Brodmann area 9

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Brodmann area 9
Brodmann area 9.png
Brodmann Cytoarchitectonics 9.png
Details
Latin Area frontalis granularis
Identifiers
NeuroLex ID Brodmann area 9
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

Brodmann area 9, or BA9, is part of the frontal cortex in the brain of humans and other primates. It contributes to the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex.

Guenon[edit]

The term Brodmann area 9 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the frontal lobe of the guenon. Brodmann-1909 regarded it on the whole as topographically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the granular frontal area 9 and frontopolar area 10 in the human. Distinctive features (Brodmann-1905): Unlike Brodmann area 6-1909, area 9 has a distinct internal granular layer (IV); unlike Brodmann area 6 or Brodmann area 8-1909, its internal pyramidal layer (V) is divisible into two sublayers, an outer layer 5a of densely distributed medium-size ganglion cells that partially merges with layer IV, and an inner, clearer, cell-poor layer 5b; the pyramidal cells of sublayer 3b of the external pyramidal layer (III) are smaller and sparser in distribution; the external granular layer (II) is narrow, with small numbers of sparsely distributed granule cells.[1]

Functions[edit]

The area is involved in short term memory,[2] evaluating recency,[3] overriding automatic responses,[4] verbal fluency,[5] error detection,[6] auditory verbal attention,[7] inferring the intention of others,[8] inferring deduction from spatial imagery,[9] inductive reasoning,[10] attributing intention,[11] sustained attention involved in counting a series of auditory stimuli,[12] and lower levels of energy consumption in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder.[13]

The area found on the left hemisphere is at least partially responsible for empathy,[14] idioms,[15][16] processing pleasant and unpleasant emotional scenes,[17] self criticisms[18] and attention to negative emotions.[19]

On the right hemisphere the region is involved in attributing intention,[20] theory of mind,[21] suppressing sadness,[22] working memory,[23][24][25] spacial memory,[26][27] recognition,[28][29][30] recall,[29][31][32] recognizing the emotions of others,[33] planning,[34] calculation,[35][36] semantic and perceptual processing of odors,[37] religiosity,[38] and attention to positive emotions.[19]

Image[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^  This article incorporates text from this source, which is licensed under CC-BY 3.0.[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ Babiloni C, Ferretti A, Del Gratta C, et al. (May 2005). "Human cortical responses during one-bit delayed-response tasks: an fMRI study". Brain Research Bulletin 65 (5): 383–90. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.01.013. PMID 15833592. 
  3. ^ Zorrilla LT, Aguirre GK, Zarahn E, Cannon TD, D'Esposito M (November 1996). "Activation of the prefrontal cortex during judgments of recency: a functional MRI study". Neuroreport 7 (15-17): 2803–6. PMID 8981471. 
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  7. ^ Nakai T, Kato C, Matsuo K (2005). "An FMRI study to investigate auditory attention: a model of the cocktail party phenomenon". Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences 4 (2): 75–82. doi:10.2463/mrms.4.75. PMID 16340161. 
  8. ^ Goel V, Grafman J, Sadato N, Hallett M (September 1995). "Modeling other minds". Neuroreport 6 (13): 1741–6. PMID 8541472. 
  9. ^ Knauff M, Mulack T, Kassubek J, Salih HR, Greenlee MW (April 2002). "Spatial imagery in deductive reasoning: a functional MRI study". Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research 13 (2): 203–12. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(01)00116-1. PMID 11958963. 
  10. ^ Goel V, Gold B, Kapur S, Houle S (March 1997). "The seats of reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning". Neuroreport 8 (5): 1305–10. PMID 9175134. 
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  17. ^ Lane RD, Reiman EM, Bradley MM, et al. (November 1997). "Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion". Neuropsychologia 35 (11): 1437–44. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(97)00070-5. PMID 9352521. 
  18. ^ Longe O, Maratos FA, Gilbert P, et al. (January 2010). "Having a word with yourself: neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance". NeuroImage 49 (2): 1849–56. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.019. PMID 19770047. 
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  20. ^ Brunet E, Sarfati Y, Hardy-Baylé MC, Decety J (February 2000). "A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task". NeuroImage 11 (2): 157–66. doi:10.1006/nimg.1999.0525. PMID 10679187. 
  21. ^ Gallagher HL, Jack AI, Roepstorff A, Frith CD (July 2002). "Imaging the intentional stance in a competitive game". NeuroImage 16 (3 Pt 1): 814–21. doi:10.1006/nimg.2002.1117. PMID 12169265. 
  22. ^ Kaur S, Sassi RB, Axelson D, et al. (September 2005). "Cingulate cortex anatomical abnormalities in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (9): 1637–43. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1637. PMID 16135622. 
  23. ^ Zhang JX, Leung HC, Johnson MK (November 2003). "Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study". NeuroImage 20 (3): 1531–9. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.07.016. PMID 14642465. 
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  37. ^ Royet JP, Koenig O, Gregoire MC, et al. (January 1999). "Functional anatomy of perceptual and semantic processing for odors". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11 (1): 94–109. PMID 9950717. 
  38. ^ Azari NP, Nickel J, Wunderlich G, et al. (April 2001). "Neural correlates of religious experience". The European Journal of Neuroscience 13 (8): 1649–52. doi:10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01527.x. PMID 11328359. 

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