Gravesend–Tilbury Ferry

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Coordinates: 51°26′55″N 0°22′3″E / 51.44861°N 0.36750°E / 51.44861; 0.36750 (Gravesend–Tilbury Ferry)

Ferry against Tilbury Power Station

The GravesendTilbury Ferry is a passenger ferry across the River Thames east of London. It is the last public crossing point before the Thames reaches the sea.

History[edit]

See also notes on Tilbury

The Tilbury Ferry in 1640
Ferry SS Gertrude, built 1906, pictured in 1924 or 1925

There were many ferries crossing the Thames in the area around Tilbury: one such operated between Higham and East Tilbury. This was owned by the manor of South Hall in East Tilbury which itself was owned by Rochester Bridge.[1]

The principal ferry operated between West Tilbury and Gravesend and was under the ownership of the Lord of the Manor of Parrock in Milton-next-Gravesend. A sketch-map of 1571[2] shows evidence of two jetties, the one on the north bank leading to a northward road crossing the marsh. There are also houses marked on the marsh itself, which was important for sheep grazing; and there is some evidence to suggest that the ferry was used for the cross-river transport of animals and wool.[3] Although the 17th-century drawing might suggest a boat too small for large consignments, the long-established Gravesend market encouraged such traffic, and a contemporary account suggests that one of the boats used was a hoy, a forerunner of the Thames sailing barge.[4] The rights to the Gravesend–Tilbury ferry were purchased by Gravesend Town Council in 1694. At the same time, the governor of Tilbury Fort obtained the right to a ferry in the opposite direction.[1][5] This originally operated from within the fort, but was later moved to a ferry house (now the World's End public house) just to the west of the fort. Sailing and rowing boats operated between Gravesend and Tilbury until they were replaced by a steam ferry service in 1855.

In 1852, the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway (LTS) was authorised to operate a ferry but only for its own passengers.[1] In 1862, the Gravesend Town Council ferry and the Board of Ordinance ferry were purchased by the LTS.[6] The railway company and its successors continued to operate the ferry until 1984.[1]

Car ferries were introduced in 1927 and discontinued in 1964, following the opening in 1963 of the first Dartford Tunnel.[7] In 1991 the service was taken over by White Horse Ferries Ltd and was operated by the MV Great Expectations, purpose-built in their own yard[8] until 1995 when it was transferred to their Southampton Water service.

Services[edit]

From 17 September 2012, ferries from Gravesend use the Town Pier instead of the West Street terminal. The ferry is currently operated by the Lower Thames and Medway Passenger Boat Company[9] and runs every 30 minutes between about 6 am and 7 pm from Monday to Saturday.[9] The ferry operation is subsidised by both Thurrock Council and Kent County Council.

Vessels Employed from 1855[edit]

Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Earl of Essex 1855 ? 180 ? Not railway owned.[10]
Earl of Leicester 1855 ? 180 ? Not railway owned.[11]
Owned by London, Tilbury and Southend Railway [LTS]
Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Cato 1848 128 Built as tug for Mersey service and purchased by LTS in 1873. Probably used in ferry service, perhaps as a back up. Replaced by new "Tilbury" in 1883.[11]
Tilbury 1855 180 Built by Henderson and Sons of Renfrew, a sister of "Earl of Essex" and "Earl of Leicester". Renamed "Sir Walter Raleigh" in 1882 and re-boilered in 1892. Scrapped in 1905.[11]
Thames 1868 125 Built by Bowdler,Chaffer and Company, Seacombe for service on Mersey jointly owned by London and North Western Railway and Great Western Railway. Was surplus to requirement and sold to LTS in 1882. Re-boilered in 1894 and scrapped in 1913 at Grays, Essex.[12]
Tilbury 1883 269 Built by J. and K. Smit, at Kinderdijk. Re-boilered in 1897 and scrapped in 1922.[13]
Carlotta 1893 261 Built by A.W.Robertson and Company at Canning Town. The first of four sisters. Scrapped in 1930.[14]
Rose 1901 259 Sister of "Carlotta" also built by A.W.Robertson and Company at Canning Town. Retired in February 1961 and was renamed "Rose ll" before being towed to Belgium for breaking up.[13]
Catherine 1903 259 Further sister of "Carlotta" built at Canning Town. Retired in 1960 and renamed "Catherine ll" before being towed to Belgium for breaking up.[13]
Gertrude 1906 255 Further sister of "Carlotta" built at Canning Town. Sold in 1932 to New Medway Steam Packet Company and renamed "Rochester Queen". Was sold to M.H Bland in Gibraltar and renamed "Caid". Further renaming in 1949 to "Djebel Derif" and dismantled in 1962.[15]
Edith 1911 283 Built by A.W. Robertson and Co., and served until 1961 when she was renamed "Edith ll" before being towed to Belgium for breaking up.[16]
( NB – All vessels in service in 1912 were transferred to the Midland Railway Company, and then became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway's fleet after 1923. )
Car Ferries introduced to service by London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) 
Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Tessa 1924 371 Built by Lytham Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., at Lytham. Launched new vehicular ferry service in October 1924, which operated until 1961 when competition from the new Dartford Tunnel had severely reduced carryings. Vessel broken up in 1961.[17]
Mimie 1927 464 A slightly larger version of "Tessa" built by Ferguson Bros., of Port Glasgow. Served until 1961 with "Tessa" when service ceased, and was broken up in the same year.[17]
In 1948 control of the service was transferred to the British Transport Commission's (BTC) – London Midland Region and all operational vessels were taken under their control. In 1959 that control was changed to the Eastern Region of British Railways.

Vessels brought into service by the Eastern Region were :

Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Catherine 1961 214 Built by White's Shipyard (Southampton) Ltd with a Voith Schneider cycloidal screw controlled from the bridge. The first of three sister vessels. In 1976 this statutory service was no longer viable and the High Court refused permission to close it, but the following year a compromise was reached when permission was granted to replace the vessel with a smaller one. The vessel's passenger certificate was suspended in 1984 and she was withdrawn from service. She was sold in 1990 to Open Leisure Ltd and converted in North Shields to a stern wheeler and renamed "Catherine Wheel" for River Tyne excursion work.[18]
Rose 1961 214 A sister to "Catherine with same builder. Sold in 1967 to Caledonian Steam Packet Company, and renamed "Keppel" for service on their Largs-Millport route. Ownership transferred to Scottish Transport Group in 1969. Continued in service on the Largs-Millport route until it closed in 1986, after which the vessel served as an excursion vessel. Withdrawn from service in 1992 and sold locally and renamed "Clyde Rose".[19]
Edith 1961 214 Sister to "Catherine" and "Rose" with same builder. Did relief work on the Humber when local vessels were being overhauled and in 1984 whilst based at Grimsby was sold to the Whitehorse Group to be used as a floating restaurant and bar.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d John Ormiston (1998). The Five Minute Crossing (2nd ed.). Thurrock Local History Society. 
  2. ^ Drawn by a one-time Portreve (Mayor) of Gravesend, William Bourne, and included in The Book of Gravesham Sydney Harker, 1979 ISBN 0-86023-091-0]
  3. ^ Tilbury Ferry: historical notes
  4. ^ Journey described by Celia Fiennes
  5. ^ Christopher Harrold (Ed) (2008). Exploring Thurrock. Thurrock Local History Society. 
  6. ^ The Book of Gravesham Sydney Harker, 1979 ISBN 0-86023-091-0
  7. ^ Simplon Postcards – The Passenger Ship Website. "Tilbury-Gravesend Ferries". The Railway Ferries – 1862–1984. Retrieved 12 April 2007. 
  8. ^ "Simplon Postcards – Great Expectations". 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  9. ^ a b Thurrock Council. "Ferry Services". Retrieved 12 April 2007. 
  10. ^ Haws,Duncan (1993); Merchant Ships – Britain's Railway Steamers – Eastern & North Western Companies + Zeeland and Stena ; Hereford, TCL Publications ; Page 124 ; ISBN 0-946378-22-3
  11. ^ a b c Haws (1993), P. 124
  12. ^ Haws (1993), P. 94
  13. ^ a b c Haws (1993), P. 125
  14. ^ Haws (1993),P. 125
  15. ^ Haws(1993), P. 125
  16. ^ Haws (1993), P. 126
  17. ^ a b Haws (1993), P. 175
  18. ^ Haws (1993), P. 163
  19. ^ a b Haws (1993), P. 164

External links[edit]