|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
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Graphane (also known as a carbon nanosheet) is a two-dimensional polymer of carbon and hydrogen with the formula unit (CH)n where n is large. Graphane should not be confused with graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon alone. Graphane is a form of hydrogenated graphene. Graphane's carbon bonds are in sp3 configuration, as opposed to graphene's sp2 bond configuration, thus graphane is a two-dimensional analog of cubic diamond.
The first theoretical description of graphane was reported in 2003 and its preparation was reported in 2009.
Full hydrogenation from both sides of a graphene sheet results in graphane, but partial hydrogenation leads to hydrogenated graphene. Now they usually imply that the term graphane is used for a case when all graphene's bonds are saturated with hydrogen atoms. All other configurations with partly covered surface of graphene usually named as "graphane-like" structures. Graphane and graphane-like structures can be formed by electrolytic hydrogenation of graphene or few-layer graphene or high-oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the last case mechanical exfoliation of hydrogenated top layers can be used.
If graphene rests on a silica surface, hydrogenation on only one side of graphene preserves the hexagonal symmetry in graphane. One-sided hydrogenation of graphene becomes possible due to the existence of ripplings. Because the latter are distributed randomly, the obtained graphane is expected to be a disordered material in contrast to two-sided graphane. Annealing allows the hydrogen to disperse, reverting to graphene, the underlying kinetic mechanism of which has been revealed by theoretical simulations.
Any disorder in hydrogenation conformation tend to contract the lattice constant by about 2.0 percents, but hydrogenation will decrease the dependence of the lattice constant on temperature, which indicates the possible application of Graphane in precision instruments.
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