Great Fire of New York
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The Great Fire of 1835 began on the evening of December 16, 1835 in a five-story warehouse at 25, Merchant Street, now known as Beaver Street, at the intersection of Hanover Square, Manhattan and Wall Street. As it spread, gale-force winds blowing from the northwest towards the East River proved to be a great obstacle in containing the fire. As major water sources such as the East River were frozen solid in temperatures as low as −17 °F (−27 °C), firefighters were forced to drill holes through ice to access water, which later froze in the hoses and pipes. Attempts to blow up buildings in the fire's path, in order to deprive the fire of fuel, were thwarted by a lack of gunpowder in Manhattan. Evidence of the conflageration was seen as far as Philadelphia, according to firefighters that were sent to help.
At about 2 a.m., Marines returned with gunpowder from the Brooklyn Navy Yard and began to blow up buildings in the fire's path. At this point the fire covered 50 acres (200,000 m2), 17 blocks of the city, and had destroyed between 530 and 700 buildings. The area is now known as Coenties Slip, spanning in the south to Maiden Lane in the north and from William Street in the west to the East River. The estimated damage at the time was valued at twenty million dollars, and two people were killed.
A major problem that resulted from the fire was the destruction of several insurance companies, that consequently went bankrupt. This created an issue of how these parts of the destroyed city would be insured. A description of the conflagration was in the History of New York:
Many of the stores were new, with iron shutters and doors and copper roofs, and in burning presented the appearance of immense iron furnaces in full blast. The heat at times melted the copper roofing, and the liquid ran off in great drops. The gale blew towards the East River. Wall after wall was heard tumbling like an avalanche. Fiery tongues of flame leaped from roof and windows along whole streets, and seemed to be making angry dashes at each other. The water of the bay looked like a vast sea of blood. The bells rang for a while and then ceased. Both sides of Pearl Street and Hanover Square were at the same instant engulfed in flames.
An investigation did not assess the blame and reported that the cause of the fire was a gas pipe that had burst and been ignited by a coal stove.
Since the fire occurred in the middle of an economic boom caused by the recent opening of the Erie Canal, the destroyed wooden buildings were quickly replaced by larger stone and brick ones that were less prone to fire. The fire also prompted construction of a new municipal water supply, now known as the Old Croton Aqueduct, and a reform and expansion of the fire service. Still, the insurance companies that lost buildings in the fire decided rebuilding was not worth the risk, and moved operations to Hartford, Connecticut. Today, Hartford is still known as the "Insurance Capital of the World."
The report gives a colorful account of the damage:
A most awful conflagration occurred at New York on the 15th of December, by which 600 buildings were destroyed, comprising the most valuable district of the city, including the entire destruction of the Exchange, the Post Office, and an immense number of stores. The fire raged incessantly for upwards of fifteen hours. The shipping along the line of wharfs suffered greatly; several vessels were totally destroyed. The property consumed is estimated at 20,000,000 dollars.
It also praises the resilience of the population recovering from the catastrophe:
In this midst of this terrible visitation, however, it is consolatory to see the elastic energy of the people. Instead of wasting their time in despondency over this frightful desolation, the whole population seems to on the alert to repair the mischief.
Recovery meant improved buildings, which would require financing. Negotiations were swiftly undertaken, and the cooperativeness of banks was crucial in preventing an economic disaster:
Plans of rebuilding on an improved scale, and modes of borrowing money for that purpose, on sound securities, are under arrangement. The energy of the inhabitants, and the ready manner in which the banks had offered to make advances to the different insurance companies, as well as to private individuals, would avert, it was expected, a commercial crisis.
- Great Fire of New York (1776)
- Great Fire of New York (1845)
- Great Fire of London
- Great Fire of Brisbane
- 1871 Great Chicago Fire
- Great Fire of Turku
Notes and references
- According to oldstreets.com Merchant Street was originally called Exchange Street but changed to the Merchant name in 1835. After the fire the street was moved further south and became Beaver Street
- "Heroes of Ground Zero: FDNY - A History
- Exhibit Details Devastation of Years Past
- "New York's Great Fire of 1835".
- New York: Its Origin, Rise, and Progress by Mrs Burton Harrison, Martha Joanna Lamb - 1896
- Gentleman's Magazine, by "Sylvanus Urban," Vol. V, New Series, January-June 1836 (London: William Pickering, John Bowyer Nichols & Son, 1836), p. 196. Accessed 19 March 2012.
- "Chapter 18: The Great Conflagration of 1835", History of the Fire Department of the City of New York.