-11, Grand Forks AFB was reassigned from the Air Defense mission to Strategic Air Command.
In 1971, the 18th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron was inactivated and the 460th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron replaced the unit. In 1974, although the 460th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron won first place at the William Tell Air-to-Air Competition at Tyndall AFB, Florida, it was inactivated due to the restructuring of the air defense system, and ended the activities of ADCOM at Grand Forks.
The DC-11 SAGE blockhouse was later the Headquarters of the SAC 321st Strategic Missile Wing. With the end of LGM-30G Minuteman III operations in 1998, in June 2003, the large SAGE blockhouse was torn down.
Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile 
On 3 November 1967, the Department of Defense revealed that Grand Forks AFB was one of 10 initial locations to host a Sentinel Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) site. With president Richard Nixon's 14 March 1969, announcement constructing a "Safeguard" installation at Grand Forks became a top priority. However, construction was stalled throughout mid-1969, as Congress debated the merits of BMD. Finally, after the Senate defeated amendments to kill Safeguard deployment, the United States Army proceeded under the assumption that appropriations would be forthcoming.
Survey teams selected sites in flat wheatlands close to the Canada-Minnesota border, north-northwest of Grand Forks. Twenty-five miles separated the 279-acre Perimeter Acquisition Radar (PAR) and the 433-acre Missile Site Radar (MSR) sites. Four remote launch sites of 36 to 45 acres each were to be situated in a circle with a 20-mile radius surrounding the MSR. Groundbreaking occurred at the PAR and MSR sites on 6 April 1970. Excavation proceeded rapidly, and the foundation holes for the PAR and MSR were in place by mid-May.
On 26 May 1972, President Nixon and Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev signed the ABM Treaty, which limited each nation to one site to protect strategic forces and one site to protect the "National Command Authority." With work about 85 percent complete at Grand Forks, the United States chose to finish construction at the North Dakota site. On 21 August 1972, the Army Corps of Engineers turned over the PAR to the Safeguard Systems Command (SAFSCOM) Site Activation Team. The transfer of the MSR occurred on 3 January 1973. Work on the four remote launch sites fell behind schedule, with the last being completed on 5 November 1972. Testing of the PAR commenced during the summer of 1973.
On 3 September 1974, the SAFSCOM Site Activation Team was relieved by the U.S. Army Safeguard Command. Named the "Stanley R. Mickelson Complex" LIM-49 Spartan and Sprint Missiles during the following spring. The site was declared operational on 1 April 1975. Due to Congressional action, the Army operated the site for less than a year. With the exception of the PAR, the complex was abandoned in February 1976.(62.3 miles (100.3 km) northwest of Grand Forks AFB), the North Dakota ABM site received its complement of nuclear-tipped
In October 1977, the PAR came under operational control of the Air Force, which operated it thereafter as part of its early warning system. It was designated as Cavalier AFS Air Force Space Command 10th Space Warning Squadron (10th SWS).(57.8 miles (93.0 km) north-northwest of Grand Forks AFB), and remains active. It is operated by the
Strategic Air Command 
On 1 September 1958, Strategic Air Command established the 4133d Strategic Wing at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota as part of SAC's plan to disperse its B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers over a larger number of bases, thus making it more difficult for the Soviet Union to knock out the entire fleet with a surprise first strike.
The 4133d SW was redesignated as the 319th Bombardment Wing (319th BW) on 1 February 1963 in a name-only redesigation and was assigned to SAC's Second Air Force, 810th Strategic Aerospace Division. Upon redesignation, the wing placed aircraft on peacetime quick reaction alert duty, and conducted global bombardment training for Emergency War Order operations and air refueling operations to meet SAC commitments.
In 1973, the 319th Bomb Wing acquired the AGM-69 Short Range Attack Missile (SRAM), replacing the older AGM-28 Hound Dog air-to-ground missile aboard its B-52Hs. As the activities in Southeast Asia decreased, the 319th Bomb Wing focused its full efforts on training crews to fly strategic strike missions.
During 1965, the wing’s three missile squadrons were activated and crew training and certification began at Vandenberg AFB, California. In August 1965, the base received its first Minuteman II missile, shipped by train from Assembly Plant 77 at Hill AFB, Utah. During the following March, the base received the first Minuteman II to be shipped via aircraft, an Air Force first. In December 1986, the last B-52Gs permanently departed GFAFB, replaced by the B-1B Lancer in 1987. A change in the host unit occurred again, when in 1988, the 42d Air Division was assigned for base support in place of the 321st SMW.
Modern era 
With the restructuring of the Air Force and the disestablishment of Strategic Air Command (SAC) in the early 1990s the wing first came under Air Combat Command (ACC) in 1992 and then under Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in 1993.
On 1 February 1993 the Air Combat Command dropped the 319th Bomb Wing's primary nuclear mission and gave the wing the primary mission of B-1B conventional bombardment operations. The 319th Bombardment Wing began planning and training to support such a mission to counter worldwide regional threats.
The base was later transferred to the new Air Mobility Command (AMC) in 1994 following the departure of the last B-1B aircraft, redesignation of the 319 BW as the 319th Air Refueling Wing (319 ARW) and associated transfer of KC-135 aircraft assets to AMC, and transfer of strategic ICBM assets to Air Force Space Command (AFSPC).
In March 1995, the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission selected the 321st Strategic Missile Wing for inactivation. The wing was first downgraded to group status, and the 321st Missile Group inactivated on 30 September 1998. GFAFB's first ICBM silo was imploded in accordance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) in 1999 and the last silo imploded in 2001.
On 1 March 2011, the wing was redesignated as the 319th Air Base Wing (319 ABW).
Starting in May 2011, Grand Forks has a detachment of RQ-4 Global Hawks, operated by the 69th Reconnaissance Group Air Combat Command. The base received several new Block 40 Global Hawks, beginning in 2012.
Base realignment, 2005 
In May 2005, DoD's 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended that GFAFB should be realigned. This would prevent the base from being closed, but would result in a significant loss in personnel levels as well as a loss of the tanker mission. To make up for these losses, the Air Force has decided to assign RQ-4 Global Hawks to Grand Forks, the first of which arrived in May 2011.
Major commands to which assigned 
- Air Defense Command, 25 July 1956
- Strategic Air Command, 1 July 1963
- Air Combat Command, 1 June 1992
- Air Mobility Command, 1 October 1993–present
Major units assigned 
References for history introduction, major commands and major units
It is part of the "Grand Forks, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area" or "Greater Grand Forks". As of the 2010 census, the base CDP had a total population of 2,367. According to the United States Census Bureau, the base has a total area of 8.1 square miles (21 km2), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,832 people, 1,279 households, and 1,230 families residing on the base. The population density was 590.5 people per square mile (228.1/km²). There were 1,516 housing units at an average density of 185.2/sq mi (71.6/km²). The racial makeup of the base was 80.9% White, 8.4% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.0% of the population.
There were 1,279 households out of which 77.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 88.5% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 3.8% were non-families. 3.0% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.41 and the average family size was 3.48.
On the base the population was spread out with 38.4% under the age of 18, 20.4% from 18 to 24, 39.4% from 25 to 44, 1.7% from 45 to 64, and 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age Was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 115.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 123.9 males.
The median income for a household on the base was $36,414, and the median income for a family was $36,104. Males had a median income of $24,413 versus $17,750 for females. The per capita income for the base was $11,503. About 4.0% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older.
- 1954 The Department of Defense chose Grand Forks as the site for a new installation.
- 5 February 1956 Contractors begin construction of the base.
- 8 February 1957 Air Defense Command (ADC) activated the 478th Fighter Group at Grand Forks AFB as the host unit for the base.
- 1 September 1958 Strategic Air Command (SAC) activated the 4133d Strategic Wing (Provisional) as a tenant unit at Grand Forks AFB.
- 15 December 1959 The Grand Forks Air Defense Sector of the North American Air Defense Command became operational with the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) System.
- 1 May 1960 The 18th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (FIS) was stationed at Grand Forks AFB with its F-101B Voodoos.
- 6 May 1960 The 905th Air Refueling Squadron (ARS) (Heavy), a unit assigned to the 4133d Strategic Wing, received its first KC-135A Stratotanker.
- 28 December 1960 The 478th Fighter Wing was activated under the ADC and became the host unit for the base.
- 29 April 1962 The 30th Bombardment Squadron, a unit assigned to the 4133d Strategic Wing, received its first B-52H Stratofortress.
- 1 February 1963 Strategic Air Command organized the 319th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) at Grand Forks AFB. The 319 BMW became the host wing as the 4133d Strategic Wing inactivated and command of the base transferred from the ADC to SAC.
- 19 August 1964 Strategic Air Command activated the 804th Combat Support Group (CSG) as the host unit at Grand Forks AFB.
- 1 September 1964 Strategic Air Command stationed the 4th Air Division, later named 4th Strategic Aerospace Division, at Grand Fork AFB.
- 1 November 1964 The 321st Strategic Missile Wing (SMW) was organized at Grand Forks AFB and construction began on its Minuteman II missile complex.
- December 1966 The 321 SMW became operational with the Minuteman II missile.
- 15 April 1971 Air Defense Command inactivated 18 FIS.
- 30 June 1971 The 4th Strategic Air Division transferred to Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyoming.
- 1 July 1971 The 321 SMW assumed host unit duties from the 804 CSG.
- 30 July 1971 Air Defense Command stationed the 460th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, with F-106 Delta Darts, at Grand Forks AFB.
- 8 March 1973 The 321st Strategic Missile Wing completed an upgrade to Minuteman III missiles.
- 1974 The ADC inactivated the 460 FIS.
- 1986–1987 The 319th Bombardment Wing converted from the B-52G Stratofortress and KC-135A Stratotanker to the B-1B Lancer and KC-135R Stratotanker.
- 16 June 1988 Strategic Air Command transferred the 42d Air Division (AD) to Grand Forks as the host support unit for the base.
- 9 July 1991 Strategic Air Command inactivated the 42 AD and appointed the 319th Bombardment Wing as the host unit for the base.
- 1 September 1991 The 319th Bombardment Wing was redesignated as the 319th Wing. The 321st Strategic Missile Wing was redesignated as the 321st Missile Wing (MW).
- 1 June 1992 The Air Force inactivated the Strategic Air Command and reassigned Grand Forks AFB to the Air Combat Command. The 319th Wing was redesignated as the 319th Bomb Wing. The 905 ARS was reassigned to the Grissom AFB, Indiana, although it continued to operate from Grand Forks AFB.
- 1 July 1993 The 321 MW was reassigned to Air Force Space Command.
- 1 October 1993 The Air Force redesignated the 319th Bomb Wing as the 319th Air Refueling Wing, reassigned it to Air Mobility Command, and reassigned the 905th Air Refueling Squadron to the wing.
- 1994 As part of restructuring at Grand Forks the Air Force reassigned the 906th, 911th, and 912th Air Refueling Squadrons to Grand Forks AFB.
- 26 May 1994 The last B-1B Lancer departed from Grand Forks AFB, marking the end of over 30 years of bombers at Grand Forks.
- 1 July 1994 Air Force Space Command redesignated the 321 MW as the 321st Missile Group (MG).
- 1 October 1995 The Clinton Administration approved the Base Realignment and Closure IV committee's recommendation to remove 150 Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles from the Grand Forks Air Force Base missile complex and inactivate the 321st Missile Group.
- April 1997 After a long, harsh winter, the Grand Forks area suffered a devastating flood due to snowmelt and spring rain. Members of the Grand Forks Air Force Base were called into action, first to help protect the town from the rising waters and later to house the victims of the disaster.
- 2 July 1998 The 321st Missile Group inactivated after 34 years of service at Grand Forks AFB.
- 6 October 1999 The first missile silo was demolished in accordance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).
See also 
- List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command General Surveillance Radar Stations
- List of United States Air Force aircraft control and warning squadrons
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
-  military history
- 321st Air Expeditionary Wing
- Associated Press, "First Global Hawk arrives at Grand Forks base", Military Times, 1 June 2011.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Volume 1: Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. USAF Reference Series, Office of Air Force History, United States Air Force, Washington, D.C. ISBN 0-912799-53-6, ISBN 0-16-002261-4
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
Other sources 
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
- Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1961 (republished 1983, Office of Air Force History, ISBN 0-912799-02-1).
- Ravenstein, Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947–1977. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History 1984. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- Mueller, Robert, Air Force Bases Volume I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982, Office of Air Force History, 1989
- A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 – 1980, by Lloyd H. Cornett and Mildred W. Johnson, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado
- Winkler, David F. (1997), Searching the skies: the legacy of the United States Cold War defense radar program. Prepared for United States Air Force Headquarters Air Combat Command.
- Grand Forks AFB, ND
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Grand Forks Air Force Base|
- Official Air Force Website
- Grand Forks AFB history from Strategic-Air-Command.com
- Grand Forks AFB at Global Security.org
- (PDF), effective May 2, 2013
- FAA Terminal Procedures for RDR, effective May 2, 2013
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