Temporal range: Early Pliocene - Recent
The genus Onychomys contains species commonly referred to as grasshopper mice. The three species in this genus of New World mice are only distantly related to the common house mouse, Mus musculus. They are endemic to the United States and Mexico. The southern grasshopper mouse is around 3.5 to 5.0 in long in body, and its tail is generally 1.0 to 2.5 in long.  Its behavior is rather distinct from other mice. It is a carnivorous rodent, dining on insects (such as grasshoppers), worms, scorpions, snakes, and even other mice. It also stalks its prey in the manner of a cat, sneaking up quietly, and defends its territory by "howling" like a small wolf. The grasshopper mouse is known to be immune to various venoms released by its prey (scorpions, snakes, etc.). Grasshopper mice tend to have low population densities. They are either alone or in pairs, one male with one female. Very territorial, their average territory size may equal their home range size of about 28 acres. Their aggressive nature extends beyond their hunting habits, and when held in captivity with other mice, they will often kill and eat those other mice.
- Mearns' grasshopper mouse or Chihuahuan grasshopper mouse Onychomys arenicola
- Northern grasshopper mouse, Onychomys leucogaster
- Southern grasshopper mouse, Onychomys torridus
- "Mearns' Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys Arenicola)." Mearns' Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys Arenicola). The Mammals of Texas- Online Edition, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
- Onychomys: Tiny Terror of the Western Deserts
- The Mammals of Texas: Mearns' grasshopper mouse
- The Mammals of Texas: Northern grasshopper mouse
- University of Michigan Animal Diversity Web: Genus Onychomys
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