U.S. Route 16 in Michigan

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This article is about the section of highway in Michigan. For the entire length of the current highway, see U.S. Highway 16.

US Highway 16 marker

US Highway 16
Route information
Maintained by MSHD
Length: 210.643 mi[2] (338.997 km)
Existed: November 11, 1926 (1926-11-11)[1] – 1962 (1962)[3][4]
History: Replaced by I-96
Major junctions
West end: Carferry docks in Muskegon
 

US 31 near Muskegon
US 131 in Grand Rapids
US 27 in Lansing
US 23 near Brighton

US 24 in Detroit
East end: US 10 / US 12 / US 25 / US 112 in Detroit
Location
Counties: Muskegon, Ottawa, Kent, Ionia, Clinton, Ingham, Livingston, Oakland, Wayne
Highway system
M‑15 M‑17
M‑125 M-126 US 127

US Highway 16 (US 16), also called Grand River Avenue for much of its length in the state, was one of the principal pre-Interstate roads in the state of Michigan. Before the creation of the United States Numbered Highway System in 1926, the highway had been designated M-16. The modern route of Grand River Avenue cuts across the Lower Peninsula in a northwest–southeast fashion from near Grand Rapids to Detroit. Before the late 1950s and early 1960s, US 16 followed other roads between Muskegon and Grand Rapids, and then Grand River Avenue through Lansing to Detroit. With the coming of the Interstate Highway System, US 16 was shifted from the older roads to the newer freeways. When the gap in the freeway was filled in around Lansing, the US 16 designation was decommissioned in the state. The freeway was then designated Interstate 96 (I-96) east of Grand Rapids or I-196 west of that city.

The original pathway along the Grand River Avenue corridor was an Indian trail. This trail was used by the first European settlers to the area now known as Michigan in 1701. In Detroit, Grand River is one of five major avenues (along with Woodward, Michigan, Gratiot, and Jefferson) planned by Judge Augustus Woodward in 1805 that extend from Downtown Detroit in differing directions; Grand River Avenue extends northwesterly from the city's downtown. In the middle of the 19th century, this trail was expanded into a plank road that formed the basis for one of the first state trunkline highways as M-16 in the early 20th century. Later, the highway was rerouted to replace M-126 and create M-104. Current segments of the roadway are still part of the state highway system as sections of M-5, M-11, M-43 or business loops off I-96. The portion of Grand River Avenue in Detroit between I-96 and the intersection with Cass Avenue and Middle Street in Downtown Detroit is an unsigned state trunkline, sometimes referred to as Old Business Spur I-96 (OLD BS I-96).

Route description[edit]

At the time of its decommissioning, US 16 started its run through Michigan at the Grand Trunk Western Railroad carferry docks in Muskegon. The ferry extended across Lake Michigan, connecting Muskegon to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where US 16 continued to the west. From the docks, US 16 and M-46 traveled concurrently south and then east through downtown Muskegon. At Peck Street, US 16 turned south along Business US 31 (BUS US 31). These two highways ran concurrently out of town to the south through Muskegon Heights to Norton Shores. Here, the business loop ended at US 31, and US 16 joined the I-196 freeway headed east. (Later, the I-96 and I-196 designations west of Grand Rapids would be flipped,[5] but at the time leading up to US 16's decommissioning in the state of Michigan, this had not yet been approved.[6]) The I-196/US 16 freeway traveled southeast of Norton Shores through woodlands in rural Muskegon County parallel to the former US 16 routing through Fruitport to Nunica in Ottawa County. The freeway turned more directly east in Nunica past the eastern terminus of M-104, and continued through more mixed forest and grassland terrain to serve the communities of Coopersville and Marne.[3]

As the freeway approached Kent County, it met the western terminus of M-11 which was the former routing of US 16 through the Grand Rapids metropolitan area. I-196/US 16 continued eastward around the north side of the metropolitan area through the suburbs of Walker and Comstock Park. The freeway intersected the contemporaneous routing of US 131 along the East Beltline and curved south through the eastern edge of Grand Rapids to meet the then-current end of I-96 east of downtown. There I-196 ended and US 16 was transferred to the I-96 freeway. I-96/US 16 continued southward intersecting Cascade Road, which was previously US 16. Cascade Road east of this interchange meets the westernmost part of Grand River Avenue, which carried US 16 east all the way to Downtown Detroit.[3] Grand River Avenue ends at Cascade Road, but the historic routing carried it through Ada and Plainfield Township along the Grand River. The western end is at East Beltline, short of its westernmost extent in Grand Rapids.[7]

Grand River Avenue sign in East Lansing

M-50 also joined the freeway at Cascade Road headed east, and together I-96/US 16/M-50 continued through eastern Kent County. M-50 departed to the south near Lowell, and the freeway crossed into southern Ionia County. Passing south of Portland, the freeway crossed east into Clinton County. North of Grand Ledge, I-96 ended and US 16 followed Wright Road off the freeway to Grand River Avenue. From here east, US 16 resumed its historic routing into the city of Lansing. Grand River Avenue carried the highway past the Capital City Airport and east to Larch Street, where US 16 turned south along US 27 north of downtown Lansing. At Saginaw Street, eastbound US 16 turned east on the one-way street, while westbound traffic ran a block north on Grand River Avenue. The two directions of travel merge at the east end of Saginaw Street in East Lansing. Grand River Avenue through East Lansing follows a tree-lined boulevard that forms the division between the campus of Michigan State University to the south and the rest of the city to the north. US 16 continued east in Ingham County through Okemos and rural parts of the county through Williamston and Webberville.[3]

Modern M-43 running along Grand River Avenue at Collingwood Drive in East Lansing

Grand River Avenue crosses to the east into Livingston County through Fowlerville to Howell. In Howell, Grand River Avenue meets Hartland Road which carries M-59; the highway also met M-155 in downtown, which at the time provided access to the Howell State Hospital. In the approach to Brighton, Grand River Avenue passes through rural southeast Michigan lake country. In Brighton, Grand River Avenue crossed the western end of the then-built section of the I-96 freeway. US 16 merged onto the freeway, and I-96/US 16 met the northern end of the then-built US 23 freeway. I-96/US 16 continued east into Oakland County through Wixom and Novi.[3]

Near Farmington, I-96 left what is now its current routing and continued to the southeast of the present-day I-96/I-275/I-696/M-5 interchange along the current M-5. Grand River Avenue through here was Business Loop I-96 (BL I-96). The freeway ends at a junction with Grand River Avenue that also marked the end of the business loop. From there, US 16 continued along Grand River Avenue all the way into Downtown Detroit. Along the way, it intersected US 24 at Telegraph Road and M-39 at Southfield Road. US 12 joined US 16 along Grand River Avenue at Plymouth Road. The two ran the rest of the way concurrently to Cadillac Square. There they terminated at a common point with US 10 (Woodward Avenue) and US 112 (Michigan Avenue). US 25 ran through the square on Fort Street and Gratiot Avenue.[3]

History[edit]

The history of Grand River Avenue, and US 16 in Michigan, dates back to before the earliest settlement of Michigan by Europeans. The route has been the basis for an Indian trail, a pathway for European settlers, a state highway, a part of the US Highway System, and a section of the Interstate Highway System.

Indian trail to state highway[edit]

M-16
Location: Muskegon–Detroit
Existed: c. July 1, 1919[9]–November 11, 1926[8]

The chief transportation routes in 1701 were the Indian trails that crossed the future state of Michigan; the Grand River Trail was one of these thirteen trails at the time. Detroit created 120-foot (37 m) rights-of-way for the principal streets of the city, Grand River Avenue included, in 1805.[10] This street plan was devised by Augustus Woodward and others following a devastating fire in Detroit.[11] A ten-year project to construct a plank road between Detroit and Howell was authorized in 1820 along the Grand River Trail.[10] Grand River Avenue was included as one of Five Great Military Roads by Governor Lewis Cass in 1825, along with the River Road, Michigan Avenue, Woodward Avenue and Gratiot Avenue.[12] The Grand River Road, precursor to the modern Grand River Avenue was named by Benjamin Williams, cofounder of Owosso.[13] The original Native American name for the river was Wash-ten-ong sibi meaning "the river that extends far off", or "far into the interior", which was translated as La Grande Riviere, the French name for the river; this name was then applied to the name of the trail that paralleled at least half of the river's length.[14]

The opening of the Erie Canal in New York in 1826 brought new settlers to the Great Lakes region, and to the future state of Michigan. Many of these settlers began their inland journeys in Detroit. At first the Grand River Road was a "deep rutted, ditch bordered road".[15] The road branched into two at Rouge (now Redford); the southern branch roughly followed the modern route of Grand River Avenue and the northern route ran by way of Pontiac along Woodward Avenue and the modern M-21 to the north of the Lansing area.[16] From Bancroft, several trails branched off, including the northern branch of the Grand River Road and the Saginaw Trail.[17] The two branches merged back together near Dewitt and continued west toward Ionia and on to Grand Rapids and Newton (now Grand Haven).[18] The early travelers plied the road in wagons pulled by oxen or horses, and drivers charged between four and seven cents a mile. The horses were exchanged every 12–15 miles (19–24 km) with the speed averaging around 8–10 miles per hour (13–16 km/h) with few obstacles.[19]

Congress further aided the road in 1835 with an appropriation of $25,000 (equivalent to $14 million in 2012[20]) for a 20-foot (6 m) road on 100 feet (30 m) of right-of-way.[21] These improvements included removing brush and debris and the construction of bridges across the Rouge, Shiawassee, Red Cedar and Grand rivers.[22] The Grand River Road was a major route for settlers headed inland to Grand Rapids in 1836, as the shortest route for travelers coming from Detroit.[23] An economic panic in 1837 drove settlers from New York to Michigan; these were the settlers that followed the Grand River Road. New settlements were created along the route, every 6 miles (9.7 km) or so, that distance being a good day's travel by horse. Approximately 120 wagons left Detroit each day between August and November 1843.[24]

When the state capital was moved to Lansing in 1847, an improved road was needed to the capital city.[24] In 1850, the Michigan State Legislature established the Lansing and Howell Plank Road Company,[25] which set about converting various Indian trails into the Lansing–Howell Plank Road, a task the company completed by 1853. At Howell the road connected with the Detroit–Howell Plank Road, establishing the first improved connection direct from the state capital to Michigan's largest metropolis. The Lansing–Detroit Plank Road was a toll road until the 1880s, and it eventually evolved into the eastern part of the modern Grand River Avenue.[26]

West Grand River Avenue in Howell, 1900

By 1900, only a short stretch of the Detroit–Howell Plank Road was still made of planks; most of the other plank roads had been converted to gravel by this time.[27] On May 13, 1913, the Michigan Legislature passed the State Reward Trunk Line Highway Act (Public Act 334 of 1913) that created the original state highway system. In that act, Grand River Avenue between Detroit and Grand Rapids was included as Division 9 of the system.[28] The state highways were signposted starting in 1919,[29] and on the first maps published on July 1 of that year, the Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD) had applied the M-16 number to Grand River Avenue across the state between Grand Haven and Detroit.[9] M-16 was rerouted in the Lansing area in 1925, running along Grand River Avenue from Grand Ledge to East Lansing. The former routing through Downtown Lansing on Michigan Avenue became part of M-39 and the section north of Grand Ledge was eventually redesignated M-100. A second realignment moved M-16 to follow Grand River Avenue from Ionia through Ada. The former alignment became a part of M-21.[30]

The M-16 designation lasted for seven years. As the states were meeting with the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO, now AASHTO) to plan the United States Numbered Highway System, the route of M-16 was originally planned for inclusion in US 18.[31] When the system was created on November 11, 1926,[1] Grand River Avenue and M-16 became part of US 16.[8]

US Highway to Interstate[edit]

M-126
Location: Muskegon HeightsNunica
Length: 11.94 mi[2] (19.22 km)
Existed: 1934[33]–1940[32]

In 1929, Allan Williams placed a picnic table on the side of the road along US 16 south of Saranac. Williams was the Ionia County engineer in charge of the various roads in the county, and that location is "what many consider to be the nation’s first roadside table".[34] The first change to the US 16 routing was made in 1933 when the highway was moved to bypass Farmington, with the old routing retained as a state highway.[35] The next year, in 1934, M-126 was created between Nunica and Muskegon.[33] In 1940, US 16 was rerouted to replace M-126, and the former route of US 16 between Nunica and Grand Haven was redesignated M-104.[32] Two further changes during 1941–42 rerouted the western end in Muskegon to end at the car ferry docks. Previously, motorists had to navigate from the western end along other roads to the ferry connection to the rest of US 16 in Wisconsin. The second change routed Bypass US 16 (BYP US 16) along 28th Street and Wilson (previously the South Beltline and West Beltline sections of M-114) in the Grand Rapids area.[36] The US 16 designation was moved in 1953 to replace BYP US 16 while the former routing through downtown Grand Rapids was redesignated Business US 16 (BUS US 16).[37][38]

Olympia Stadium, home of the Detroit Red Wings from 1927 to 1979

MSHD had plans to upgrade the US 16 corridor to freeway standards in the middle of the 20th century. The first planning map in 1947 for what later became the Interstate Highway System showed a highway in the corridor.[39] The General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955, showed generalized plans for the locations of Interstate Highways as designated in 1955. This also included a highway in the US 16 corridor.[40] The 1957 approval for the Interstate Highway System replaced the Grand Rapids–Detroit section of US 16 with a portion of Interstate 94 (I-94), with the remainder to be I-94N.[41] MSHD submitted a recommended numbering plan for the Interstates in 1958 that showed I-96 following the US 16 corridor.[42] When initially approved, the Muskegon–Grand Rapids segment of US 16 was to be numbered as I-196 while the remainder was part of I-96.[43]

Segments of the road were upgraded in 1956 between Coopersville and Marne, Portland and Eagle, and Brighton and Farmington.[44] By 1962, freeway construction allowed motorists to travel between Muskegon and the Lansing area on a freeway, bypassing the old Grand River Avenue route.[3] The final connection between Lansing and Brighton was completed in late 1962. At that time, the US 16 designation, which had been applied alongside the I-96 and I-196 designations, was decommissioned. Segments of the old highway were retained in the state highway system under different numbers. Sections through Portland, Lansing, Howell, Farmington and Detroit were given Business Loop (BL) or Business Spur (BS) I-96 designations. The section between Lansing and Webberville became part of an extended M-43.[3][4] Other sections in the Detroit area became parts of M-102, M-5, or unsigned state highway.[45][46]

Post-Interstate era[edit]

After US 16 was transferred to the new freeway, Grand River Avenue lost its state highway status along most of its length. Today the roadway remains the "Main Street" of over a dozen Michigan cities and a scenic route through one of the state's most populated corridors. In 1995, major reconstruction work along Grand River Avenue in East Lansing uncovered rotting logs, buried about 2 feet (0.61 m) below the present grade, that had been used as underlayment for the plank road surface in a low, swampy area. The logs had been in place for nearly 150 years.[47] In 2004, the state transferred several blocks at the eastern end of Grand River Avenue to the City of Detroit. State trunkline control now ends at the corner of Grand River Avenue, Middle Street, and Cass Avenue.[48][49]

Community leaders in Lansing have proposed renaming a section of Grand River Avenue in Old Town Lansing for César Chávez, the Mexican-American civil rights activist. The group "Lansing for Cesar E. Chavez" was raising funds to rename the section of Grand River Avenue between Oakland and Pine Streets in Old Town. Previously, a section of Grand Avenue was renamed for Chávez in 1994, but the voters overturned the decision.[50] The renaming proposal was even mentioned as a way to untangle a maze of different branches of Grand River Avenue running through Old Town. Currently, East Grand River Avenue and North Grand River Avenue bridge between sections of Grand River Avenue, in addition to Grand Avenue which runs along the Grand River near downtown.[51] While Lansing's Latino community supported the proposal, the business community opposed it. One shop owner said she would have $10,000 in costs associated with a name change, adding, "I think there's many beautiful ways to honor such an incredible man. Changing five blocks of a street doesn't seem to do justice."[52] Another business owner cited the work the Old Town Commercial Association has done to market the area using the Grand River Avenue name, marketing that would be useless after a name change.[52] The compromise solution reached in August 2010 was to rename lot 56, where Old Town holds festivals, to Cesar Chavez Plaza. Street signs would be installed marking parts of Grand River Avenue as Cesar E. Chavez Avenue, but only in a memorial capacity. The street would still be officially named Grand River Avenue.[53]

Major intersections[edit]

County Location Mile[2] km Destinations Notes
Muskegon Muskegon 0.000 0.000 Carferry docks
M‑46 east (Mart Street)
Carferries connected to US 16 in Wisconsin; western terminus of M-46
1.100 1.770
BUS US 31 north / M‑46 east (Peck Street)
Northern end of BUS US 31 concurrency; eastern end of M-46 concurrency
Norton Shores 6.160 9.914 I‑196
US 31

BUS US 31 north (Airline Highway)
Western end of I-196 concurrency; southern end of BUS US 31 concurrency
Ottawa Nunica 15.452 24.868 M‑104 west Eastern terminus of M-104
Tallmadge Township 30.099 48.440
BUS US 16 east / M‑11 east (Remembrance Road)
Western terminus of M-11
Kent Walker 36.455 58.669 M‑37 north (Alpine Avenue) Western end of M-37 concurrency
Grand Rapids 39.223 63.123
BUS US 131 (Plainfield Avenue)
43.233 69.577 I‑196 ends / I‑96 begins Eastern end of I-196 concurrency; western end of I-96 concurrency
43.961 70.748 US 131 / M‑37 south (East Beltline Avenue) Eastern end of M-37 concurrency
Grand Rapids Township 44.897 72.255 M‑21 (Fulton Street)
46.174 74.310
BUS US 16 west / M‑50 west (Cascade Road)
Eastern end of M-50 concurrency
Cascade Township 49.146 79.093 M‑11 west (28th Street) Eastern terminus of M-11
Lowell Township 58.463 94.087 M‑50 east / M‑91 north Eastern end of M-50 concurrency; southern terminus of M-91
Ionia Berlin Township 73.587 118.427 M‑66
Clinton Eagle Township 92.578 148.990 I‑96 west
M‑100
I-96 temporarily ended here; US 16 follows Grand River Avenue east
Ingham Lansing 101.738 163.731 M‑174 north (Logan Street)
103.103 165.928 US 27 (Larch Street) Northern end of US 27 concurrency
103.630 166.776 M‑43 west / M‑78 (Saginaw Street)
US 27 south (Larch Street)
Eastern terminus of M-43; southern end of US 27 concurrency
Leroy Township 121.099 194.890 M‑47 north Southern terminus of M-47
Livingston Howell 157.476 253.433 M‑59 east Western terminus of M-59
160.154 257.743 M‑155 west Eastern terminus of M-155
Brighton 168.676 271.458 I‑96 east Western end of I-96 freeway concurrency
Brighton Township 171.212 275.539 US 23
Oakland West Novi 182.782 294.159 M‑218 east Western terminus of M-218
Farmington 189.210 304.504 BL I‑96 east
193.314 311.109 I‑96 west
BL I‑96 west
Eastern end of I-96 freeway concurrency
OaklandWayne county line Farmington HillsLivonia city line 194.590 313.162 M‑102 (8 Mile Road) 8 Mile Road is the county and city line
Wayne Detroit 197.135 317.258 US 24 (Telegraph Road)
200.584 322.809 M‑39 (Southfield Road)
204.499 329.109 US 12 west (Plymouth Road) West end of US 12 concurrency
209.431 337.047 BS I‑696 (John C. Lodge Freeway)
210.643 338.997 US 10 west (Woodward Avenue)

US 12 west (Grand River Avenue)
US 25 (Fort Street, Gratiot Avenue)

US 112 west (Michigan Avenue)
Cadillac Square served as the common terminus for US 10, US 12, US 16 and US 112
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Related trunklines[edit]

Grand Rapids bypass[edit]


Bypass US Highway 16
Location: Grand Rapids
Existed: 1942[36]–1953[37][38]

Bypass US Highway 16 (BYP US 16) was a bypass route of US 16 in the Grand Rapids area. The highway became a part of the state highway system c. 1930 as a part of M-114, which was a beltline around the Grand Rapids area.[54] By 1942, the trunkline was completed and reassigned a BYP US 16 designation along the southern and western legs. The designation connected to US 16 in Walker Township (now the city of Walker) and ran south along what is now Wilson Avenue over the Grand River into Grandville. From there it turned easterly along what is now 28th Street through Wyoming and Paris townships (now the cities of Wyoming and Kentwood) before terminating at US 16 in Cascade Township.[36] The designation was used until the mainline US 16 was rerouted over the bypass in 1953.[37][38]

Grand Rapids business loop[edit]


Business US Highway 16
Location: Grand Rapids
Existed: 1953[37][38]–1962[3][4]

Business US Highway 16 (BUS US 16) was a business route in the Grand Rapids area in the 1950s and 1960s. When US 16 was rerouted to replace BYP US 16 around the southern and western sides of the city in 1953, the former route of the mainline through downtown was redesignated as the business loop.[37][38] That loop followed Remembrance Avenue southeasterly to Leonard Avenue in Walker Township. From there, the loop turned easterly on Leonard over the Grand River to Monroe Avenue before turning south parallel to the river along Monroe into downtown. In downtown Grand Rapids, BUS US 16 turned eastward on Fulton Avenue into East Grand Rapids. There the loop followed Cascade Road into Cascade Township where it reconnected to US 16 at the intersection with 28th Street. BUS US 16 lasted until 1962 when US 16 was decommissioned in Michigan.[3][4]

Farmington business loop[edit]


Business US Highway 16
Location: Farmington
Length: 4.129 mi[2] (6.645 km)
Existed: 1956[56][44]–1961[3][55]

Business US Highway 16 (BUS US 16) was a business loop through downtown Farmington along Grand River Avenue. Its western terminus was at the junction of US 16 and Grand River Avenue west of the city, and the eastern terminus is at the intersection between US 16 and Grand River Avenue southeast of Farmington. This highway was the original route of US 16 though downtown Farmington. In 1933, US 16 was routed onto a bypass route which had been constructed south of the city (the present-day Freedom Road) and the route through Farmington was retained as state trunkline.[57][58] In 1956, a new bypass freeway was built just to the south of the old bypass as part of the "Brighton–Farmington Expressway" and the route through downtown was designated BUS US 16.[56][44] The original plans for I-96 called for it to replace US 16 and to run parallel to Grand River Avenue all the way from Farmington into downtown Detroit. In 1959, the Farmington bypass freeway was given the I-96 designation in addition to the US 16 moniker,[59] and the business route was redesignated as Business Loop I-96 two years later.[3][55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b McNichol, p. 74.
  2. ^ a b c d Michigan Department of Transportation (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved September 5, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Section K8–M14.
  4. ^ a b c d Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map).
  5. ^ "New Numbers Seen for Road". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 23, 1963. p. 4. OCLC 13440201. 
  6. ^ "Would Shift Route Number: Mackie Seeks Int. 96 Designation for Grand Rapids–Muskegon Stretch". The Grand Rapids Press. May 1, 1963. p. 32. OCLC 9975013. 
  7. ^ Staff. "Lansing History". City of Lansing. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Bureau of Public Roads (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Cartography by U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth298433/m1/1/zoom/. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  9. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan: Lower Peninsula (Map). Cartography by MSHD.
  10. ^ a b Lingeman, p. 1.
  11. ^ Baulch, Vivian M. (June 13, 1999). "Woodward Avenue, Detroit's Grand Old 'Main Street'". Detroit News. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 
  12. ^ "History: The River Road". Wayne County Department of Public Services. Archived from the original on December 16, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  13. ^ Woodard, p. 12.
  14. ^ Walton, Ivan (Spring 1955). "Indian Place Names in Michigan". Midwest Folklore (Michigan ed.) 5 (1): 23–34. ISSN 0544-0750. JSTOR 4317501. 
  15. ^ Woodard, p. 6.
  16. ^ Woodard, pp. 8–10.
  17. ^ Woodard, pp. 10–11.
  18. ^ Woodard, pp. 11–12.
  19. ^ Woodard, p. 13.
  20. ^ United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the "Measuring Worth" series supplied in Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2014). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  These figures follow the figures as of 2012.
  21. ^ Lingeman, p. 2.
  22. ^ Woodard, p. 28.
  23. ^ Fisher, p. 78.
  24. ^ a b Woodard, pp. 24–29.
  25. ^ Michigan Legislature (March 20, 1850). "An Act to Incorporate the Lansing and Howell Plank Road Company". Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  26. ^ Forsyth, Kevin S. (2003). "East Lansing: Origins". A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan. Retrieved September 14, 2007. 
  27. ^ Mason, p. 11.
  28. ^ Michigan Legislature (1915). "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P.; Broomfield, Archibald. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan, Volume I. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–72. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013. 
  30. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (September 15, 1925). Official Highway Condition Map (Map). Cartography by MSHD.
  31. ^ Joint Board on Interstate Highways (November 18, 1925). Report of Joint Board on Interstate Highways, October 30, 1925 (Report). Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture. OCLC 55123355.
  32. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (December 1, 1940). 1940 Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally (Winter ed.). Section K8.
  33. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (September 1, 1934). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  34. ^ Ellison, Garret (July 4, 2011). "Ionia County Boasts First Roadside Picnic Table, One of West Michigan's Hidden Gems". The Grand Rapids Press. OCLC 9975013. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  35. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (September 1, 1933). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  36. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (June 1, 1942). 1942 Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally (Summer ed.). Section K8–L9.
  37. ^ a b c d e Michigan State Highway Department (April 15, 1953). 1953 Official Highway Map (Map). Section K9–L9.
  38. ^ a b c d e Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1953). 1953 Official Highway Map (Map). Section K9–L9.
  39. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 2, 1947). National System of Interstate Highways (Map). http://www.ajfroggie.com/roads/yellowbook/conus-1947.jpg.
  40. ^ Bureau of Public Roads (September 1955). General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955 (Map). OCLC 416597. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_September_1955.jpg.
  41. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 14, 1957). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). http://www.ajfroggie.com/roads/yellowbook/numbering-1957.jpg. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  42. ^ Staff (April 25, 1958). Recommended Interstate Route Numbering for Michigan (Report). Michigan State Highway Department. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040805182658/nwindianahwys.homestead.com/michiplan.html. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  43. ^ Federal Highway Administration (c. 1963). National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_status_unknown_date.jpg. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  44. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1956). 1956 Official Highway Map (Map). Section K8, L10, M12–M13.
  45. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2007). Official Department of Transportation Map (Map).
  46. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2008). Truck Operators Map (Map). Detroit inset.
  47. ^ Michigan Historical Museum. "An Old Plank Road in East Lansing...". Settling a State. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 14, 2007. 
  48. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2004). Truck Operators Map (Map). Detroit inset.
  49. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2005). Truck Operators Map (Map). Detroit inset.
  50. ^ Leppek, Kyle (April 14, 2010). "Avenida Chavez: Naming a Street after the Labor Leader Hopes to Avoid Pitfalls of Last Go-Around". City Pulse (Lansing, MI). OCLC 48427464. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  51. ^ Melinn, Kyle (June 16, 2010). "The Drive for Cesar E. Chavez Avenue". City Pulse (Lansing, MI). OCLC 48427464. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  52. ^ a b Pohl, Scott (June 15, 2010). "Effort to Rename Grand River Avenue in Old Town Lansing Meeting with Resistance". Lansing: WKAR-AM. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  53. ^ Maki, Jessica (August 13, 2010). "Supporters Happy Chavez Will Be Honored". Lansing: WLNS-TV. 
  54. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (January 1, 1930). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha. Grand Rapids inset.
  55. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MSHD. Detroit Area inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  56. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (April 15, 1956). 1956 Official Highway Map (Map). Detroit Area inset.
  57. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (May 1, 1933). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  58. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1933). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  59. ^ "Michigan Delays Road Number System". Toledo Blade. June 4, 1959. p. 11. Retrieved November 21, 2010. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Fisher, Ernest B., ed. (1918). Grand Rapids and Kent County, Michigan: Historical Account of Their Progress from First Settlement to the Present Time, Volume I. Chicago: Robert O. Law. OCLC 13781280. 
  • Lingeman, Stanley D. (April 6, 2001). Michigan Highway History Timeline 1701–2001: 300 Years of Progress. Lansing, MI: Library of Michigan. OCLC 435640179. 
  • Mason, Philip P. (1959). Michigan Highways from Indian Trails to Expressways. Ann Arbor, MI: Braun-Brumfield. OCLC 23314983. 
  • McNichol, Dan (2006). The Roads that Built America. New York: Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-3468-9. 
  • Woodard, Sadie G. (1966). Grand River Road: A Traveler's View of a Historic Route that Traversed Early Michigan. Lansing: Plane Tree Press. OCLC 433271. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing

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