Great Central Railway (heritage railway)
|Great Central Railway|
|Great Central Railway|
|Locale||Loughborough, Leicestershire, England|
|Built by||Edward Watkin
Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway
|Original gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Operated by||Great Central Railway Plc|
|Length||8.25 miles (13.28 km) (Leicester)
10 miles (16 km) (Nottingham)
|Preserved gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Closed||17 March 1969|
|23 March 1974||GCR Reopened|
|1976||GCR Plc formed|
|2000||Double track opened|
|2012||Swithland Sidings opened to the public|
|Headquarters||Loughborough Central &
The GCR is currently Britain's only double track mainline heritage railway, with 5.25 miles (8.45 km) of working double track, period signalling, locomotives and rolling stock. It runs for 8.25 miles (13.28 km) in total from the large market town of Loughborough to a new terminus just north of Leicester.
Four stations are in operation, each restored to a period in the railway's commercial history, the 1950s Loughborough Central, Second World War and the remainder of the 1940s Quorn & Woodhouse, the Edwardian Era Rothley and the 1960s Leicester North.
- 1 Background history
- 2 Preservation
- 3 Major engineering projects
- 4 Stations of the heritage GCR
- 5 Accidents and incidents
- 6 Film and television
- 7 Locomotives and rolling stock
- 8 Supporting bodies
- 8.1 Main Line Steam Trust
- 8.2 Great Central Railway PLC
- 9 References
- 10 External links
|Great Central Railway|
In 1897 the Great Central Railway itself was formed, becoming the last steam mainline in the United Kingdom. Two years later in 1899 "The London Extension" was officially opened to passenger and freight traffic, allowing more direct journeys from the capital to Nottingham, Leicester, Sheffield and Manchester. The entire line was built to accommodate a European standard loading gauge and all but a few stations were single island platforms. This construction scheme was devised by chairman Sir Edward Watkin, who had envisioned his railway one day running under a Channel Tunnel to France, linking Britain with the continent.
This never came to fruition however as the Beeching report to begin cutback and closure was published in 1963, some 31 years before the tunnel was fully constructed. In the report, the line was listed as a duplicate of the Midland Main Line. Apart from the most Southern section into London, the line was closed as a through route in 1966 as part of the Beeching Axe, although a section of the line between Nottingham and Rugby remained open until 1969. The closure became one of Doctor Beeching's largest cutbacks. It was also famous for being one of the most controversial.
In 1969 local groups who opposed the closure gathered together for a meeting in a Leicester Central waiting room. The Mainline Preservation Group (MLPG) was soon formed with the aim of restoring a section of the railway so as to run large steam and diesel locomotives on double track in a heritage capacity and be able to recreate scenes from the past using these features. Work began on salvaging as much reusable material as possible for the project from the recent demolitions. The original plan was to restore the entire closed line from Nottingham Arkwright Street to Rugby Central, but this was soon cut back to a smaller Loughborough to Leicester section due to time and financial constraints. British Rail retained a single track between the Loughborough and Ruddington for British Gypsum freight and access to the now-closed Ministry of Defence base.
The early years (1969-1976)
The MLPG received a lease on the station, buildings and most of the trackbed at Loughborough Central in 1970; this would become their base of operations. By the following year negotiations into purchasing the rest of the remaining railway had proven successful and the group were able to buy it for a mere £75,000 (£924,953 in 2015),. The rest of the Loughborough yard complex was secured in 1972. In the same year, the first coaching stock arrived on site. The first open day occurred in 1973, shortly after the arrival of working motive power. Passengers were offered simple wagon or coach rides run by small industrial locomotives. On 30 September 1973 LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5231 hauled the first passenger train since the railway's commercial closure to Quorn and back, but at the same time the Down line was being uplifted between Birstall and Quorn because of BR's increasing demands.
To purchase what was left of the track the MLPG was re-merged into a supporting charity, the Main line Steam Trust (MLST). The entire value of the eight miles of Up line were re-assessed by BR and swelled up to £279,000 (£2,943,947 in 2015), and the MLST was now paying £3,300 a month (£31,655 in 2015), just to keep it. A deal was set on 1 April 1976 that would see the remainder of the Down line ripped up if BR's cash demand was not raised. At this time passenger trains were still running as far as Rothley, but without an ample supply of working mainline classes the line had to resort to industrial tank engines working single track, ironic considering the original vision made by the MLPG seven years previously.
Great Central Railway Plc
To purchase the land and track, Great Central Railway (1976) PLC issued shares, and the MLPG transformed into the MLST, a charitable body to support the company.
Charnwood Borough Council agreed to purchase the land from BR and lease it to the railway for 99 years. However this still left GCR (1976) PLC the task of raising over £150,000 (£941,984 in 2015), to purchase the track. Ultimately, the target was not met and only a single track between Loughborough and Quorn could be afforded (BR allowed more time to raise funds to purchase Quorn to Rothley). The double track from Rothley to Belgrave & Birstall was lifted along with the 'down' line from Loughborough to Rothley.
In the late 1980s the intention was announced to extend the line back to Belgrave & Birstall. The former station had been vandalised and the railway had no choice but to demolish the buildings. In 1990, a station called Leicester North was opened a hundred metres to the south of Belgrave & Birstall. This shift in location placed the new station inside Leicester's city boundary, allowing the 'Leicester' tag to be included in the name along with unlocking extra funds to assist in the construction.
The double track project (1991-present day)
With the exception of the short section between Bewdley North and Bewdley South signal boxes on the Severn Valley Railway, the GCR is currently the only standard gauge heritage railway in the UK with double track outside of stations. However, there are other preserved lines that were previously double track.
In the 1990s, David Clarke approached the railway about the possibility of double tracking the line. As a signalling enthusiast, David dreamed of operating a signal box on a double track main line, and so the campaign to raise funds to double the section between Quorn and Rothley was launched, with David himself providing a large amount of the capital.
Until signalling was complete the second track was operated separately from the main track. This provided a unique opportunity for trains to 'chase' each other between Quorn and Swithland.
After reaching Quorn, work moved ahead to extend the second track to Loughborough. The double track between Loughborough and Rothley opened on 1 June 2000. This gives additional capacity which is especially useful at galas, where up to six trains may be in operation at any one time. This enables the running of non-passenger carrying trains (freights, TPO set) during galas to a greater extent than any other heritage railway. It also means that the timetable can be generally adhered to, as delays do not cascade as they do on single track lines.
Her Majesty's Rail Inspectorate has granted powers to run private test trains at up to 60 mph. Other special trains at public events run at up to 45 miles per hour (72.4 km/h). Typically UK heritage railways are limited to a maximum speed of 25 miles per hour (40.2 km/h).
In 2004 a new signal box at Quorn opened, the only preserved box in the UK with a double track on either side. With this new signal box a train can, in theory, be dispatched from Loughborough every 10 minutes. A further signal box at Swithland Sidings has been fitted with Great Western Railway style signals in the style of the GCR/GWR joint line via High Wycombe, allowing for a further capacity increase on the preserved GCR. The full Swithland project was completed in May 2012. On 5 December 2012, the GCR was awarded the NRHA Signalling Award for this long running and complicated project.
Major engineering projects
The gap and Loughborough Midland (High Level)
Between the A60 and Loughborough locomotive shed is "The Gap", a section of embankment and bridges (including a large single span over the Midland Main Line) that need to be reinstated to join the two concerns together. That is a long term, expensive project and in the mean time there are plans to construct a new "Loughborough Midland High Level" station on the embankment near the A60 road bridge. This would allow easy interchange with Midland Main Line trains with trains from the GCR(N) and if the Gap is bridged, the Greater Great Central Railway (GGCR) as it is known almost universally by Great Central staff. On 12 February 2009 it was announced that the project would receive £350,000 for a feasibility study. Charnwood Borough Council has won the grant from the East Midlands Development Agency. The GCR is to contribute £100,000 to the study (combined cost of £450,000). When completed the GCRN will merge with the GCR to create a single 18-mile track which will also be rebuilt as a double track line for most, if not the whole length.
Latest Engineering studies of the 'Gap' have produced a design for a single track link (difficult to justify the additional cost for double track) - utilizing 2 ex-Network Rail single track bridges (removed as part of the Reading Station upgrade). The latest design proposes to re-instate the bridge over the Midland Main Line, complying with electrification clearances for the recently announced electrification project. The replacement embankments to the north of the Canal bridge are proposed to use the latest construction techniques to provide a higher but narrower structure. Funding options are currently being reviewed for the 'Greatest Heritage Railway Project' in the UK.
The Mountsorrel Railway Project
This is a project devised and financed by Railway Vehicle Preservations Limited. The projects aim is the rebuilding of the Mountsorrel branch off the Great Central railway at Swithland sidings to the working Mountsorrel quarry.
The branch is essentially intact but the track was lifted in the mid 1960s. The original purpose of the reinstatement was to provide a carriage shed to house the restored carriages of Railway Vehicle Preservations Ltd and shelter them from the elements. In 2006 they applied for planning permission for the shed; this was rejected due to badger setts discovered on site. The reinstatement of the line is going ahead with ballast being donated from the quarry it served. The total length being reinstated is 1.25 miles (2 km). It is intended a halt will be built at the quarry end, offering train rides up the line to add an extra attraction to the Great Central Railway, with services either run by a DMU or else a push-pull fitted steam/diesel locomotive. The line is now fully ballasted for half of its length with tracklaying well underway. Tracklaying has recently passed through the Wood Lane bridge and officially entered Mountsorrel Parish. The plans for the shed are being re-evaluated and a NEW Planning Application has been entered for a 4 road shed at the back of Swithland sidings On 4 February 2013 the ambitious plans were given conditional approval.
Recently Lafarge, (operators of the Mountsorrel Quarry) revealed a proposal for a stone loading terminal at the end of the Mountsorrel Railway. This was in response to a planning submission to build 300+ Houses near to the proposed Bond Lane Station, and was clearly aimed at Lafarge protecting the mineral extraction rights. The proposal would be dependent on the GCR 'Bridging the Gap' to GCRN. GCR then would build a north chord from the southern end of Swithland Viaduct to meet the existing track just at the end of the straight section of the Mountsorrel Railway. The proposal estimates that 3 loaded trains of 1000 tonnes would leave the proposed terminal every weekday and travel via the GCR to the Midland Main Line Connection.
Stations of the heritage GCR
- Loughborough Central
- Loughborough Central is the largest of the working stations on the line, with a long overhead canopy, museum, gift shop, café and 1950s period detail. This has helped the station feature in numerous movies and TV shows.
- The signal box and traction maintenance depot north of the platform are both open for public viewing, allowing for an insight into the physical labour that is required to run a steam railway.
- Quorn & Woodhouse
- Serving the local villages of Quorn and Woodhouse, this station is built to the standards of Great Central, with an island platform and an overbridge. The station details were intended to make it reflect World War II and the remainder of the 1940s. This has allowed for several World War reenactments to be played out in recent years.
- The newly built (2011) Butler Henderson Bistro & Tea Room (built in a sympathetic architectural style) provides a cozy source of food and refreshments.
- South of the platform is a small set of goods sidings which currently store the TPOs, mineral wagons and other stock when they are not in use.
- A turntable has been installed at Quorn & Woodhouse Station and officially opened in the latter part of October 2011.
- Similar in appearance to Quorn & Woodhouse, Rothley was rebuilt by the volunteers of the Great Central to look like the Edwardian era, when it is believed the GCR company was at its high-point. Today the recently extended Ellis tea room serves refreshments year-round and the Charnwood Forest Garden Railway run by a small group of enthusiasts runs various types of stock.
- A large 4-road carriage shed of corrugated metal owned by RVP Ltd is the major restoration facility for their historic collection of Gresley Teaks and Mk1s.
- Leicester North
- Just south of Belgrave and Birstall station is the new Leicester North terminus, built because the original station was heavily vandalised. Currently little more than a small waiting room and canopy in 60s style.
- Adjacent to the station is the recently leased Greenacres Centre having the 'Platform Tea Room' and Training Facilities.
- Railway museum. On 8 December 2012 it was announced that an annex to the National Railway Museum would be built close to Leicester North.
Accidents and incidents
- On 4 February 2006, LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 locomotive 45305 Alderman A. E. Draper collided with a rake of six carriages at Loughborough Central, damaging the locomotive and one of the carriages. Two people were injured. An investigation by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) found that the driver was not wearing spectacles at the time of the accident, despite it being a requirement on his medical certificate to do so when driving. No testing was carried out by the GCR on the train crew for drug or alcohol use. There was no first aid kit carried on the locomotive, although this was recommended by Her Majesty's Railway Inspectorate for all locomotives. The RAIB made four recommendations as a result of the accident.
- On 27 April 2013, LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 46521 was derailed on trap points at Quorn & Woodhouse. The accident was filmed by a visitor to the railway and clearly shows the train departing from a loop against a danger signal.
- On 12 May 2014, Class 37 diesel electric locomotive 37 198 ran away from Quorn & Woodhouse pushing a TPO carriage . They collided with a rake of five carriages at Loughborough Central. The RAIB investigated into the accident. Their report was published on 21 May 2015. The investigation found that the accident was caused by the driver of the locomotive failing to use the handbrake. Additional factors were that there was no brake van in the train, contrary to GCR rules, and that the train was left parked in a position where there was no runaway protection, such as catch points, available. The RAIB made four recommendations as a result of the accident.
Film and television
Many filmmakers have taken advantage of the atmosphere of the Great Central and it has had many notable appearances in film and television.
- Buster (1988)
- The Secret Agent (1993)
- Shadowlands (1993)
- The Navigators (1999)
- Enigma (2001)
- The Hours (2002)
- Cemetery Junction (2010)
- She's Out (1994)
- Woof! (1995)
- Goodnight Mr. Tom (1998)
- Take a Girl Like You (2000)
- The Cazalet Chronicles (2001)
- Casualty (2001, 2014)
- Hawking (2004)
- The 4:50 from Paddington (2004)
- E=MC2 (2005)
- The 39 Steps (2008)
- Central Steam (TV Series) (2010)
- South Riding (TV miniseries) (2011)
- Top Gear (2011)
- Heston's Fantastical Food (2012)
- Our Story (2013) - To be Screened on ITV in 2014
- Great British Railway Journeys (2013) - First Screened on BBC TV in January 2014
Locomotives and rolling stock
The Great Central Railway has a reasonable running length with the added bonus of a mainline setup, and so some of Britain's largest locomotives have been there in recent years. The steam fleet currently comprises over a dozen mainline classes, many of them either heavy freight, express passenger or shunting tank engines. Some are of types that were preserved in abundance elsewhere, but others have been leased from the National Collection. On most days a green-liveried, two-car British Rail Class 101 DMU runs from Loughborough to Leicester. As well as running stock the railway also has a large collection of heritage rolling stock. Passenger stock is made up of three uniform rakes of British Rail Mark 1 coaches originally built in the 1950s and 60s. They are in Maroon, Carmine and Cream, and Southern Green liveries. BR Western Region Chocolate and Cream livered Mark 1 coaches will gradually enter service during 2014.
Both the Great Central Railway PLC and the Great Central Railway (Nottingham) have a number of supporting bodies which are based at each individual line. The majority of these are locomotive or rolling stock groups, however there are a number of private owners who have based their stock or locomotives at the lines.
Main Line Steam Trust
Main Line Steam Trust was established in 1969 as the Main Line Preservation Group, with the intention of preserving one of two potential sections of the line, one based at Lutterworth, running from Leicester to Rugby Central, and one based at Loughborough, running between Leicester and Nottingham. The Loughborough base was chosen and work began on restoring the station, an office was rented at street level at Loughborough Central station, and in 1971 Charitable Status was granted to MLPG, who changed their name to Main Line Steam Trust Limited.
Substantial monthly payments were required to keep the formation intact between Loughborough and Belgrave & Birstall, with steam hauled services operating from Loughborough Central to Quorn & Woodhouse Station, and eventually Rothley station. The money required to purchase the line south of Rothley was not available and only the Loughborough to Rothley section of line was preserved, with the aid of Charnwood Borough Council.
The operation and the assets were transferred to the Great Central Railway (1976) Ltd. and MLST took on the role of the charitable volunteer run support body for the railway. MLST has continued to support the Great Central Railway PLC (the 1976 was eventually dropped from the title), and the various organisations around the railway. It also supports the Great Central Railway (Nottingham).
MLST have funded a great deal at the Great Central Railway, including assistance in funding the double track, Leicester Station, Quorn & Woodhouse Signalling, Swithland Signalling, Loughborough South Remodelling, and has assisted in bringing in visiting locomotives for gala events on numerous occasions.
MLST has now been incorporated into The Friends of the Great Central Main Line (FoGCML), this with the David Clarke Railway Trust (DCRT) provide the volunteers and the funding. Outside commercial interests and individuals are able to donate toward various projects (Loughborough's 'Crystal Palace', Mountsorrel Railway, RVPS restorations etc.) to the DCRT, gaining valuable tax advantages.
Great Central Railway PLC
The company made a profit during trading year ending 2007 of £62,000, the first genuine profit in 30 years as a visitor attraction.
The Gresley Society
Renaissance Railcars own the five Class 101 vehicles at the Great Central Railway PLC, at present only one set, known as "Set A" (affectionately also known as "The Green Goddess"), is in regular passenger use, however progress is being made on the other vehicles based at the line. A third 101 driving trailer unit on standby should one of the other driving cars requires mechanical attention.
They also own 59575 a 111 centre coach, and it is currently being restored, to be eventually worked with the "Green Goddess" or "Daisy".
Boscastle Locomotive Syndicate
Owners and carers of Bullied Pacific locomotive 34039 Boscastle, which is undergoing a protracted overhaul due to take 3 years and £200,000+ of donated money.
73156 Standard 5 Support Group
Formed in 1985, the group owns BR standard class 5 No. 73156 which has been undergoing extensive restoration since arrival and numerous storage vans.
Loughborough Standard Locomotive Group
Loughborough Standard Locomotive Group, or LSLG, look after and part-own a number of locomotives. These are BR Standard 2MTs Nos.78018 & 78019, BR Standard 5MT No.73156, BR Standard 7P6F No.70013 "Oliver Cromwell" and LMS 2MT No.46521
At present No.78019 and No. 46521 are in running condition and can regularly be found operating passenger trains, and the other locomotives are making progress. No.70013 "Oliver Cromwell" is part of the national collection, owned by the National Railway Museum, and has been restored by both LSLG and the 5305 Locomotive Association. 'Cromwell' is running on both the GCR and Network Rail. LSLG also have in their care a Directors Saloon, coach no. M999504, which is on loan from EWS.
5305 Locomotive Association
The 5305 Locomotive Association have a number of locomotives in their care, these are LMS "Black 5" No.45305 "Alderman A.E. Draper", SR King Arthur No.777 "Sir Lamiel", BR Class 33 D6535 "Hertfordshire Railtours", BR Standard 7P6F No.70013 "Oliver Cromwell", and BR Class 45 "Leicestershire And Derbyshire Yeomanry" Peak D123.
Nos.777, D6535 and 70013 are all part of the National Collection and are owned by the National Railway Museum. No.777 emerged from a lengthy overhaul in British Railways Brunswick green livery, under the BR number 30777 and has just been refinished in Southern Malachite Green with running number 777.
Type One Locomotive Company
A diesel group who own and care for Class 20 D8098, Class 31 D5380 and Class 47 D1705.
Railway Vehicle Preservations Ltd
Railway Vehicle Preservations Ltd, and their members, own the second largest collection of LNER coaches in preservation today. These include the famous LNER Travelling Post Office set, two LNER Beavertail observation saloon (including one in its rebuilt condition), and a number of "Gresley" teak-panel passenger coaches.
- UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
- "Minor and heritage railways". Rail-reg.gov.uk. 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway (2012-05-30). "Signal Box – Swithland Sidings | The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway". Gcrailway.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway (2012-12-06). "National award for Swithland Signalling | The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway". Gcrailway.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "BBC News - Steam track could run for 18 miles from Nottinghamshire to Leicestershire". Bbc.co.uk. 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Railway Vehicle Preservations
- Railway, Mountsorrel (2012-08-08). "The Mountsorrel Railway: Track Laying Passes the Half Way Point!". Mountsorrelrailway.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- GCR Main Line Issue 153/Winter 2012 Pg 16
- The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway. "Membership Signup | The UK's Only Main Line Heritage Railway". Gcrailway.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Document 324/RF/SK2
- Charnwood Borough Council #P/12/0022/2
- GCR Main Line Issue 153/ Winter 2012 Pg 14
- http://www.charnwoodforestrailway.webs.com Charnwood Forest Garden railway
- "BBC News - Great Central Railway plans museum in Leicester". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "The collision of a locomotive with carriages at Great Central Railway’s Loughborough Central station, 4 February 2006." (PDF). Rail Accidents Investigation Branch. July 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Train derails – at low speed – at gala event". Leicester Mercury. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Baker, Richard (29 April 2013). "46521 with TPO at Quorn Saturday 27th April 2013". Richard Baker via YouTube. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Locomotive collision at Great Central". Loughborough Echo. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Collision at Loughborough Central on the Great Central Railway (GCR), 12 May 2014". Rail Accidents Investigation Branch. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Runaway and subsequent collision near to Loughborough Central station, Great Central Railway 12 May 2014" (PDF). Rail Accidents Investigation Branch. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- "Top Gear trio pull latest stunt at Great Central Railway". Leicester Mercury. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Heston's Fantastical Food - Heston's Big Breakfast". Channel 4. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "GREAT CENTRAL RAILWAY WEEKLY NEWSLETTER" (PDF) 8 (18). Great Central Railway. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "Stereophonics - Indian Summer". YouTube. 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Great Central Railway (preserved).|
- Homepage of preserved Great Central Railway in Leicestershire.
- The railway extending
- Main Line Steam Trust, the GCR's charitable body.
- Homepage of the Great Central Railway (Nottingham)
- BBC site with stuff.
- Several hundred pictures from the GCR
- Sound Recordings of the Great Central Railway
- Progress on the Nunckley Hill project