Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport

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Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Cincinnatiairportlogo.jpeg

IATA: CVGICAO: KCVGFAA LID: CVG
WMO: 72421

CVG is located in Kentucky
CVG
CVG
Location of the airport in Kentucky
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Kenton County Airport Board
Operator Kenton County Airport Board
Serves Cincinnati, Ohio
Location Hebron, Kentucky
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 896 ft / 273 m
Coordinates 39°02′56″N 084°40′04″W / 39.04889°N 84.66778°W / 39.04889; -84.66778
Website www.cvgairport.com
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
9/27 12,000 3,658 Asphalt/Concrete
18C/36C 11,000 3,353 Asphalt/Concrete
18L/36R 10,000 3,048 Concrete
18R/36L 8,000 2,438 Concrete
Statistics (2013)
Total passengers 5,718,255
Aircraft operations 137,671
Sources: Airport website[1]
Runway layout at CVG

Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA: CVGICAO: KCVG), sometimes called the Greater Cincinnati Airport, is a public international airport located in Hebron, Kentucky, United States, and serves the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Despite being located in Boone County, the airport operations are governed by the neighboring Kenton County Airport Board. The airport's code, CVG, comes from the nearest major city at the time of its opening, Covington, Kentucky. Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport covers an area of 8,000 acres (32 km2).[2] It is the only airport in Kentucky, Ohio or Indiana with nonstop service to Europe. International destinations include Paris, Toronto, Cancún, Freeport, and Punta Cana. CVG offers non-stop service to 56 destinations with over 170 daily departures.

History[edit]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved preliminary funds for site development of the Greater Cincinnati Airport February 11, 1942. This was part of the Army Air Corps program to establish training facilities during World War II. At the time, air traffic in the area centered around Lunken Airport just southeast of central Cincinnati.[3] Lunken opened in 1926 and was located in the Ohio River Valley. Due to its location, the airport frequently experienced fog, and the 1937 flood completely submerged its runways and two-story terminal building.[4] While federal officials wanted an airfield site that would not be prone to flooding, Cincinnati officials hoped to build Lunken into the premier airport of the region.[5]

A coalition of officials from Boone, Kenton and Campbell Counties in Kentucky took advantage of Cincinnati's short-sightedness and lobbied Congress to build an airfield there.[6] Boone County officials offered a suitable site on the provision that Kenton County paid the acquisition cost. In October 1942, Congress provided $2 million to construct four runways.[3]

The field officially opened August 12, 1944, with the first B-17 bombers beginning practice runs on August 15. As the tide of the war had already turned, the Air Corps only used the field until 1945 before it was declared surplus. On October 27, 1946, a small wooden terminal building opened and the airport prepared for commercial service.[3]

The first airplane, an American Airlines DC-3 from Cleveland, Ohio, landed at the airport January 10, 1947, at 9:53 am. A Delta Air Lines flight followed moments later.[7] The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 97 weekday departures: 37 American, 26 Delta, 24 TWA, 8 Piedmont and 2 Lake Central. As late as November 1959 the airport had four 5,500 ft (1,700 m) runways at 45-degree angles, the north–south runway eventually being extended into today's runway 18C/36C.

Airport diagram for December 1958

Jet age[edit]

On December 16, 1960, the jet age arrived in Cincinnati when a Delta Air Lines Convair 880 from Miami completed the first scheduled jet flight. The airport needed to expand and build more modern terminals and other facilities; the original Terminal A was expanded and renovated. The north–south runway was extended 3,100 to 8,600 ft (940 to 2,620 m). In 1964, the board approved a $12 million bond to expand the south concourse of Terminal A by 32,000 sq ft (3,000 m2) and provide nine gates for TWA, American, and Delta.[3] A new east–west runway crossing the longer north–south runway was constructed in 1971 south of the older east–west runway. In the mid-1980s, Delta created a hub in Cincinnati and constructed Terminal 3 with its three midfield concourses. This hub eventually grew to be Delta's second largest, handling over 600 Delta and Delta Connection flights in 2005.[8]

Delta hub cuts[edit]

In 2008, Delta merged with Northwest Airlines and cut flight capacity from the Cincinnati hub by 22 percent with an additional 17 percent reduction in 2009.[8] Delta announced additional cuts in February 2010 by eliminating five destination cities, which left CVG with 63 destinations between mainline and connection flights.[9] Many businesses in Cincinnati have urged Delta to restore the service level it had in the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade) while some, such as Chiquita Banana, have already relocated to cities with more available flights.[10] Flights at CVG are scheduled in morning and afternoon blocks, in which very large numbers of flights are scheduled to depart around the same time. The only remaining intercontinental service by Delta is a daily departure to Paris in the evening. In addition to serving the heavy international travel demand of local companies such as P&G and GE Aviation, the daily Paris flight is also sustained in great part because it ferries jet engine parts between factories in Cincinnati and France due to GE Aviation's presence. Each year the flight carries 4,200,000 pounds (1,900,000 kg) of engine parts.[11] Air France operated flights into CVG for several periods for over a decade before finally terminating the service in 2007. Both Air France and KLM codeshare on Delta's international and domestic services out of CVG.[12][13] In January 2010, Delta's CEO Richard Anderson anticipated that there would be 160–170 daily departures in the summer and that the number would not change through at least the fall.[14][15] Delta closed Concourse A in Terminal 3 on May 1, 2010, and consolidated all operations into Concourse B. This resulted in the layoff of more than 800 employees. Delta, however, says that it will maintain the same amount of departures from CVG.[16] In June 2011, Delta announced that it would cut another 10% of the CVG hub capacity that summer, offering between 145–165 daily flights.

Comair ends service[edit]

In July 2012, Delta announced their wholly owned and CVG-based subsidiary, Comair, would cease all operations by October of the same year. However, it said "the discontinuation of Comair's operations will not result in any significant changes to Delta's network, which has enough flexibility to accommodate these changes".[17] Delta has transferred Comair's larger planes to other carriers and retired the 50-seat planes in Comair's fleet. Minnesota-based Endeavor Air (formerly Pinnacle Airlines) now operates a maintenance base at the airport.

Low-Cost Service Expansion[edit]

CVG has long struggled with high fares due to Delta's dominance at the airport. Since 2013, Allegiant Air and Frontier Airlines have been expanding at CVG, finally giving local travelers low fares without having to commute to Dayton, Louisville or Indianapolis. These fares are often 75% less than other airlines at CVG. In 2012 CVG had no weekly low fare flights. As of February 2015, it will have 63. Destinations include Dallas, Denver, Jacksonville, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Meyers/Punta Gorda, Las Vegas, Myrtle Beach, New Orleans, Orlando, Phoenix, St Petersburg/Clearwater, Trenton and Washington DC.

In October 2012, Frontier Airlines announced it would begin service from CVG with a daily flight to Denver. This was the first modern attempt at bringing a LCC into the CVG region. Shortly there after, Frontier announced it would now offer two daily flights to Denver, and limited weekly service to Trenton/Mercer. Frontier announced a large scale expansion from D.C.-earning CVG nonstop service. Frontier Airlines in August 2014 made the biggest one-time expansion of flights at CVG in nearly a decade, paving the way to make Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport a major operations center for the low-cost carrier. The airline added daily flights to Dallas/Ft Worth and started with four flights per week to Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Orlando, and Phoenix. During this announcement Frontier's CEO announced that the airline is not finished growing at CVG. This brings Frontier total weekly flights to 41.

Allegiant Air also recently announced new service from CVG to Orlando and Punta Gorda. Within 2 months of beginning operation, Allegiant announced that it was pleased with the success thus far and added limited service to Tampa and seasonal service to Myrtle Beach. Allegiant later came out with a statement saying it was adding flights to Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, and to Phoenix. In November 2014, Allegiant announced new service to Jacksonville and New Orleans to begin in February 2015. This brings Allegiant Air total weekly flights to 22.[18]

Facilities[edit]

Oblique air photo of the airport, facing north in 2011
Ticketing and baggage claim terminal

The airport's terminal/remote-concourse configuration, combined with simultaneous triple landing/takeoff capabilities, makes CVG a particularly efficient airport for flight operations. CVG is the smallest domestic hub of Delta Air Lines, and was the central hub of Delta's wholly owned subsidiary airline, Comair, which provided regional jet service under the Delta Connection banner. As such, the airport serves an important role in Delta's Midwest hub-and-spoke system. In recent years, Delta Air Lines has considerably pared the number of flights out of the Cincinnati hub and in August 2008 announced it would be moving all of its Comair flights to Concourses A and B and closed all operations in Concourse C in January 2009.[19] In February 2010, Delta announced it would close Concourse A in May and further consolidate operations in the remaining concourse.

The airport has three terminals, though only one in use. Since January 2007, Terminal 1 houses only airport administrative offices. It is the original terminal and was built in 1960 and renovated in 1974.[20] Designed by Heery & Heery, Terminals 2 and 3 were built in 1974 when additional expansion necessitated more gates.[21] Terminal 3 was expanded specifically for Delta in 1987 and has three remote concourses.[20] Concourses B and C were completed in December 1994 as part of a $500 million expansion designed by Thompson, Hancock, Witte & Associates.[20][22] Concourses A and B are connected to the main terminal by an underground train system. Concourse C was reachable only by shuttle bus. Concourse B is served by Delta and its regional affiliates. Terminal 3 houses the airport's only US Customs and Border Protection facilities in Concourse B. All international arrivals except, U.S. border preclearance are processed in the Mezzanine Level of Concourse B.

Concourse B in Terminal 3 is well known for its open spaces, high ceilings, large windows with views of the airfield, and natural lighting during the day.[23] All Delta and Delta Connection flights operate from Concourse B.

In May 2012, Terminal 2 was officially closed and all non-Delta operations were consolidated in a newly renovated Concourse A. The renovation was in response to civic and business leader's concerns about the loss of flights to and from the airport.[24] Terminal 2 will be demolished along with Terminal 1 sometime in 2015.[citation needed]

The airport currently operates four paved runways:

  • Runway 9/27: 12,000 ft × 150 ft (3,658 m × 46 m), Asphalt/Concrete
  • Runway 18C/36C: 11,000 ft × 150 ft (3,353 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt/Concrete
  • Runway 18L/36R: 10,000 ft × 150 ft (3,048 m × 46 m), Surface: Concrete
  • Runway 18R/36L: 8,000 ft × 150 ft (2,438 m × 46 m), Surface: Concrete

Employment[edit]

In addition to hundreds of ground staff employees, Delta has a flight attendant base and a pilot base for the McDonnell Douglas MD-88, and Boeing 737–800. In total, over 1,000 people are employed at Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International Airport.[citation needed]

SkyClub[edit]

Delta operates one SkyClub in Concourse B and also operated a Business Elite lounge near Gate B14 until summer of 2008. Delta formerly operated a SkyClub in Concourse A.[25] Though the lounge was closed, the furniture and space are now used as a lounge for pilots.

Main Terminal (formerly called Terminal 3)[edit]

Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport terminal
This flight from Paris is one of Cincinnati's only remaining international flights

Concourse A[edit]

Operated by Delta Air Lines until 2010, Concourse A underwent an extensive renovation before re-opening on May 15, 2012, to serve passengers on Air Canada, Allegiant Air, American Airlines, Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, and US Airways, most of which formerly used Terminal 2, which is now closed. As such, ticketing, security screening and baggage claim for all airlines now take place in the newly renamed Main Terminal (Terminal 3).[26]

Concourse B[edit]

Concourse B is, like all concourses of Terminal 3, designed and originally purposed for Delta and its affiliates, including Cincinnati based Delta subsidiary, Comair. The concourse now houses all Delta and Delta Connection flights with a total of 39 gates. Also, U.S. Customs and Border Protection are contained in Concourse B.

Concourse C[edit]

Concourse C, which once housed all Delta Connection flights, opened in September 1994[27] and closed in 2009 due to Delta Air Lines cutting flights from the hub. Concourse C is an island and was only accessible by passengers from other terminals and ticketing facilities via buses. Delta has a lease on the concourse until 2025.

Security Checkpoint[edit]

The main terminal security checkpoint is on the ticketing level. This new, expandable checkpoint opened in November 2009. After clearing security, passengers can take escalators or elevators down to the Cincinnati Airport People Mover that departs to all gates. Arriving passengers exit the terminal by elevator or escalator up to the baggage claim level and ground transportation.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Airlines Destinations Concourse
Air Canada Express Toronto–Pearson A
Allegiant Air Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville (begins February 12, 2015), Las Vegas, Orlando/Sanford, Phoenix/Mesa, Punta Gorda/Fort Myers, St. Petersburg/Clearwater
Seasonal: Myrtle Beach, New Orleans (begins February 4, 2015)
A
American Eagle Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York–JFK A
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York–LaGuardia (begins March 2, 2015), Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa
Seasonal: Cancun, Denver, Phoenix, Punta Cana (resumes February 14, 2015), San Diego (ends January 4, 2015)
B
Delta Connection Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Fort Myers, Grand Rapids, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Kansas City, Madison, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, St. Louis, Toronto–Pearson, Washington–National
Seasonal: Fort Lauderdale
B
Frontier Airlines Cancun, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Orlando, Phoenix
Seasonal: Punta Cana, Trenton, Washington-Dulles
A
Ultimate Air Shuttle Chicago-Midway, Morristown (NJ) Administrative Building
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles A
US Airways Express Charlotte, Philadelphia, Washington–National A

Air charters[edit]

Airlines Destinations Concourse
Apple Vacations
operated by Frontier Airlines
Seasonal Charter: Cancun, Punta Cana A
Vacation Express operated by Bahamasair Seasonal Charter: Freeport [28] A
Vacation Express operated by Miami Air International Seasonal Charter: Punta Cana B

Top destinations[edit]

Top Ten Busiest domestic routes Out of CVG
(Oct 2013 – Sep 2014)[29]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Atlanta, GA 294,000 Delta
2 Chicago, IL (ORD) 248,000 American, Delta, United
3 Charlotte, NC 157,000 Delta, US Airways, Ultimate Air
4 Philadelphia, PA 119,000 Delta, US Airways
5 Denver, CO 118,000 Delta, Frontier, United
6 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX 115,000 American, Delta, Frontier
7 Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN 107,000 Delta
8 Orlando, FL 106,000 Delta, Frontier
9 Detroit, MI 93,000 Delta
10 Washington, DC 92,000 Delta, US Airways
Busiest international routes from Cincinnati (2013)[30]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Paris, France 108,254 Delta
2 Toronto, Canada 63,315 Air Canada, Delta
3 Cancún, Mexico 21,477 Delta, Frontier
4 Punta Cana, Dominican Republic 6,889 Delta, Frontier

Cargo carriers and destinations[edit]

CVG also serves as one of DHL's three global hubs. DHL has recently completed a $105 million expansion and employs approximately 2,500 at CVG. Because of this growth, CVG now stands as the 9th busiest airport in North America based on cargo tonnage and 40th in the world. Currently, DHL has over 40 aircraft arrivals each night at CVG.[31]

Airlines Destinations
ABX Air Baltimore, Calgary,[32] Dallas/Fort Worth, Guadalajara, Harlingen, Houston-Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Miami, Nashville, Newark, New York-JFK, Orlando, Phoenix, San Juan, San Francisco, Seattle-Boeing Field
Air Cargo Carriers Harrisburg, Richmond
Air Transport International Denver, El Paso, Greensboro
Ameriflight Cedar Rapids, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton
Atlas Air Atlanta, Anchorage, Bahrain, Boston, Brussels, Chicago-O'Hare, Frankfurt, Hamilton (ON), Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle, Tokyo-Narita, Toledo
Cargojet Airways Montréal-Mirabel
Castle Aviation Akron-Canton
DHL Air UK Brussels, East Midlands (UK), Leipzig/Halle, New York-JFK, Paris-Charles de Gaulle
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis, Washington-National
Kalitta Air Anchorage, Bahrain, Brussels, East Midlands (UK), Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle, Liège, Seoul-Incheon
Polar Air Cargo Anchorage, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle, Los Angeles, Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita
Southern Air Anchorage, Austin, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle, Philadelphia, Rochester, St. Louis
Suburban Air Freight Omaha

Other facilities[edit]

Delta Private Jets is headquartered on the grounds of the airport.[33] The 82 Comair Boulevard building, which houses the Delta Private Jets headquarters, previously was the Comair headquarters and had the name Comair General Office Building.[34] The airport also houses a hangar and line maintenance facility for Delta Air Lines' primary maintenance, repair and overhaul arm, Delta TechOps.[35]

77 Comair Boulevard, former headquarters of Comair

77 Comair Boulevard formerly served as the corporate headquarters of Comair.[36] The building, with 187,000 square feet (17,400 m2) of space,[37] is on South Airfield Road. In 2010, after the airline began downsizing, it considered leaving the building and moving to another location near the airport. A spokesperson did not disclose how much office space the airline occupied; she said it was planning to reduce its space by 20 to 25 percent.[38] In 2011 Delta Air Lines, parent company of Comair, suggested that Delta could help assist the airport in obtaining a Transportation Security Administration training center, with it being located in 77 Comair Boulevard.[39] In early 2011, Comair vacated the building.[37] In 2012 the Kenton County Airport Board approved a five-year lease, with two five-year options, for Southern Air for about 33,100 square feet (3,080 m2) of space in 77 Comair Boulevard. For the first period, the rent would be $9.95 per square foot. This would increase to $12 per square foot for the second period and $15 per square foot for the third period. The airport plans to spend $500,000 in capital improvements on 77 Comair Boulevard.[36]

Ground transportation[edit]

TANK provides bus service from the airport to Downtown Cincinnati via Route 2X. Car rental services are provided by Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, Hertz, National and Thrifty. The Main Terminal has Short Term Parking Garages. The Short Term Parking areas are designated by fruit names: Level 1- Orange, Level 2- Lemon, Level 3- Lime, Level 4- Cherry, and Level 5- Grape. Long Term Parking is remote from the terminal, so passengers must use a shuttle bus between the terminals and Long Term Parking lot.

Based aircraft[edit]

Jet Aircraft – 9 Single Engine – 2 Multi-Engine – 2

Total – 9 (Data as of 2009)[40]

Other[edit]

Statistics[edit]

The apron as seen from Terminal 2. In the foreground is an American Eagle Embraer E-135
Statistics for Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Year Total Passengers  % change Aircraft Movements  % change
2002[41] 20,812,642 Steady 486,501 Steady
2003[41] 21,197,447 Increase 1.8% 505,557 Increase 3.9%
2004[42] 22,062,557 Increase 4.1% 517,520 Increase 2.4%
2005[43] 22,778,785 Increase 3.2% 496,366 Decrease 4.1%
2006[44] 16,244,962 Decrease 28.7% 345,754 Decrease 30.3%
2007[45] 15,736,220 Decrease 3.1% 328,059 Decrease 5.1%
2008[46] 13,630,443 Decrease 13.4% 285,484 Decrease 13.0%
2009[47] 10,621,655 Decrease 22.1% 222,677 Decrease 22.0%
2010[48] 7,977,588 Decrease 24.9% 177,597 Decrease 20.2%
2011[49] 7,034,263 Decrease 11.8% 161,912 Decrease 8.8%
2012[50] 6,038,817 Decrease 14.2% 143,447 Decrease 11.4%
2013[51] 5,718,255 Decrease 5.31% 137,671 Decrease 4.03%
2014 (YTD) [52] 4,962,874 Increase 2.35% 111,413 Decrease 4.13%

Pricing[edit]

CVG consistently ranks among the most expensive major airports in the United States.[53] Delta operates over 75% of flights at CVG, a fact often cited as a reason for relatively high domestic ticket prices.[54] Airline officials have suggested that Delta practices predatory pricing to drive away discount airlines.[53][55] From 1990 to 2003, ten discount airlines began service at CVG, only to later pull out,[56] including Vanguard Airlines, which pulled out of CVG twice.[57] Delta maintains that its pricing is reasonable, considering the increased connectivity and non-stop flights that a hub airport offers a market the size of Cincinnati.[56]

According to a study commissioned by CVG, 18% of Cincinnati-area residents use one of five nearby airports – Dayton, Louisville, Port Columbus, Indianapolis, or Blue Grass (Lexington) – instead of CVG because passengers can find fares up to 50% lower at these nearby airports.[56]

In a bid to boost local ridership and make CVG more competitive with surrounding airports, Delta Air Lines announced a large-scale fare reduction on February 6, 2009.[58]

Industrial murals[edit]

The airport is home to 14 large Art Deco murals created for the train concourse building at Cincinnati Union Terminal during the station's construction in 1932. Mosaic murals depicting people at work in local Cincinnati workplaces were incorporated into the interior design of the railroad station by Winold Reiss, a German-born artist with a reputation in interior design.

When the train concourse building was designated for demolition in 1972, a "Save the Terminal Committee" raised funds to remove and transport the 14 murals in the concourse to new locations in the Airport. They were placed in Terminal 1, and in Terminals 2 and 3, which were then being constructed as part of a major airport expansion and renovation.

The murals were also featured in a scene in the film Rain Man starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. In addition, a walkway to one of the terminals at CVG was featured in the scene in the film when Hoffman's character, Raymond, refused to fly on a plane.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • On November 14, 1961, Zantop cargo flight, a DC-4, crashed near runway 18 into an apple orchard. The crew survived.
  • On November 6, 1967, TWA Flight 159, a Boeing 707, overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, injuring 11 of the 29 passengers. One of the injured passengers died four days later. The seven crew members were unhurt.
  • On November 20, 1967, TWA Flight 128, a Convair 880, crashed on approach to runway 18, killing 70 (65 passengers and 5 crew) of the 82 persons aboard (75 passengers and 7 crew).
  • On October 19, 1979, Burlington Airways, a Twin Beech twin prop crashed landed on KY 237 @ I-275 bridge overpass. Tail # N24K. No one was injured.[59]
  • On June 2, 1983, Air Canada Flight 797, a DC-9 flying on Dallas-Toronto-Montreal route, made an emergency landing at Cincinnati due to a cabin fire. Twenty-three of the 41 passengers died of smoke inhalation or fire injuries, including legendary Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers. All five crew members survived.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

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  10. ^ http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2013/05/23/4057117/protesters-expected-at-chiquitas.html
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  21. ^ Cincinnati Airport to Open Its New Terminal Complex
  22. ^ THW Design – Architecture
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  27. ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Comair-Holdings-Inc-Company-History.html
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  30. ^ |"U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report". Office of Aviation Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation. 2013. Retrieved July 24, 2014. 
  31. ^ http://www.cvgairport.com/docs/default-source/leadership/cvg-2014.pdf?sfvrsn=0
  32. ^ http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/1412278/dhl-express-launches-new-calgary-edmonton-route-to-meet-increased-customer-demand-in-western-canada
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