Great Smyrna Offensive

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The Great Smyrna Offensive
Part of Greco-Turkish War (1919–22)
Kocatepe1922.jpg
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk at Kocatepe
Date 26 August – 9 September 1922
Location Western Anatolia (Afyon, Dumlupınar, Uşak, Smyrna
Result Decisive Turkish victory
Belligerents
Grand National Assembly Kingdom of Greece Greece
Commanders and leaders
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Fevzi Çakmak
İsmet İnönü
Kingdom of Greece Aristidis Stergiadis
Strength
98,670 infantry
5,286 cavalry
323 artillery
[1][2][3][4]
130,000 infantry
1,300 cavalry
348 artillery
[1][2][3][4]
Casualties and losses
2,318 killed, 9,360 wounded, 1,697 missing and 101 prisoners
Total: 13,476[5]
By 7 September:
50,000 (35,000 Killed and Wounded, 15,000 Prisoners)[6]
Total: 100,000[7][8]

The Great Smyrna Offensive (Turkish: Büyük Taarruz, literally Great Offensive) was the largest and final military operation of the Turkish War of Independence, fought between the Turkish Armed Forces loyal to the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Kingdom of Greece, during the Greco-Turkish War. The offensive began on 26 August 1922 with the famous Battle of Dumlupınar and ended on 9 September 1922 with the recapture of Smyrna (Izmir). The Turks amassed around 104,000 men, the largest number since the beginning of the war, to start their offensive on 26 August and to drive the Greek army of over 200,000 men[9][10] out of western Anatolia. A pursuit operation started on a 250 mile (400 km) wide front.[11]

The units of the Turkish Army marched in 10 days (31 August to 9 September) a distance of 186 miles (300 km) while simultaneously fighting the Greek troops.[12] The Turkish Army lacked all kinds of motorized vehicles, its forces consisting of only infantry and cavalry units and its logistical support provided by a primitive supply system based on mainly ox-carts.[13] Within two weeks, the Turkish Army had driven out the Greek Army completely out of Anatolia.[14] From 26 August to 9 September, the Turks chased the fleeing Greeks 250 miles (400 km) to Smyrna, which was later abandoned by the Greek soldiers. Consequently, the Greek occupation of Smyrna, which had begun on May 1919, ended on 9 September 1922 in an event known as the Liberation of Smyrna.

After Dumlupınar[edit]

Turkish cavalry during mopping-up operation, August 1922.
Turkish infantry waiting in a trench for the order to attack during the artillery preparatory fires.

Advance[edit]

31 August[edit]

Turkish V Cavalry Corps, Kızıltaş Deresi, Murat Dağı, Murat Çayı,

Trikoupis, Bazan

Greek 5th Division, Abine, Eşme

Greek 4th Division, Oysu village

Turkish I Corps

Francos Group of Greek I Corps, Hallaçlar, Ahatköy, Uşak, Kapaklar, Kırka

Turkish IV Corps

1 September[edit]

Fahreddin Pasha (Altay) and officers of Turkish V Cavalry Corps

After Mustafa Kemal's order issued in the Forces of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the main part of the Turkish Army started moving towards Smyrna. A secondary force started moving from Eskişehir in the direction of Bursa.[11]

2 September[edit]

Tricoupis

Nihat (Tok) Commander of the 1st Battalion of the 69th Regiment of the 23rd Division

Greek 15th Division, Kütahya - Simav

Turkish 61st Division

3 September[edit]

Kula, Alaşehir

4 September[edit]

Turkish V Cavalry Corps, Alaşehir, Salihli


promotion of Turkish officers

Retreating Greek troops burn down Turkish villages.

5 September[edit]

Francos

Plastiras, Salihli, Kasaba (Turgutlu)

Turkish 1st Cavalry Division

6 September[edit]

Turkish 3rd Cavalry Division

Greeks, Kula, Eşme, Salihli, Alaşehir

Turkish 73rd Infantry Regiment

Turkish 14th Cavalry Division

Fahreddin (Fahrettin Altay): Kılıca kuvvet!

7 September[edit]

Greek soldiers retreating.

Turkish V Cavalry Corps, Turkish I Corps, Turkish II Corps

Greeks, reinforcement to Smyrna

8 September[edit]

Edgard Quinet

Greeks, Çeşme

Menemen Boğazı, Hamidiye[disambiguation needed], Nif (Kemalpaşa)

Francos, Balçova, Urla Peninsula

Izzeddin (İzzettin Çalışlar)

9 September[edit]

I Corps, Nif (Kemalpaşa), II Corps, Manisa, IV Corps, Kasaba (Turgutlu)

III Corps, Kazancıbayırı, Bursa

Turkish 4th Cavalry Regiment Captain Sherafeddin (Şerafettin İzmir)

Turkish 14th Cavalry Regiment Captain Zeki (Doğan)

Turkish 1st Cavalry Division Mürsel (Bakû)

Belkahve

Greek POW officers in Ankara, 29 September 1922.

Aftermath[edit]

Greek 18th Regiment, Seydiköy

16 September, last Greek troops left Çeşme.

15th Division, 13 September, Dikili.

Greek III Corps, 18 September, left Erdek.

The British Chief of Staff expressed his admiration for the Turkish military operation.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Belgelerle Türk tarihi dergisi, Editions 28-31, Menteş Kitabevi, 1999, page 35 (Turkish)
  2. ^ a b A. Dural: His Story: Mustafa Kemal and Turkish Revolution, ISBN 0595412513, iUniverse, 2007, page 93
  3. ^ a b Nizamettin Nazif Tepedelenlioğlu: Bilinmiyen taraflariyle Atutürk, Yeni Çığır Kitabevi, 1959, page 64 (Turkish)
  4. ^ a b Assertion of unitary, independent national states in central and southeast europe (1821-1923), Bibliotheca historica romaniae Edition 62, Edited by Viorica Moisuc and Ion Calafeteanu, Section des sciences historiques de l'Académie de la République Populaire Roumaine., 1980, page 340 (footnote 94)
  5. ^ Ali Çimen, Göknur Göğebakan: Tarihi Değiştiren Savaşlar, 2. Edition, ISBN 9752634869, page 321. (Turkish)
  6. ^ Armistice sought by Greeks as Turks press near Smyrna, New York Times, published 8 September 1922
  7. ^ Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy, HarperCollins (Firm): The Harper encyclopedia of military history: from 3500 BC to the present, HarperCollins, 1993, Issue 4, ISBN 0062700561, page 22.
  8. ^ Stephen Joseph Stillwell: Anglo-Turkish relations in the interwar era, Edwin Mellen Press, 2003, ISBN 0773467769, page 46.
  9. ^ Bruce Clark: Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions That Forged Modern Greece And Turkey, Harvard University Press, 2006, ISBN 0674023684, page 22.
  10. ^ International Committee of Historical Sciences, 1980, page 227.
  11. ^ a b International Committee of Historical Sciences. Commission of comparative military history, Revue internationale d'histoire militaire (Editions 46-48), University of Michigan, 1980, page 227.
  12. ^ International Committee of Historical Sciences. 1980, page 227.
  13. ^ International Committee of Historical Sciences, 1980, page 227.
  14. ^ Christopher M. Andrew, Alexander Sydney Kanya-Forstner: The Climax of French Imperial Expansion, 1914-1924, Stanford University Press, 1981, ISBN 0804711011, page 232.
  15. ^ Elisabeth Özdalga: The Last Dragoman: The Swedish Orientalist Johannes Kolmodin as Scholar, Activist and Diplomat, Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 2006, ISBN 9789186884147, page 62.

Footnotes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Kemal Niş, Reşat Söker, Türk İstiklâl Harbi, Batı Cephesi, Büyük Taarruz’da Takip Harekâtı (31 Ağustos - 18 Eylül 1922), Cilt 2, Kısım. 6, 3. Kitap, Genkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1969. (Turkish)
  • İsmet Görgülü, Büyük Taarruz: 70 nci Yıl Armağanı, Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1992. (Turkish)
  • Celal Erikan, Komutan Atatürk, Cilt I-II, Üçüncü Basım, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul, 2001, ISBN 975-458-288-2. (Turkish)

External links[edit]