Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
The first Qadi, Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni, was appointed by the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the Middle East, including the territory known as Palestine, from the 16th century to the early 20th century.
When Tahir al-Husayni died in 1908, his son Kamil al-Husayni succeeded him and served with approval of the British authorities once the British conquered Jerusalem in December 1917. However, during World War I, the Ottoman Empire claimed that al-Husayni was a British stooge and that As'ad Shuqeiri-who was appointed by the Ottoman Empire as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 1914-1918-was the rightful Grand Mufti. Shuqeiri was the father of Ahmad Shukeiri (1908–1980), the first leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation.
While Palestine was under British Mandate, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate authorities. When Kamil al-Husayni died in 1921, the British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel appointed Mohammad Amin al-Husayni to the position. Amin al-Husayni, a member of the al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in the British Mandate of Palestine. As Grand Mufti and leader in the Arab Higher Committee, especially during the war period 1938-45, al-Husayni played a key role in violent opposition to Zionism and closely allied himself with the Nazi regime. In 1948, after Jordan occupied Jerusalem, Abdullah I of Jordan officially removed al-Husayni from the post, banned him from entering Jerusalem, and appointed Hussam Al-din Jarallah as Grand Mufti. From his death in 1954, no Grand Mufti was appointed until Sulaiman Ja'abari was appointed in 1993.
In 1993, with the transfer of increased control of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem from Israel to the Palestinians, Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat appointed Sulaiman Ja'abari as Grand Mufti. When he died in 1994, Arafat appointed Ekrima Sa'id Sabri. Sabri was removed in 2006 by Palestinian National Authority president Mahmoud Abbas, who was concerned that Sabri was involved too heavily in political matters. Abbas appointed Muhammad Ahmad Hussein, who was perceived as a political moderate. However, shortly after his appointment, Hussein made comments which suggested that suicide bombing was an acceptable tactic for Palestinians to use against Israel.
List of Qadi and Mufti of Jerusalem
- Shihab ad-Din Abulabbas al-Omawi al-Masri ? to 1440
- Shaikh Najm al-Din, late 17th century
- 'Ali ibn Habib Allah ibn Abi '1-Lutf, d. 1731
- Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahim Jarallah (Abu '1-Lutf), d. 1728
- Muhammad al-Khalili, d. 1734
- Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Muwaqqit, d. 1757
- Najm al-Din al-Khairi, d. 1759
- Muhammd al-Tafilati, d. 1778
- Sheikh Ḥasan b. ‘Abd al-Laṭīf al-Ḥusayni (1781-1806/7)
- Muhammad Salih al-Imam, d. 1828
- Muḥammad Fadil Jārallāh d. 1856
- Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni from the 1860s to 1908
- Muḥammad Ṭāhir al-Ḥusayni 1813
- Kamil al-Husayni from 1908 to 1921
- During World War I (1914–1918), the Ottoman Empire claimed that As'ad Shuqeiri was the Grand Mufti.
- Mohammad Amin al-Husayni from 1921 to 1937, dismissed by the British, but kept the title in the Arab world until 1948
- Hussam Al-din Jarallah from 1948 to 1954
- Vacant from 1954 to 1993
- Sulaiman Ja'abari from 1993 to 1994
- Ekrima Sa'id Sabri from October 1994 to July 2006
- Muhammad Ahmad Hussein from July 2006 to the present
- Friedman, Robert I. (2001-12-06). "And Darkness Covered the Land". The Nation. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
- Pappe, Ilan (2002) 'The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian Dynasty. The Husaynis 1700-1948. AL Saqi edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-86356-460-4. pp.309,321
- Cohen, Aharon (1970) Israel and the Arab World. W.H. Allen. ISBN 0-491-00003-0. p.312
- Yaniv Berman, "Top Palestinian Muslim Cleric Okays Suicide Bombings", Media Line, 23 October 2006.
- Abdul-Karim Rafeq (2000). "6: Ottoman Jerusalem in the writings of Arab travelers". In Sylvia Auld and Robert Natsheh. Ottoman Jerusalem, The Living City: 1517–1917 I. London: Altajir World of Islam Trust. pp. 63–72.
- Kamal J al-'Asali (2000). "18: The cemeteries of Ottoman Jerusalem". In Sylvia Auld and Robert Natsheh. Ottoman Jerusalem, The Living City: 1517–1917 I. London: Altajir World of Islam Trust. pp. 279–284.
- For details see David Kushner, Palestine in the late Ottoman period: political, social, and economic transformation, BRILL, 1986. passim
- 1921 to 1936 Jewish Virtual Library