Granville rail disaster
|Granville rail disaster|
|Date||18 January 1977|
|Location||Granville, New South Wales
19.06 km (11.84 mi) WNW from Sydney
|Rail line||Main Western line|
|Operator||New South Wales Public Transport Commission|
|Type of incident||Derailment|
|Cause||Poor track condition and worn wheels on front of the locomotive|
The Granville rail disaster occurred on 18 January 1977 at Granville, a suburb in Western Sydney, Australia, when a crowded commuter train derailed, running into the supports of a road bridge that collapsed onto two of the train's passenger carriages. It was the worst rail disaster in Australian history: 83 people died, more than 210 were injured, and 1,300 were affected.
The crowded 6:09 a.m. from Mount Victoria, in the Blue Mountains, Sydney-bound eight carriage commuter train was hauled by a New South Wales 46 class locomotive No. 4620. It was approaching Granville railway station when it left the rails at approximately 8:10 a.m. and hit a row of supports of the overhead Bold Street bridge, constructed from steel and concrete.
The derailed engine and first two carriages passed the bridge. The first carriage broke free from the other carriages. Carriage one was torn open when it collided with a severed mast beside the track, killing eight passengers. The remaining carriages ground to a halt, with the second carriage clear of the bridge. The rear half of the third carriage, and forward half of the fourth carriage came to rest under the weakened bridge. Within seconds, with all its supports demolished, the bridge and several motor cars on top of it crashed onto the carriages, crushing them and the passengers inside. The weight of the concrete bridge was estimated at 570 tonnes. Of the total number of passengers travelling in the third and fourth carriages, half were killed when the bridge collapsed on them.
Many passengers in the third and fourth carriages were killed instantly when the bridge crushed them in their seats. Several injured passengers were trapped in the train, for hours after the accident, by part of the bridge crushing a limb or torso. Some had been conscious and lucid, talking to rescuers, but died of crush syndrome soon after the weight was removed from their bodies. This was due to the sudden release of substances such as potassium from the injured limb. This resulted in changes to rescue procedures for these kinds of accidents.
Another danger came from gas; large gas cylinders were kept year-round on board the train to be used in winter for heating. Several people were overcome by gas leaking from ruptured cylinders. The leaking gas also prevented the immediate use of powered rescue tools. The NSW Fire Brigade provided ventilation equipment to dispel the gas and a constant film of water was sprayed over the accident site to prevent the possibility of the gas igniting.
The train driver, the assistant crewman, the "second man", and the motorists driving on the fallen bridge all survived. The operation lasted from 8:12am Tuesday until 6:00am Thursday. Ultimately, 83 people were killed in the accident.
The bridge was rebuilt as a single span without any intermediate support piers. Other bridges similar to the destroyed bridge had their piers reinforced.
The inquiry into the accident found that the primary cause of the crash was "the very unsatisfactory condition of the permanent way", being the poor fastening of the track, causing the track to spread and allowing the left front wheel of the locomotive to come off the rail. How this happened was related to the high turnover of staff combined with a lack of standard procedures for track inspections. The posted limit for the track was not shown to be too great, provided appropriate track inspection and maintenance was occurring.
Other contributing factors included the structure of the bridge itself. When built it was found to be one metre lower than the road. Concrete was added on top to build the surface up level with the road. This additional weight significantly added to the destruction of the wooden train carriages.
The disaster caused substantial increases in rail-maintenance expenditure.
The train driver, Edward Olencewicz was exonerated by the inquiry.
The Granville Memorial Trust was established after the accident to commemorate the victims and campaign for improvements to rail safety.
The Trust organises an annual memorial service on the anniversary of the crash. Families and friends of the victims gather with surviving members of the rescue crews in a march through Granville to the Bold Street bridge where the accident occurred. The ceremony ends with the throwing of 83 roses on to the tracks to mark the number of passengers killed. In 2007, a plaque was placed atop the bridge to mark the efforts of railway workers who assisted in rescuing survivors from the train.
Trust members also make submissions on rail safety issues, including recommending that fines for safety breaches be dedicated to rail safety improvements, and campaigning for the establishment of an independent railway safety ombudsman.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2009)|
An Australian telemovie made in 1998, The Day of the Roses, describes the coronial investigation into the incident. More than two years of intensive research was undertaken to chronicle the historical events that resulted in what was then Australia's worst peacetime disaster. The telemovie described the disaster's real cause,[clarification needed] several victims, the rescuers, other people who assisted victims, and the ongoing annual ceremony of dropping roses from the current bridge site onto the rail lines.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2008)|
- "Medical Review Seminar Lidcombe Hospital −15 February 1977". Granville Historical Society. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
- True story of courage and compassion at The Australian
- "Granville victims remembered". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Granville memorial organisers forced to beg". The Daily Telegraph. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.[dead link]
- "Waterfall disaster fine low: opposition". National Nine News. 16 January 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Rail safety election vow by Brogden". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- Danger Ahead! Granville, Sydney, Australia
- Documentary on the Granville Train Disaster (video)
- "Formal Investigation of an Accident on or about the Up Main Western Railway Line at Granville on 18th January 1977 - Summary of findings". NSW State Records. 11 May 1977.