Granulysin

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Granulysin is a substance released by cytotoxic T cells (CD8) when they are attached to infected body cells. It functions to create holes in the target cell membrane and destroy it. Granulysin is able to induce apoptosis in target cells and also has antimicrobial action [1]. Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by subtractive hybridization during a search for genes expressed by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes 3–5 days after their activation. It is expressed in cytolytic granules with perforin, a pore forming protein, and granzymes that are also involved in cytolysis. Granulysin is broadly antimicrobial, killing microbes that cause, for example, tuberculosis and malaria, and can destroy some tumors. A series of peptides generated from the amino acid sequence of granulysin are potential antibiotics.

Granulysin has recently been implicated in the development of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janeway, Charles (2005). Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease (6th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. 
  2. Krista Conger. Grant to fund research into preventing bioterrorism, Stanford Report, November 12, 2003.
  3. Stenger S, Hanson DA, Teitelbaum R, et al. (October 1998). "An antimicrobial activity of cytolytic T cells mediated by granulysin". Science 282 (5386): 121–5. doi:10.1126/science.282.5386.121. PMID 9756476. 
  4. Peña SV, Hanson DA, Carr BA, Goralski TJ, Krensky AM (March 1997). "Processing, subcellular localization, and function of 519 (granulysin), a human late T cell activation molecule with homology to small, lytic, granule proteins". J. Immunol. 158 (6): 2680–8. PMID 9058801. 
  5. Krensky AM, Clayberger C (August 2005). "Granulysin: a novel host defense molecule". Am. J. Transplant. 5 (8): 1789–92. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.00970.x. PMID 15996224. 
  6. da Silva AP, Unks D, Lyu SC, et al. (May 2008). "In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of granulysin-derived peptides against Vibrio cholerae". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 61 (5): 1103–9. doi:10.1093/jac/dkn058. PMC 2664651. PMID 18310138. 
  7. Nat Med. 2008 Dec;14(12):1343-50. doi: 10.1038/nm.1884. Epub 2008 Nov 23. Granulysin is a key mediator for disseminated keratinocyte death in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Chung WH, Hung SI, Yang JY, Su SC, Huang SP, Wei CY, Chin SW, Chiou CC, Chu SC, Ho HC, Yang CH, Lu CF, Wu JY, Liao YD, Chen YT.