|Onondaga, adopted Mohawk, or Huron orator and statesman|
|Born||16th century|
The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or Dekanawida (as a mark of respect, some Iroquois avoid using his personal name except in special circumstances) was, along with Hiawatha, by tradition the founder of the Haudenosaunee, commonly called the Iroquois Confederacy, a political and cultural union of several Native American tribes residing in the present-day state of New York. The union created a powerful alliance of related Iroquoian peoples around the Great Lakes. Historians believe the confederacy may have formed in the 13th or 14th centuries.
The Haudenosaunee name for the Great Peacemaker (Skennenrahawi in Mohawk) means "Two River Currents Flowing Together". There are numerous legends about the Great Peacemaker, some with conflicting information. It is reported that he was born a Huron, and by some accounts, his mother was a virgin, so the birth was miraculous. Others say he was born an Onondaga and later adopted by the Mohawk. By all accounts, he was a prophet who counseled peace among the warring tribes, and he called for an end to cannibalism. His follower Hiawatha, a Mohawk renowned for his oratory, helped him achieve his vision.
According to the archaeologist Dean R. Snow, the Great Peacemaker converted Hiawatha in the territory of the Onondaga; he next made a solo journey to visit the Mohawk tribe who lived near what is now Cohoes, New York. Initially, the Mohawk rejected the message of the Great Peacemaker, so he decided to perform a feat to demonstrate his purity and spiritual power. After climbing a tree high above the Ga-ha-oose, the cataract now known as Cohoes Falls, the Great Peacemaker told the Mohawk braves to chop the tree down. Many onlookers watched as the Great Peacemaker disappeared into the swirling rapids of the Mohawk River. They believed he had perished until they saw him the next morning sitting near a campfire. Greatly impressed by the Great Peacemaker's miraculous survival, the Mohawk became the founding tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy.
The dates Dekanawida lived have not been identified with certainty.
In attempting to date the Great Peacemaker focus has come to an incident related to the founding of the Iroquois Confederacy, the life work of the prophet. One rendition of the oral history eventually written down by scholars involves a division among the Seneca nation, the last Indian nation to join the confederacy. A violent confrontation began and was suddenly stopped when the sun darkened and it seemed like night. Scholars have successively studied the possibilities this event was a solar eclipse since 1902 when William Canfield wrote Legends of the Iroquois; told by “the Cornplanter'. Successive other scholars who mention it were (chronologically): Paul A. W. Wallace, Elizabeth Tooker, Bruce E. Johansen, Dean R. Snow, Barbara A. Mann and Jerry L. Fields, William N. Fenton, David Henige, Gary Warrick, and Neta Crawford.
Since Canfield's first mention, and the majority view, scholars have supported the 1451 AD date for the plausible solar eclipse mention. Some argue it is an insufficient fit for the description and favor 1142 while a few question the whole idea.
Archeological supporting arguments have progressed. In 1982 Dean Snow considered the mainstream view of the archeology to not support dates before 1350 By 1998 Fenton considered it unlikely but possible after 1000. By 2007/8 reviews considered it clearly possible even if most still supported the 1451 as the safe choice.
Prophecy of the boy seer
His vision for all the nations was so compelling that the Great Peacemaker worked all his life to bring it to fruition. He prophesied that a "white serpent" would come to his people's lands and make friends with them, only to deceive them later. A "red serpent" would later make war against the "white serpent", but an Indian boy would be given a great power. He would be accepted as a chosen leader by the people of "the land of the hilly country." The boy stays neutral in the fight, and he speaks to the people, who number as the blades of grass, but he is heard by all. After a season, a "black serpent" would come and defeat both the "white" and "red serpents". According to the prophecy, when the people gathered under the elm tree become humble, all three "serpents" would be blinded by a light many times brighter than the sun. Deganawidah said that he would be that light. His nation would accept the "white serpent" into their safekeeping like a long-lost brother.
The Great Peacemaker established a council of clan and village chiefs to govern the confederacy. In each tribe, which had matrilineal systems of descent and property-holding, power was shared between the sexes. Most decisions in council were made by consensus to which each representative had an equal voice. Using the system of the Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha, the Iroquois became the dominant Native American group in the northeast woodlands. The oral laws and customs of the Great Law of Peace became the constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy, established by the 16th century or earlier.
- Nelson Greene, editor. "Chapter 9: Dekanawida and Hiawatha", History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1925, at Schenectady Digital History Archive
- William W. Canfield (1902). The Legends Of The Iroquois: Told By "The Cornplanter". A. Wessels Co. pp. 219–220.
- Wallace, Paul A. W. (October 1948). "The Return of Hiawatha". New York History Quarterly Jounral of the New York State Historical Association XXIX (4): 385–403. JSTOR 23149546.
- Elizabeth Tooker (1978). "The League of the Iroquois: Its History, Politics, and Ritual". In Sturtevant, William; Trigger, Bruce. Handbook of North American Indians. Government Printing Office. pp. 418–41. GGKEY:0GTLW81WTLJ.
- Johansen, Bruce (1979). Franklin, Jefferson and American Indians: A Study in the Cross-Cultural Communication of Ideas (Thesis). University of Washington. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Bruce Elliott Johansen (January 1982). Forgotten Founders: How the American Indian Helped Shaped Democracy. Harvard Common Press. ISBN 978-0-916782-90-0.
- Snow, Dean R. (September 1982). "Dating the Emergence of the League of the Iroquois: A Reconsideration of the Documentary Evidence". Historical Archeology: A Multidisciplinary Approach (Rensselaerswijck Seminar) V: 139–144. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Barbara A. Mann; Jerry L. Fields (1997). "A Sign in the Sky: Dating the League of the Haudenosaunee". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 21 (4): 105–163. ISSN 0161-6463. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- William Nelson Fenton (1998). The Great Law and the Longhouse: A Political History of the Iroquois Confederacy. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-8061-3003-3.
- Henige, David (1999). "Can a Myth Be Astronomically Dated?". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23 (4): 127–157. ISSN 0161-6463. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Gary Warrick (2007). "Precontact Iroquoian Occupation of Southern Ontario". In Jordan E. Kerber. Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources. Syracuse University Press. pp. 124–163. ISBN 978-0-8156-3139-2.
- Neta Crawford (15 April 2008). "The Long Peace among Iroquois Nations". In Kurt A. Raaflaub. War and Peace in the Ancient World. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 348–. ISBN 978-0-470-77547-9.
- Buck, Christopher (1996). "Native Messengers of God in Canada? A test case for Baha'i universalism". The Bahá'í Studies Review (London: Association for Bahá'í Studies English-Speaking Europe): 97–132. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- Dean R. Snow, Archaeology of Native North America, New York: Prentice Hall, 2008
- Thomas R. Henry, Wilderness Messiah: the story of Hiawatha and the Iroquois, New York: Bonanza Books, 1955. ISBN 0-517-13019-X.
- John Arthur Gibson, Concerning the League: the Iroquois League as Dictated in Onondaga, newly elicited, edited and translated by Hanni Woodbury in Collaboration with Reg Henry and Harry Webster on the Basis of A.A. Goldenweiser’s Manuscript. Memoir 9 (Winnipeg: Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics, 1992).
- Charles C. Mann, 1491 New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4000-4006-3.
- W. J. Sidis, The Tribes and The States, Wampanoag Nation, 1982
- "DEKANAHWIDEH (Deganawidah, the Heavenly Messenger"), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- "Deganawidah" Infoplease, University of Liverpool
- "Great Law of Peace", Six Nations.org
- "Peacemaker", Heritage Minute, Historic Canada
- The Great Peacemaker Deganawidah and his follower Hiawatha Theater play by Living Wisdom School