Grand Paris

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The Métropole du Grand Paris (Greater Paris) is the name of an initiative launched by former French President Nicolas Sarkozy for "a new global plan for the Paris metropolitan region"[1] It has led to a new transportation master plan for the Paris region and to plans to develop several areas around Paris. The "Métropole du Grand Paris" is a future EPCI defined by the law of 27 January 2014 on the modernization of public territorial action and affirmation of cities as part of Act III of decentralization. The metropolis will include mainly the towns of Paris and the three departments of the inner suburbs: Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne. Creation is scheduled for 1 January 2016. Its area will be 762km² and its population will be 6.7 millions inhabitants. It might be described as the French equivalent of Greater London.

Development/History[edit]

The plan was first announced on 17 September 2007 during the inauguration of "La Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine", when Sarkozy declared his intent to create a "new comprehensive development project for Greater Paris". The project was organized by the French state, with the Minister of Culture and Communication charged with coordinating the consultation process.[2]

In 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris was launched. Ten teams gathering architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape architects will offer their vision for building a Paris metropolis of the 21st century in the post-Kyoto era and make a prospective diagnosis for Paris and its suburbs that will define future developments in Greater Paris for the next 40 years.[2]

The architects leading the ten multi-disciplinary teams were: Jean Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Antoine Grumbach, Roland Castro, Yves Lion, Djamel Klouche, Richard Rogers, Bernardo Secchi, Paola Vigano, Finn Geipel, Giulia Andi, and Winy Maas.[3]

Originally there was some suggestion that the local government structure of the Paris region would be reformed, by creating an integrated urban community encompassing the City of Paris and the surrounding Petite Couronne,[4] but this part was later abandoned because it proved unpopular with the mayors and local councils of the Île de France region.[5]

An exhibition titled "Le Grand Paris de l'agglomération parisienne" presented the results of the consultation process from 29 April to 22 November 2009.[2]

Objectives[edit]

"The Métropole of Grand Paris is made for the definition and implementation of metropolitan action to improve the quality of life of its residents, reduce inequalities between regions within it, to develop an urban, social and economic sustainability model, ways to improve attractiveness and competitiveness for the benefit of the entire national territory. The Métropole of Grand Paris develop a metropolitan project. The people associated with its development in the manner determined by metropolotan council on the proposal of the development council. This metropolitan project define the general guidelines of the policy pursued by the Métropole of Grand Paris. It participate in the implementation of the director of the Ile-de-France region pattern. It includes a general, social, economic and environmental analysis of the metropolitan area, the strategic guidelines for the development of the metropolis as well as priority areas for intervention. The Metro project can be developed with the support of land and Technical Agency of the Paris region, the International Workshop Greater Paris, the urban planning agencies and other useful structure. "

Transportation[edit]

Planned metro lines

Independently to the process described above, a position of Minister for Le Grand Paris was created and Christian Blanc was appointed to occupy it. Blanc and his team prepared a transportation plan, announced on April 29, 2009.[6] The Île-de-France region had already published its own transportation plan. Later, the architects of the consultation joined together to present a third transportation plan. After much negotiation, a compromise between the national government the Île-de-France regional government was announced in January 2011 and the final plan subsequently approved.

The transport plan will be carried out in ten years, at a cost of 35 billion euros funded by the state, local governments and new debt.[7] An important part of the project is a driverless subway linking important business and residential poles such as Versailles and the Charles de Gaulle airport but also banlieues like Montfermeil and Clichy-sous-Bois through a figure-eight track 140 km long and operating 24-hour, which will alone cost 21 billion euros. Another 14 billion will be spent in the extension and re-equipment of existing metro, regional and suburban lines.[8]

Housing[edit]

Sarkozy declared his intent of building 70,000 new homes a year in the region, to gradually cover a total requirement of 1.5 million by 2030. Since he announced this intention in 2007, new home starts in the Paris region have remained steady around 40,000 [9]

Criticism[edit]

The way Le Grand Paris has been handled has been starkly criticized by the architects themselves, especially by Jean Nouvel who has written several virulent editorials against the Minister in charge of Le Grand Paris until June 2010, Christian Blanc.[10]

Politically, the President of the Île-de-France region, Jean-Paul Huchon and the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, both members of the French Socialist Party have been opposed to the initiatives taken by the national government, which are in contradiction with the recent devolution of urban planning matters to local governments. In October 2011, Delanoë stated that the President "is trying to claim for himself an urban dynamic begun long ago by the local governments".[11] Although Huchon had reached an agreement with the national government earlier in the year on the transportation network, he also declared that Grand Paris "is not a generic term to cover everything that is going on on the territory of the Île-de-France region (...) and even less a national certificate created to relabel local policies that were already in existence."[11]

Political opposition remains strong among the Green Party (Europe Écologie), led in the Île-de-France region by Cécile Duflot.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inauguration de la Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine (Speech). Presidency of the French Republic. 2007-09-17. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
  2. ^ a b c "Ten Scenarios for ‘Grand Paris’ Metropolis Now Up for Public Debate". Bustler. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  3. ^ "Big Plans for Grand Paris". 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  4. ^ "Sarkozy relance le projet d'un " Grand Paris "". 20 Minutes. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  5. ^ Erlanger, Steven (2009-06-11). "A Paris Plan, Less Grand Than Gritty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  6. ^ Discours de M. le Président de la République (Speech). French Ministry of Culture. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  7. ^ Le Grand Paris, 4 ans après (Speech). Presidency of the French Republic. 2011-10-10. Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  8. ^ Lichfield, John (2009-04-29). "Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a 'Greater Paris'". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  9. ^ "Le logement, un champ d'étude et d'action pour Paris-Métropole". Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme d'Île de France. Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  10. ^ Jean Nouvel (2010-05-19). "Mais enfin, Monsieur Blanc!". Le Monde. 
  11. ^ a b Sibylle Vincendon (2011-10-11). "Pour Delanoë, Sarkozy n'est pas propriétaire du Grand Paris!". Libération. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Walter Wells, "Big Plans for Grand Paris," France Today (June 2009), Vol. 24 Issue 6, pp 10–12

External links[edit]