Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian: Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary, some parts of the Eastern Slovak Lowland (Východoslovenská nížina), southwestern Ukraine, the Transcarpathian Lowland (Zakarpats'ka nyzovyna), western Romania (various names), northern Serbia (various names), and eastern Croatia (various names). It is the largest part of the Pannonian Plain.
In Hungarian, the plain is known as Alföld [ˈɒlføld], in Slovak as Veľká dunajská kotlina, in Romanian as Câmpia Tisei or Câmpia de Vest, in Croatian as Panonska nizina, in Serbian as Panonska nizija, and in Ukrainian as Тисо-Дунайська низовина.
Plain in Hungary
Its territory is 52,000 km² within Hungary so it comprises approximately 56% of the country. Its total territory is 100,000 km². The highest point of the plain is Hoportyó (183 m), and the lowest point is the Tisza River. The terrain ranges from flat to rolling plains.
Hungarian scientists born on the plain include Zoltán Bay, physicist; János Irinyi, chemist, inventor of the noiseless match; János Kabay, pharmacologist; Gábor Kátai, physician and pharmacist; and Frigyes Korányi, physician and pulmonologist.
The most important river of the plain is Tisza.
Among the cultural festivals and programmes characteristic of the region are the Csángófesztivál (Csángó Festival) in Jászberény, the Cseresznyefesztivál (Sweet Cherry Festival) in Nagykörű, the Gulyásfesztivál (Goulash Festival) in Szolnok, the Hídi Vásár (Bridge Fair) in Hortobágy National Park, the Hunniális at Ópusztaszer, the Szabadtéri Játékok (Open-air Games) in Szeged, the Várjátékok (Castle Games) in Gyula, the Virágkarnevál (Flower Carnival) in Debrecen and the Bajai Halászléfőző Népünnepély (Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival) in Baja.
The part of the plain located in Hungary comprises the following areas:
- Pest Plain
- Heves Plain
- Szatmár Plain
- Maros-Körös köze
- Hortobágy National Park
Plain in Serbia
The term is being used in Serbia to denote Hungarian portion of the Pannonian plain.
Plain in Croatia
The term is rarely used in Croatia, and is usually associated with the geography of Hungary.
Plain in Slovakia
Part of the plain located in Slovakia is known as Eastern Slovak Lowland.
Plain in Ukraine
Part of the plain located in Ukraine is known as Transcarpathian Lowland.
Plain in Romania
- Gábor Gercsák (2002). "Hungarian geographical names in English language publications". Studia Cartologica. Eötvös Loránd University. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Gábor Gercsák (2005). "Magyar tájnevek angol fordítása". Fasciculi Linguistici / Series Lexicographica (in Hungarian). Eötvös Loránd University. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Heršak, Emil; Nikšić, Boris (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migration and Ethnic Themes (in Croatian) (Zagreb: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies) 23 (3): 255. ISSN 1848-9184.
U velikoj mađarskoj nizini Alföld zapadno od Karpata tradicionalno su se smještale euroazijske nomadske skupine, a dio panonske Hrvatske može se smatrati ekstenzijom tog područja, osobito istočna Slavonija i s njome povezani dijelovi Srijema.
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- Körös Regional Archaeological Project: Neolithic and Copper Age archaeology in the Great Hungarian Plain