Grand Tour (cycling)

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In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España. Collectively they are termed the Grand Tours, and all three races are similar in format being multi-week races with daily stages. They have a special status in the UCI regulations: more points for the UCI World Tour are distributed in Grand Tours than in other races,[1] and they are the only stage races allowed to last longer than 14 days.[2]

The Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious[1] of all three, and also the world's most famous cycling race. The Giro d'Italia is the second most important[3][4][5][6] and has occasionally been as popular as the Tour (late '40s, '50s, and early '70s). While the Tour de France has long been a household sporting name around the globe, known even to those not interested in cycling, the other two European Grand Tours are relatively unknown outside the continent, where they are familiar only to cycling enthusiasts.

Description[edit]

In their current form, the Grand Tours are held over three consecutive weeks and typically include two "rest" days near the end of the first and second week. The stages are a mix of long massed start races (sometimes including mountain and hill climbs and descents; others are flat stages favoring those with a sprint finish), as well as individual and team time trials and non-competitive exhibition and rest days. Unlike most one-day races, stages in the Grand Tours are generally under 200 kilometers in length.

Controversy often surrounds which teams are invited to the event. Typically, the Union Cycliste Internationale (International Cycling Union) prefers top-rated professional teams to enter, while operators of the Grand Tours often want teams based in their country or those unlikely to cause controversy. From 2005 to 2007, organisers had to accept all ProTour teams, leaving only two wildcard teams per Tour. However, the Unibet team, a ProTour team normally guaranteed entry, was banned from the three Grand Tours due to gambling advertising laws. In 2008, following numerous doping scandals, some teams were refused entry to the Grand Tours: Astana did not compete at the 2008 Tour de France and Team Columbia did not compete at the 2008 Vuelta a España. Since 2011, under the UCI World Tour rules, all ProTour teams are guaranteed a place in all three events, and obliged to participate.

The prizes include the individual General classification, the team classification, the King of the Mountains, the points classification, and often the best young rider classification, in addition to other less known classifications. The most contested ones are the individual general classification (Maillot jaune -yellow jersey- in the Tour de France, Maglia rosa -pink jersey- in the Giro d'Italia, and Jersey rojo -red jersey- in the Vuelta a España, ; king of the mountains classification (Maillot à pois rouges -red polka dotted jersey- in the Tour, Maglia Azzurra -blue jersey- in the Giro, and Jersey de puntos azules -blue polka dotted jersey- in the Vuelta); and points classification (Maillot vert -green jersey- in the Tour, Maglia Rosso Passione -red jersey- in the Giro, and Jersey verde -green jersey- in the Vuelta). Only three riders have won all three in the same race: Eddy Merckx in the 1968 Giro d'Italia and 1969 Tour de France, Tony Rominger in the 1993 Vuelta a España and Laurent Jalabert in the 1995 Vuelta a España.[7]

It is rare for cyclists to ride all grand tours in the same year; in 2004, 474 cyclists started in at least one of the grand tours, 68 of them rode two Grand Tours and only two cyclists started in all three grand tours.[8] It is not unusual for sprinters and their leadout men, who do not expect to complete each race, to start each of the Grand Tours and aim for stage wins before the most difficult stages occur. Alessandro Petacchi and Mark Cavendish started all three Grand Tours in 2010 and 2011, respectively, as did some of their preferred support riders. For both riders in both years, only the Tour de France was ridden to its conclusion.

Over the years, 32 riders have completed all three Grand Tours in one year. Marino Lejarreta has done it four times, Bernardo Ruiz three times, Eduardo Chozas and Carlos Sastre twice each, and 28 more riders have achieved the feat once.

The only riders to have finished top 10 in each three during one year are Raphaël Géminiani in 1955 and Gastone Nencini in 1957.

UCI rules[edit]

For the UCI World Tour, more points are given in grand tours than in other races; the winner of the Tour de France receives 200 points, and the winners of the Giro and Vuelta receive 170 points, while other races give 100 points at most.[1] The grand tours have a special status for the length: they are allowed to last between 15 and 23 days.[2]

Grand Tour winners[edit]

Year  Giro d'Italia (ITA)  Tour de France (FRA)  Vuelta a España (ESP)
1903  Maurice Garin (FRA)
1904  Henri Cornet (FRA)
1905  Louis Trousselier (FRA)
1906  René Pottier (FRA)
1907  Lucien Petit-Breton (FRA) (1/2)
1908  Lucien Petit-Breton (FRA) (2/2)
1909  Luigi Ganna (ITA)  François Faber (LUX)
1910  Carlo Galetti (ITA) (1/3)  Octave Lapize (FRA)
1911  Carlo Galetti (ITA) (2/3)  Gustave Garrigou (FRA)
1912  Team Atala (ITA)
 Carlo Galetti (ITA) (3/3)
 Giovanni Micheletto (ITA)
 Eberardo Pavesi (ITA)
 Odile Defraye (BEL)
1913  Carlo Oriani (ITA)  Philippe Thys (BEL) (1/3)
1914  Alfonso Calzolari (ITA)  Philippe Thys (BEL) (2/3)
1915 Not contested Not contested
1916
1917
1918
1919  Costante Girardengo (ITA) (1/2)  Firmin Lambot (BEL) (1/2)
1920  Gaetano Belloni (ITA)  Philippe Thys (BEL) (3/3)
1921  Giovanni Brunero (ITA) (1/3)  Léon Scieur (BEL)
1922  Giovanni Brunero (ITA) (2/3)  Firmin Lambot (BEL) (2/2)
1923  Costante Girardengo (ITA) (2/2)  Henri Pélissier (FRA)
1924  Giuseppe Enrici (ITA)  Ottavio Bottecchia (ITA) (1/2)
1925  Alfredo Binda (ITA) (1/5)  Ottavio Bottecchia (ITA) (2/2)
1926  Giovanni Brunero (ITA) (3/3)  Lucien Buysse (BEL)
1927  Alfredo Binda (ITA) (2/5)  Nicolas Frantz (LUX) (1/2)
1928  Alfredo Binda (ITA) (3/5)  Nicolas Frantz (LUX) (2/2)
1929  Alfredo Binda (ITA) (4/5)  Maurice De Waele (BEL)
1930  Luigi Marchisio (ITA)  André Leducq (FRA) (1/2)
1931  Francesco Camusso (ITA)  Antonin Magne (FRA) (1/2)
1932  Antonio Pesenti (ITA)  André Leducq (FRA) (2/2)
1933  Alfredo Binda (ITA) (5/5)  Georges Speicher (FRA)
1934  Learco Guerra (ITA)  Antonin Magne (FRA) (2/2)
1935  Vasco Bergamaschi (ITA)  Romain Maes (BEL)  Gustaaf Deloor (BEL) (1/2)
1936  Gino Bartali (ITA) (1/5)  Sylvère Maes (BEL) (1/2)  Gustaaf Deloor (BEL) (2/2)
1937  Gino Bartali (ITA) (2/5)  Roger Lapébie (FRA) Not contested
1938  Giovanni Valetti (ITA) (1/2)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (3/5)
1939  Giovanni Valetti (ITA) (2/2)  Sylvère Maes (BEL) (2/2)
1940  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (1/7) Not contested
1941 Not contested  Julián Berrendero (ESP) (1/2)
1942  Julián Berrendero (ESP) (2/2)
1943 Not contested
1944
1945  Delio Rodríguez (ESP)
1946  Gino Bartali (ITA) (4/5)  Dalmacio Langarica (ESP)
1947  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (2/7)  Jean Robic (FRA)  Edward Van Dijck (BEL)
1948  Fiorenzo Magni (ITA) (1/3)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (5/5)  Bernardo Ruiz (ESP)
1949  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (3/7)  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (4/7) Not contested
1950  Hugo Koblet (SUI) (1/2)  Ferdinand Kübler (SUI)  Emilio Rodríguez (ESP)
1951  Fiorenzo Magni (ITA) (2/3)  Hugo Koblet (SUI) (2/2) Not contested
1952  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (5/7)  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (6/7)
1953  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (7/7)  Louison Bobet (FRA) (1/3)
1954  Carlo Clerici (SUI)  Louison Bobet (FRA) (2/3)
1955  Fiorenzo Magni (ITA) (3/3)  Louison Bobet (FRA) (3/3)  Jean Dotto (FRA)
1956  Charly Gaul (LUX) (1/3)  Roger Walkowiak (FRA)  Angelo Conterno (ITA)
1957  Gastone Nencini (ITA)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (1/8)  Jesús Loroño (ESP)
1958  Ercole Baldini (ITA)  Charly Gaul (LUX) (2/3)  Jean Stablinski (FRA)
1959  Charly Gaul (LUX) (3/3)  Federico Bahamontes (ESP)  Antonio Suárez (ESP)
1960  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (2/8)  Gastone Nencini (ITA)  Frans De Mulder (BEL)
1961  Arnaldo Pambianco (ITA)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (3/8)  Angelino Soler (ESP)
1962  Franco Balmamion (ITA) (1/2)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (4/8)  Rudi Altig (GER)
1963  Franco Balmamion (ITA) (2/2)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (5/8)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (6/8)
1964  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (7/8)  Jacques Anquetil (FRA) (8/8)  Raymond Poulidor (FRA)
1965  Vittorio Adorni (ITA)  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (1/5)  Rolf Wolfshohl (GER)
1966  Gianni Motta (ITA)  Lucien Aimar (FRA)  Francisco Gabica (ESP)
1967  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (2/5)  Roger Pingeon (FRA) (1/2)  Jan Janssen (NED) (1/2)
1968  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (1/11)  Jan Janssen (NED) (2/2)  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (3/5)
1969  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (4/5)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (2/11)  Roger Pingeon (FRA) (2/2)
1970  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (3/11)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (4/11)  Luis Ocaña (ESP) (1/2)
1971  Gösta Pettersson (SWE)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (5/11)  Ferdinand Bracke (BEL)
1972  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (6/11)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (7/11)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (1/2)
1973  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (9/11)  Luis Ocaña (ESP) (2/2)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (8/11)
1974  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (10/11)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (11/11)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (2/2)
1975  Fausto Bertoglio (ITA)  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) (1/2)  Agustín Tamames (ESP)
1976  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (5/5)  Lucien Van Impe (BEL)  José Pesarrodona (ESP)
1977  Michel Pollentier (BEL)  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) (2/2)  Freddy Maertens (BEL)
1978  Johan De Muynck (BEL)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (1/10)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (2/10)
1979  Giuseppe Saronni (ITA) (1/2)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (3/10)  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) (1/2)
1980  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (4/10)  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) (2/2)  Faustino Rupérez (ESP)
1981  Giovanni Battaglin (ITA) (2/2)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (5/10)  Giovanni Battaglin (ITA) (1/2)
1982  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (6/10)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (7/10)  Marino Lejarreta (ESP)
1983  Giuseppe Saronni (ITA) (2/2)  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (1/3)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (8/10)
1984  Francesco Moser (ITA)  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (2/3)  Éric Caritoux (FRA)
1985  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (9/10)  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (10/10)  Pedro Delgado (ESP) (1/3)
1986  Roberto Visentini (ITA)  Greg LeMond (USA) (1/3)  Álvaro Pino (ESP)
1987  Stephen Roche (IRL) (1/2)  Stephen Roche (IRL) (2/2)  Luis Herrera (COL)
1988  Andy Hampsten (USA)  Pedro Delgado (ESP) (2/3)  Sean Kelly (IRL)
1989  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (3/3)  Greg LeMond (USA) (2/3)  Pedro Delgado (ESP) (3/3)
1990  Gianni Bugno (ITA)  Greg LeMond (USA) (3/3)  Marco Giovannetti (ITA)
1991  Franco Chioccioli (ITA)  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (1/7)  Melchor Mauri (ESP)
1992  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (2/7)  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (3/7)  Tony Rominger (SUI) (1/4)
1993  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (4/7)  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (5/7)  Tony Rominger (SUI) (2/4)
1994  Eugeni Berzin (RUS)  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (6/7)  Tony Rominger (SUI) (3/4)
1995  Tony Rominger (SUI) (4/4)  Miguel Indurain (ESP) (7/7)  Laurent Jalabert (FRA)
1996  Pavel Tonkov (RUS)  Bjarne Riis (DEN)  Alex Zülle (SUI) (1/2)
1997  Ivan Gotti (ITA) (1/2)  Jan Ullrich (GER) (1/2)  Alex Zülle (SUI) (2/2)
1998  Marco Pantani (ITA) (1/2)  Marco Pantani (ITA) (2/2)  Abraham Olano (ESP)
1999  Ivan Gotti (ITA) (2/2)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (1/7)[A]  Jan Ullrich (GER) (2/2)
2000  Stefano Garzelli (ITA)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (2/7)[A]  Roberto Heras (ESP) (1/3)
2001  Gilberto Simoni (ITA) (1/2)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (3/7)[A]  Ángel Casero (ESP)
2002  Paolo Savoldelli (ITA) (1/2)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (4/7)[A]  Aitor González (ESP)
2003  Gilberto Simoni (ITA) (2/2)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (5/7)[A]  Roberto Heras (ESP) (2/3)
2004  Damiano Cunego (ITA)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (6/7)[A]  Roberto Heras (ESP) (3/3)
2005  Paolo Savoldelli (ITA) (2/2)  Lance Armstrong (USA) (7/7)[A]  Denis Menchov (RUS) (1/3)
2006  Ivan Basso (ITA) (1/2)  Óscar Pereiro (ESP)  Alexander Vinokourov (KAZ)
2007  Danilo Di Luca (ITA)  Alberto Contador (ESP) (1/6)  Denis Menchov (RUS) (2/3)
2008  Alberto Contador (ESP) (2/6)  Carlos Sastre (ESP)  Alberto Contador (ESP) (3/6)
2009  Denis Menchov (RUS) (3/3)  Alberto Contador (ESP) (4/6)  Alejandro Valverde (ESP)
2010  Ivan Basso (ITA) (2/2)  Andy Schleck (LUX)  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) (1/3)
2011  Michele Scarponi (ITA)  Cadel Evans (AUS)  Juan José Cobo (ESP)
2012  Ryder Hesjedal (CAN)  Bradley Wiggins (GBR)  Alberto Contador (ESP) (5/6)
2013  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) (2/3)  Chris Froome (GBR)  Chris Horner (USA)
2014  Nairo Quintana (COL)  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) (3/3)  Alberto Contador (ESP) (6/6)

A. a b c d e f g Lance Armstrong was declared winner of seven consecutive tours from 1999 to 2005. However, in October 2012 he was stripped of all titles by the UCI due to his use of performance enhancing drugs. However, in October 2014, the Tour de France resumed listing Armstrong as a previous winner of the tour, but with his name crossed out.[9]

Statistics[edit]

Most Grand Tour wins per rider[edit]

Rank Name Total Wins Tour de France Giro d'Italia Vuelta a España
1  Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) 11 5 (1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974) 5 (1968, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974) 1 (1973)
2  Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault (FRA) 10 5 (1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985) 3 (1980, 1982, 1985) 2 (1978, 1983)
3  Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) 8 5 (1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964) 2 (1960, 1964) 1 (1963)
4  Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain (ESP) 7 5 (1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995) 2 (1992, 1993) 0
 Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) 7 2 (1949, 1952) 5 (1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953) 0
6  Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador (ESP) 6 2 (2007, 2009) 1 (2008) 3 (2008, 2012, 2014)
7  Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) 5 2 (1938, 1948) 3 (1936, 1937, 1946) 0
 Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda (ITA) 5 0 5 (1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1933) 0
 Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi (ITA) 5 1 (1965) 3 (1967, 1969, 1976) 1 (1968)
10  Rominger, TonyTony Rominger (SUI) 4 0 1 (1995) 3 (1992, 1993, 1994)

Winners of all three Grand Tours[edit]

Only six cyclists have won all three of the Grand Tours during their career:[10]

Winners of two Grand Tours in a year[edit]

No cyclist has ever won all three Grand Tour events in the same year. Nine riders have achieved a double by winning two grand tours in the same year.

Seven cyclists have won the Tour and the Giro in the same year:[10]

The Tour/Vuelta double has been achieved by two cyclists:[10]

The Giro/Vuelta double has been achieved by three cyclists:[10]

Of the above nine, Pantani, Roche and Battaglin's doubles were their only Grand Tour victories in their careers. Only two cyclists have placed in the top ten at all three Grand Tours in the same year: Geminiani in 1955 and Nencini in 1957.

Most Mountain Jerseys[edit]

Main article: King of the Mountains
Rank Name Total Wins Tour de France Giro d'Italia Vuelta a España
1  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) 9 6 (1954, 1958, 1959, 1962, 1963, 1964) 1 (1956) 2 (1957, 1958)
 Gino Bartali (ITA) 9 2 (1938, 1948) 7 (1935, 1936, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1946, 1947) 0
3  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) 8 6 (1971, 1972, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1983) 2 (1982, 1983) 0
4  Richard Virenque (FRA) 7 7 (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004) 0 0

The Tour/Giro/Vuelta triple has been achieved by two riders –  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) and  Luis Herrera (COL).

Most Points Jerseys[edit]

Main article: Points classification
Rank Name Total Wins Tour de France Giro d'Italia Vuelta a España
1  Erik Zabel (GER) 9 6 (1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001) 0 3 (2002, 2003, 2004)
2  Sean Kelly (IRL) 8 4 (1982, 1983, 1985, 1989) 0 4 (1980, 1985, 1986, 1988)
3  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) 7 2 (1992, 1995) 1 (1999) 4 (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997)
4  Eddy Merckx (BEL) 6 3 (1969, 1971, 1972) 2 (1968, 1973) 1 (1973)

The Tour/Giro/Vuelta triple has been achieved by five riders –  Djamolidine Abdoujaparov (UZB),  Mark Cavendish (GBR),  Laurent Jalabert (FRA),  Eddy Merckx (BEL) and  Alessandro Petacchi (ITA).

Most Young Rider Jerseys[edit]

Rank Name Total Wins Tour de France Giro d'Italia
1  Andy Schleck (LUX) 4 3 (2008, 2009, 2010) 1 (2007)
2  Jan Ullrich (GER) 3 3 (1996, 1997, 1998) 0

The Tour/Giro double has been achieved by two riders –  Nairo Quintana (COL) and  Andy Schleck (LUX).

Most Grand Tour stage wins[edit]

Cyclists whose names are in bold are still active.[11] This list is complete up to and including the 2014 Vuelta a España.

Rank Name Country Tour De France
stage wins[12]
Giro d'Italia
stage wins
Vuelta a España
stage wins
Grand Tour
stage wins
1 Eddy Merckx  Belgium 34 24 6 64
2 Mario Cipollini  Italy 12 42 3 57
3 Alessandro Petacchi  Italy 6 22 20 48
4 Alfredo Binda  Italy 2 41 0 43
Mark Cavendish  United Kingdom 25 15 3 43
6 Bernard Hinault  France 28 6 7 41
7 Learco Guerra  Italy 8 31 0 39
Delio Rodríguez  Spain 0 0 39 39
9 Rik Van Looy  Belgium 7 12 18 37
10 Freddy Maertens  Belgium 15 7 13 35
11 Fausto Coppi  Italy 9 22 0 31
12 Costante Girardengo  Italy 0 30 0 30
13 Gino Bartali  Italy 12 17 0 29
14 Marino Basso  Italy 6 15 6 27
15 Guido Bontempi  Italy 6 16 4 26
Raffaele Di Paco  Italy 11 15 0 26
Miguel Poblet  Spain 3 20 3 26
18 Franco Bitossi  Italy 4 21 0 25
Laurent Jalabert  France 4 3 18 25
André Leducq  France 25 0 0 25
Francesco Moser  Italy 2 23 0 25
Rik Van Steenbergen  Belgium 4 15 6 25
23 Roger De Vlaeminck  Belgium 1 22 1 24
Robbie McEwen  Australia 12 12 0 24
Giuseppe Saronni  Italy 0 24 0 24
26 Jacques Anquetil  France 16 5 1 22
André Darrigade  France 22 0 0 22
Jean Paul van Poppel  Netherlands 9 4 9 22
29 Charly Gaul  Luxembourg 10 11 0 21
Sean Kelly  Ireland 5 0 16 21

Only three cyclists have won stages in all three of the Grand Tours in the same year:[13]

Grand Tour finishers[edit]

Only 32 riders have finished all three Grand Tours in one season. Marino Lejarreta did it four times between 1987 and 1991, Bernardo Ruiz and Adam Hansen achieved it in three different years, while Eduardo Chozas and Carlos Sastre have completed the accomplishment twice.[14][15]

The rider with most participations on Grand Tours is Eduardo Chozas, with 27 (6 Tours, 7 Giros and 14 Vueltas). He is also the rider which has finished most Grand Tours, with 26: the only Grand Tour he could not finish was the 1984 Vuelta a España (he retired on the last stage). [16] Adam Hansen has finished the most consecutive Grand Tours: 10 tours (from 2011 Vuelta a España till 2014 Vuelta a España).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "UCI Cycling regulations". p. 56. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  2. ^ a b "UCI Cycling regulations". p. 41. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  3. ^ The Tour, the Giro and the Road World Cycling Championship make up the Triple Crown of Cycling.
  4. ^ An American in Italy cyclingnews.com, May 5, 2009
  5. ^ Million dollar, baby! cyclingnews.com, January 12, 2007
  6. ^ Vuelta a España A-Z cyclingnews.com, September 7, 2008
  7. ^ "Tony Rominger". Cycling Hall of Fame.com. 1961-03-27. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  8. ^ Riche, Antoine (19 March 2005). "Doubler deux Grands Tours revient à la mode" (in French). CyclisMag. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  9. ^ "Tour de France shorts: Armstrong is back, an Alpine Etape du Tour". Cyclingnews.com. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Historical Results – The Grand Tours". Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  11. ^ "Giro d'Italia 2009" (pdf). Infostrada sports. 2009. p. 208. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Le Tour en chiffres : Les vainqueurs d'étapes". ASO. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  13. ^ Petacchi equals Poblet and Baffi, September 9, 2003, Cyclingnews]
  14. ^ L'impresa di Adam Hansen: completati Giro, Tour e Vuelta in un anno, Spazio Ciclismo, 9. sept. 2012
  15. ^ Tour Xtra: Tour Records
  16. ^ Curriculum de Eduardo Chozas, 30. oct. 2012