Grape seed oil

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Grape Seed Oil
GrapeSeedOil.png
Grape seed oil in clear glass vial
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated Palmitic: 7%
Stearic: 4%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated 86%
Monounsaturated 16.1%
Palmitoleic acid <1%
Oleic acid 15.8%
Polyunsaturated 69.9%
Omega-3 fatty acids α-Linolenic: 0.1%
Omega-6 fatty acids Linoleic: 69.6%
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz) 3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point 216 °C (421 °F)
Iodine value 124-143
Saponification value 126 (NaOH)
180-196 (KOH)
Unsaponifiable 0.3% - 1.6%
Peroxide value 2.92 mequiv/kg

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.

Uses[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is also excellent for use in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is also sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.[1]

The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is typical of vegetable oils: approximately 3,700 kJ (880 kcal) per 100 g, or 500 kJ (120 kcal) per 15 ml tablespoon.

Cosmetics[edit]

Grape seed oil is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for controlling moisture of the skin. Light and thin, grape seed oil leaves a glossy film over skin when used as a carrier oil for essential oils in aromatherapy. It contains more linoleic acid than many other carrier oils. Grape seed oil is also used as a lubricant for shaving.

Potential medicinal benefits[edit]

The properties of grape seed oil provide health benefits when consumed. A 1993 study supports the claim that grape seed oil increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C or "good cholesterol") levels and reduces LDL levels.[2]

Although grape seeds contain antioxidants and other biologically active compounds,[3] the cold-pressed grape seed oil contains negligible amounts due to their insolubility in lipids.[4] For instance, sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occur in grape seed for it to be extracted commercially,[5] yet it is almost entirely absent in the grape seed oil. Consumption of chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract has also been found to prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.[6]

Potential medicinal complications[edit]

Oligomeric procyanidin complexes found in grapeseed extract found in grapeseed oil may react with anticoagulants and phenacetin.[7]

Grapeseed oil has sometimes been found to contain dangerous levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons because of direct contact with combustion gases during the drying process.[8]

Composition[edit]

Grape seeds (Nr. 7 and 8) and grapes

The following table lists a typical fatty acid composition of grape seed oil:[9]

Acid Type Percentage
Linoleic acid ω−6 unsaturated 69.6%[10]
Oleic acid ω−9 unsaturated 15.8%
Palmitic acid
(Hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated 7%
Stearic acid
(Octadecanoic acid)
Saturated 4%
Alpha-linolenic acid ω−3 unsaturated 0.1%
Palmitoleic acid
(9-Hexadecenoic acid)
ω−7 unsaturated less than 1%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).[11] Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but safflower oil, cottonseed oil, or rice bran oil contain greater amounts.[12] Grapeseed oil is high in polyunsaturates and low in saturated fat.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bewley, J. Derek; Black, Michael; Halmer, Peter (2006). The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. CABI. ISBN 0-85199-723-6. 
  2. ^ Nash, DT (2004). "Cardiovascular risk beyond LDL-C levels: Other lipids are performers in cholesterol story". Postgraduate Medicine 116 (3): 11–5. PMID 15460086. 
  3. ^ Joshi, SS; Kuszynski C. A., Bagchi D. (2001). "The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2 (2): 187–200. doi:10.2174/1389201013378725. PMID 11480422. 
  4. ^ Nakamura, Y; Tsuji S; Tonogai Y (2003). "Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils". Journal of Health Science 49 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.45. 
  5. ^ Yilmaz, Y; Toledo, RT (February 2006). "Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of grape/wine industry byproducts and effect of solvent type on extraction of grape seed polyphenols". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (1): 41–48. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.10.009. 
  6. ^ Decorde, K; Teissèdre PL, Sutra T, Ventura E, Cristol JP, Rouanet JM. (May 2009). "Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.". Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 53 (5): 659–666. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200800165. PMID 19035554. 
  7. ^ Ehrlich, Steven D. "Grapeseed". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  8. ^ Moret, S.; Dudine, A. Conte, L.S. (2000). "Processing effects on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of grapeseed oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 77 (12): 1289–1292. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0203-5. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Kamel, B. S.; Dawson H., Kakuda Y. (1985). "Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 62 (5): 881–883. doi:10.1007/BF02541750. 
  10. ^ http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/635?fg=&man=&lfacet=&count=&max=&sort=&qlookup=&offset=&format=Full&new=
  11. ^ Oomah, B. D.; Liang J., Godfrey D., Mazza G. (1998). "Microwave Heating of Grapeseed: Effect on Oil Quality". J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (10): 4017–4021. doi:10.1021/jf980412f. 
  12. ^ Herting, D. C.; Drury, E. J. E. (1963). "Vitamin E Content of Vegetable Oils and Fats". J. Nutr. 81: 4017–4021. PMID 14100992.