Greater Los Angeles Area

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the metropolitan area consisting of Los Angeles and Orange Counties, see Los Angeles metropolitan area.
Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside CSA
Metropolitan region
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Long Beach
Long Beach
Riverside
Riverside
Country  United States of America
State  California
Principal city  Los Angeles
Other major cities  - Long Beach
 - Riverside
 - San Bernardino
 - Santa Ana
 - Anaheim
 - Irvine
 - Oxnard
 - Ontario
Area
 • Metro 33,954 sq mi (87,490 (overestimated) km2)
Elevation 0 – 11,499 ft (0 – 3,505 m)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolitan region 18,081,569
 • Density 526.5/sq mi (203.3/km2)
  Ranked 2nd in the US
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
Area code(s) 213, 323 310, 424, 442, 562, 626, 657, 661, 714, 760, 805, 818, 909, 949, 951

The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, is a term used for both the urbanized region and Combined Statistical Area in the United States, sprawling over five counties in the southern part of California, namely Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Ventura counties.

Throughout the 20th century, it was one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, although growth has slowed since 2000. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of nearly 13 million residents. Meanwhile, the larger metropolitan region's population at the 2010 census was estimated to be over 17.8 million residents, and a 2011 estimate reported a population of about 18.1 million. Either definition makes it the second largest metropolitan region in the country, behind the New York metropolitan area, as well as one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world.[1][2]

The agglomeration of the urbanized Greater Los Angeles area surrounds the urban core of Los Angeles County. The regional term is defined to refer to the more-or-less continuously urbanized area stretching from Ventura County to the southern border of Orange County and from the Pacific Ocean to the Coachella Valley in the Inland Empire.

The US Census Bureau defines the Greater Los Angeles area to include the entire Los Angeles county, Ventura County, Orange County and the two counties of the Inland Empire, making up the "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA" Combined Statistical Area. However this Census definition includes large, sparsely populated and primarily desert swaths of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties that are not part of the urbanized region. The term "Greater Los Angeles" does not include San Diego and Imperial counties, whose urbanized areas are not geographically continuous with the urbanized area surrounding Los Angeles.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a total area of 4,850 square miles (12,561 km2), while the wider combined statistical area covers 33,954 square miles (87,940 km2), making it the largest metropolitan region in the United States by land area. However, more than half of this area lies in the sparsely populated eastern areas of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. In addition to being the nexus of the world's largest entertainment industry, Greater Los Angeles is also a global center of business, international trade, education, media, fashion, tourism, science and technology, sports, and transportation.[3]

Geography[edit]

The Los Angeles Basin, viewed south from Mulholland Drive. From left to right can be seen the Santa Ana Mountains / Saddleback (horizon), downtown L.A., the Hollywood Bowl (foreground), Mid-Wilshire, Long BeachPalos Verdes (background), Catalina Island (horizon), the Southbay and Pacific Ocean.

Urban form[edit]

Skyscrapers in Downtown Los Angeles

Los Angeles has a long-standing reputation for sprawl. The area is in fact sprawling, but according to the 2000 census, the "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana" Urbanized Area (but not counting the portions of the Inland Empire in the Greater Los Angeles Area) had a population density of 7,068 inhabitants per square mile (2,729/km2), covering 1,668 square miles (4,320 km2) of land area, making it the most densely populated Urbanized Area (as defined by the United States Census Bureau) in the United States.[4] For comparison, the "New York–Newark" Urbanized Area as a whole had a population density of 5,309 per square mile (2,050/km2), covering 3,353 square miles (8,684 km2) of land area.

Los Angeles' sprawl may originate in the region's decentralized structure. Its major commercial, financial, and cultural institutions are geographically dispersed rather than being concentrated in a single downtown or central area. Also, the population density of Los Angeles proper is low (approximately 7,500 people per square mile) when compared to some other large American cities such as New York (27,500), San Francisco (17,000), and Chicago (11,800).[5] However, what gives the entire Los Angeles metro region a high density is the fact that many of the city's suburbs and satellites cities have high density rates.[6] Within its urbanized areas, Los Angeles is noted for having small lot sizes and low-rise buildings. Buildings in the area are low when compared to other large cities, mainly due to zoning regulations. Los Angeles became a major city just as the Pacific Electric Railway spread population to smaller cities much as interurbans did in East Coast cities. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the area was marked by a network of fairly dense but separate cities linked by rail. The ascendance of the automobile helped fill in the gaps between these commuter towns with lower-density settlements.[7]

A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area completely filled with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways

Suburban areas surround the city of Los Angeles on all sides. In fact, the city proper has just a few miles of its land actually bordering the Pacific Ocean; some smaller geographically-sized suburbs and satellite cities tend to have large portions of their territory bordering the ocean. Starting in the early twentieth century, there was a large growth in population on the western edges of the city moving to the San Fernando Valley and out into the Conejo Valley in eastern Ventura County. Much of the working class whites migrated to this area during the 1960s and 1970s out of East and Central Los Angeles.[8] As a result, there was a large growth in population into the Conejo Valley and into Ventura County through the US 101 corridor. Making the US 101 a full freeway in the 1960s and expansions that followed helped make commuting to Los Angeles easier and opened the way for development westward. Development in Ventura County and along the US 101 corridor remains controversial, with open-space advocates battling those who feel business development is necessary to economic growth.[9] Although the area still has abundant amount of open space and land, almost all of it was put aside and mandated never to be developed as part of the master plan of each city. Because of this, the area which was once a relatively inexpensive area to buy real estate, saw rising real estate prices well into the 2000s.[10] Median home prices in the Conejo Valley for instance, now range from $700,000 to $2.2 million.[11] According to Forbes, "it's nearly impossible" to find reasonably priced real estate in California, and the prices will continue to increase.[12]

The Los Angeles area continues to grow, principally on the periphery where new, cheaper, undeveloped areas are being sought.[13] As such, in these areas, populations as well as housing prices exploded, although the housing bubble popped late in the decade of the 2000s. Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, which contain large swaths of desert, attracted most of the population increase between 2000 and 2006. Growth continues not only outside the existing urbanized area but also adjacent to existing development in the central areas.[14] As in virtually all US core cities, there is now vigorous residential development in the downtown area with both new buildings and renovation of former office buildings. The Los Angeles Downtown News keeps a list of ongoing development projects, updated every quarter.[15]

Downtown Los Angeles

Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

Identity[edit]

The term "Greater Los Angeles" can be used to denote the metropolitan area or the consolidated area. The term "Southland" is more nebulous and can refer to either. Additionally, the Southland is used more by local media than by residents. Employment is not only in the downtown area, but consistently occurs outside the central core. As such, many people commute throughout the city and suburbs in various directions for their work and daily activities, with a large portion heading to the municipalities that are outside the city of Los Angeles.[16]

Unlike most metropolitan areas, regional identity remains a contentious issue in the Greater Los Angeles area, with many residents not acknowledging any association with the region as a whole. For example, while Los Angeles County and Orange County together make up the smaller MSA region, the two have a host of sharp demographic, political, and financial distinctions. Orange County residents often attempt to be identified apart from Los Angeles although they make up the same metropolitan area. And while only 1.63% of Los Angeles residents commute to Orange County for work, over 6% of Orange County commuters head to Los Angeles for work.[17] Western Riverside County and San Bernardino County have become commuter regions characteristic of other suburban counties throughout the nation. Most residents in these counties commute to Los Angeles County and Orange County for employment.[18]

Boundaries[edit]

Los Angeles[edit]

Main article: Los Angeles

With a population of 3.8 million people as of the 2010 Census, Los Angeles is the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, and is the focal point of the Greater Los Angeles Area.[19] As an international center for finance, entertainment, media, culture, education, tourism, and science, Los Angeles is considered one of the world's most powerful and influential global cities.[20]

As with some municipalities and areas in the metropolitan region, areas in Los Angeles proper can be defined as being bounded by natural features such as mountains or the ocean; others are marked by city boundaries, freeways, or other constructed landmarks. For example, Downtown Los Angeles is the area of Los Angeles roughly enclosed by three freeways and one river: the Harbor Freeway (SR 110) to the west, the Santa Ana Freeway (US 101) to the north, the Los Angeles River to the east, and the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) to the south.[21] Meanwhile, the San Fernando Valley ("The Valley") is defined as the basin consisting of the part of Los Angeles and its suburbs that lie north-northwest of downtown and is ringed by mountains.[22] Other areas of the city of Los Angeles include the Westside, South Los Angeles (formerly known officially, and still referred to, as South Central L.A.), Harbor Area, East Los Angeles, Greater Hollywood, and Wilshire.

Los Angeles County[edit]

Los Angeles County, of which Los Angeles is the county seat, is the most populous county in the United States and is home to over a quarter of all California residents.[23] The large size of the city of Los Angeles, as well as its history of annexing smaller towns, has made city boundaries in the central area of Los Angeles County quite complicated.[24] Many cities are completely surrounded by the City of Los Angeles and are often included in the city's areas despite being independent municipalities. For example, Santa Monica and Beverly Hills (which is completely surrounded by Los Angeles) are considered part of the Westside, while Compton and Inglewood are associated with South L.A. Adjacent areas that are outside the actual city boundaries of incorporated Los Angeles but border the city itself, include the Santa Clarita Valley, the San Gabriel Valley, South Bay, and the Gateway Cities.

Despite the large footprint of the City of Los Angeles, a majority of the land area within Los Angeles County is unincorporated and under the primary jurisdiction of Los Angeles County. Much of this land however, is that of which cannot be easily developed due to the planning challenges presented by geographic features such as the Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains range, and the Mojave Desert. Land that is actually developed in these regions occurs on the fringes of incorporated cities, some of which have been fully developed, such as the suburbs of Palmdale and Lancaster.

Orange County[edit]

Orange County, together with Los Angeles County, is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the inner core of the Greater Los Angeles region. The county is mostly suburban, with no defined urban center. Originally a primarily agricultural area dependent on citrus crops, avocados, and oil extraction, Orange County became a bedroom community for Los Angeles upon the completion of numerous freeways linking it to the city, most notably Interstate 5. The growth of Los Angeles initially fueled population growth in Orange County, but the establishment of the tourism industry allowed it to become an important economic center as well. Today, Orange County is known for its tourist attractions, such as Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, and its several pristine beaches and coastline. Some larger cities in the county, such as Anaheim and Irvine, have evolved to become centers of business and cultural attractions.

Orange County is sometimes figuratively divided into "North County" and "South County" by California State Route 55 (Costa Mesa Freeway). While North County, which includes cities such as Anaheim, Fullerton, and Santa Ana, is the older, more diverse and urbanized area closer to Los Angeles, South County, which includes cities such as Laguna Beach, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach, and San Clemente, is more affluent, mostly white demographically, and consists of the more recently developed areas to the south and east. An exception to general South County traits is Irvine, which is more diverse than its surrounding cities and is a major center of employment.

Ventura County[edit]

Ventura County is mostly suburban and rural and also has developed primarily through the growth of Los Angeles. The northern part of the county, however, remains largely undeveloped and is mostly within the Los Padres National Forest. Central and southern Ventura County formerly consisted of small towns along the Pacific Coast until the expansion of U.S. Route 101 drew in commuters from the San Fernando Valley. Master-planned cities soon began developing, and the county became increasingly urbanized.

Inland Empire[edit]

The Inland Empire, consisting of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, contains fast-growing suburbs of the region, with a large to majority percentage of the working population commuting to either Los Angeles or Orange Counties for work. Originally an important center for citrus production, the region became an important industrial area by the early 20th century.[25][26][27] The Inland Empire also became a key transportation center following the completion of Route 66, and later Interstate 10. With the post-World War II economic boom leading to rapid development in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, land developers bulldozed acres of agricultural land to build suburbs in order to accommodate the Los Angeles area's expanding population.[25] The development of a regional freeway system facilitated the expansion of suburbs and human migration linking the Inland Empire and rest of Greater Los Angeles. Despite being primarily suburban, the Inland Empire is also home to important warehousing, shipping, logistics and retail industries, centered on the subregion's major cities of Riverside, San Bernardino and Ontario.

While the Inland Empire is sometimes defined as the entirety of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, the eastern undeveloped, desert portions of these counties are not considered to be part of Greater Los Angeles. The state of California defines this area to include the cities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, and Victorville to the north, the Riverside–San Diego county line to the south, and the towns of Anza, Idyllwild, and Lucerne Valley, along with the San Bernardino National Forest to the east.[28] However, with clear Northern and Southern limits to expansion, the region's urban eastern boundaries have become increasingly nebulous as suburban sprawl continues to spread out to form a unified whole with Los Angeles, with further development encroaching past the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains and into the outlying desert areas. As a result, the regional definition of Greater Los Angeles can now be extended to include Barstow and surrounding towns in the northeast, the Morongo Basin in the east-central including Yucca Valley and Twentynine Palms, and the Coachella Valley cities in the southeast. This interconnectivity, provided by one of the most extensive freeway systems in the world, as well as economic, social and media ties has blended boundaries between these regions and the urbanized Los Angeles and Inland Empire areas.[29]

Areas included by Census Bureau[edit]

While the above areas are included in the regional definition of Greater Los Angeles, the U.S. Census Bureau defines Greater Los Angeles, or officially, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside Combined Statistical Area, to include both the above-mentioned areas along with the entirety of San Bernardino and Riverside counties.[30] These areas are sparsely developed and are part of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts. To the north, Interstate 15 crosses desolate desert landscape after passing Barstow, linking Greater Los Angeles with Las Vegas, with Baker being the only significant outpost along the route. To the east, lie the Mojave National Preserve and Joshua Tree National Park along with the towns of Needles and Blythe on the California-Arizona border.

Census statistics[edit]

Southland map showing CSA, MSA's, and UA's

Combined Statistical Area[edit]

The Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area consists of the entirety of the counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura, San Bernardino, and Riverside, including the sparsely developed eastern portions of the latter two that are not included in the regional definition of Greater Los Angeles. As of the 2010 United States Census, it is home to nearly half of all California residents.[31]

Metropolitan Statistical Areas[edit]

The Los Angeles metropolitan area comprises Los Angeles County (2010 population: 9,862,049) and Orange County (2010 population: 3,010,759). It is officially designated by the US Census Bureau as the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The total population for the Los Angeles metropolitan area at the 2010 Census was 12,872,808.[32]

In addition to the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the following Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA Combined Statistical Area:[32] Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (2010 population: 797,740), within Ventura County, and the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (2010 population: 4,115,871), made up of Riverside County (2010 population: 2,100,516) and San Bernardino County (2010 population: 2,015,355).

Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana MSA[edit]

View of Downtown Los Angeles, the central business district of the region

List of cities with populations of over 60,000 as of the 2010 U.S. Census:

Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario MSA[edit]

List of cities with populations of over 60,000 as of the 2010 U.S. Census:

Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura MSA[edit]

View of the Ventura MSA coast


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 250,187
1910 648,316 159.1%
1920 1,150,252 77.4%
1930 2,597,066 125.8%
1940 3,252,720 25.2%
1950 4,934,246 51.7%
1960 7,751,616 57.1%
1970 9,972,037 28.6%
1980 11,497,486 15.3%
1990 14,531,529 26.4%
2000 16,373,645 12.7%
2010 17,877,006 9.2%
Est. 2012 18,238,998 2.0%
historical data source:[33]

According to the 2000 census, there were 16,373,645 people residing in the Greater Los Angeles Area. The racial makeup of the area was 55.1% White (39.0% White Non-Hispanic), 10.4% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 7.6% African American, 0.9% Native American, 21.0% from other races, and 4.7% from two or more races. 40.3% of the population were Hispanic of any race. 31.0% of the population (5.068 million) was foreign born; of this, 62.1% came from Latin America, 28.9% from Asia, 6.0% from Europe, and 3.0% from other parts of the world. 20.2% of the population (3.31 million) was born in different states.

The explosive growth of the region in the 20th century can be attributed to its favorable Mediterranean climate, the availability of land and many booming industries such as oil, automobile and rubber, motion pictures and aerospace which in turn attracted millions of people from all over the United States and world.[citation needed] Citrus production was important to the region's development in the earlier part of the 20th century.[34]

While the New York metropolitan area is presently the most populous metropolitan area in the United States, it has been predicted in the past that Greater Los Angeles will eventually surpass Greater New York in population.[citation needed] Whether this will happen is yet to be seen, but past predictions on this event have been off the mark. A 1966 article in Time predicted Greater Los Angeles would surpass New York by 1975, and that by 1990, would reach close to the 19 million mark.[35] But the article's flawed definition of Greater Los Angeles included San Diego, which is actually its own metropolitan area. A 1989 article in The New York Times predicted Greater Los Angeles would surpass Greater New York by 2010,[36] but the article predicted the population would be 18.3 million in that year, a number Greater New York has already surpassed as of 2007 by half a million people. As of 2009, the New York metropolitan area had a population of 22.2 million compared to the Greater Los Angeles Area's 18.7 million, about a 3.56 million persons difference.[37] Percentage growth, however, has been higher in Greater Los Angeles over the past few decades than in Greater New York.

Regions of the Southland[edit]

While there is not official designation for the regions that comprise Greater Los Angeles, one authority, the Los Angeles Times, divides the area into the following regions:[38]

Regions in adjacent counties include:

Politics[edit]

Presidential Election Results
Year GOP DEM Others
2008 37.3% 2,099,609 60.8% 3,425,319 1.9% 107,147
2004 45.3% 2,490,150 53.4% 2,932,429 1.3% 69,649
2000 41.3% 2,003,114 54.6% 2,652,907 4.1% 198,750
1996 38.3% 1,661,209 51.3% 2,220,837 10.4% 449,706
1992 33.8% 1,657,151 45.0% 2,202,345 21.2% 1,038,448
1988 53.8% 2,408,696 45.0% 2,014,670 1.2% 54,441
1984 60.6% 2,614,904 38.3% 1,650,231 1.1% 48,225
1980 55.5% 2,187,859 35.0% 1,381,285 9.5% 374,993
1976 50.8% 1,877,267 46.7% 1,728,532 2.5% 93,554
1972 57.7% 2,346,127 38.7% 1,573,708 3.6% 146,653
1968 50.3% 1,836,478 43.0% 1,570,478 7.3% 247,280
1964 44.0% 1,578,837 55.9% 2,006,184 0.1% 2,488
1960 50.8% 1,677,962 48.9% 1,612,924 0.3% 10,524

Greater Los Angeles is a politically divided metropolitan area. During the 1970s and 1980s the region leaned toward the Republican Party. Los Angeles County, the most populous of the region, is a Democratic stronghold, although it voted twice for both Richard Nixon (1968 and 1972) and Ronald Reagan (1980 and 1984). Riverside County, San Bernardino County, and Orange County lean toward the Republican Party. Ventura County is politically divided.

Economy[edit]

The Greater Los Angeles Area has the third largest metropolitan economy in the world, behind Greater Tokyo Area and New York Metropolitan Area.[citation needed] A 2010 Greyhill Advisors study indicated that the Los Angeles metropolitan area had a gross metropolitan product of $736 billion.[39] Greater Los Angeles (including the Inland Empire and Ventura County) had a $770.6 billion economy.[40]

Greater Los Angeles Area is the home of the US national headquarters of almost all Asian major car manufacturers except Nissan, Toyota, and Subaru (Nissan moved to Tennessee; Toyota moved to Texas; Subaru first located in Philadelphia but moved to New Jersey); Honda, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Hyundai and Kia have set up their national headquarters here.[citation needed]

Entertainment[edit]

Promoted as the "Entertainment Capital of the World", Greater Los Angeles is one of the world's largest tourist destinations. Major attractions include:

Beaches

Laguna Beach coastline is popular for sunbathers

Shopping

Motion picture studios

Nightlife

Amusement & theme parks

Sleeping Beauty Castle at Disneyland Park

Waterparks

Zoos

Aquariums

Museums

Other

BEA economic area[edit]

The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) defines an even larger region known as an "economic area" (EA), which delineates the relevant regional market surrounding a metropolitan area. "BEA's economic areas define the relevant regional markets surrounding metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas. They consist of one or more economic nodes – metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas that serve as regional centers of economic activity – and the surrounding counties that are economically related to the nodes." The Los Angeles economic area consists of the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside Combined Statistical Area and includes the California counties of Imperial, Kern, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura, as well as La Paz County and Yuma County in Arizona.[41]

Major business districts[edit]

Greater Los Angeles supports large business districts throughout its urban area. The central business district is located at Downtown Los Angeles. Within the Los Angeles city limits are multiple districts, and other than Bunker Hill, these are Century City and businesses lining Wilshire Boulevard. Other major districts nearby Los Angeles include Downtown Long Beach, downtown Glendale, and downtown Burbank. In the southern reaches of Greater Los Angeles, major business districts include Newport Center, South Coast Metro, and the developing business district in Irvine. To the east major business districts include the respective centers of Downtown Riverside and Downtown San Bernardino.

Transportation[edit]

Greater Los Angeles is known for its expansive transportation network. Most notable is its extensive highway system. The area is a junction for numerous interstates coming from the north, east, and south and contains the three principal north-south highways in California: Interstate 5, U.S. Route 101, and California State Route 1. The area is also home to several ports, including the twin ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, which are the two busiest in the United States, as well as Port Hueneme.[42] Additionally, the region is also served by the Metrorail and Metrolink commuter rail systems that link neighborhoods of Los Angeles with immediate surrounding suburbs and most of the region (excluding the outer region of the Inland Empire) with Oceanside in San Diego County, respectively. Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is the principal international airport of the region and is among one of the busiest in the world.[43] Other airports include LA/Ontario International Airport (ONT), John Wayne Airport (SNA), Bob Hope Airport (BUR), Long Beach Municipal Airport (LGB), and Palm Springs International Airport (PSP).

Sports[edit]

Team Sport League Venue
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball Dodger Stadium
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Baseball Major League Baseball Angel Stadium of Anaheim
Los Angeles Lakers Basketball National Basketball Association Staples Center
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association Staples Center
Los Angeles Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball Association Staples Center
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League Staples Center
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League Honda Center
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer StubHub Center
Los Angeles Kiss Arena football Arena Football League Honda Center

The Greater Los Angeles area also has three well-known horse racing facilities: Santa Anita Park, Los Alamitos Race Course and Hollywood Park Racetrack and three major motorsport venues: Auto Club Speedway, Long Beach street circuit, and Auto Club Raceway at Pomona. In addition, the city of Los Angeles hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.

The Los Angeles area media market currently lacks a National Football League team. After the 1994 season, the Los Angeles Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri and the Los Angeles Raiders returned to their original home of Oakland, California (both teams played each other in Anaheim during the 1994 season, with the Raiders winning). There are two competing plans to build a stadium which will become home to an NFL team in the future, one in the City of Industry and one in Downtown Los Angeles.[44] In 2009 the city council of the City of Industry approved[45] the construction of a stadium and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a bill with an evironmental exemption to support a stadium in that city.[46] In 2011 the Los Angeles City Council approved plans to build Farmers Field in Downtown Los Angeles.[47]

As a whole, the Los Angeles area has more national championships, all sports combined (college and professional), than any other city in the United States, with over four times as many championships as the entire state of Texas, and just over twice that of New York City.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  2. ^ [1] World's Largest Metropolitan Areas, 2012
  3. ^ "Revealed: Cities that rule the world". CNN. April 10, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2011. 
  4. ^ American Factfinder, United States Census Bureau, Table: "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population): 2000" from Data Set: "Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data", accessed 10 October 2007 at: [2] See also: List of United States urban areas
  5. ^ Haughton, Graham, and Colin Hunter, Sustainable Cities, London: Routledge, 2003: 81.
  6. ^ Bruegmann, Robert. Sprawl: A Compact History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2005: 65.
  7. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1999). New York, Chicago, Los Angeles: America's Global Cities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3336-4. 
  8. ^ Gutierrez, David. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003: 94.
  9. ^ Curtiss, Aaron. "Bitter Land-Use Fights Seen For 101 Corridor Development." Los Angeles Times 20 November 1993: B1.
  10. ^ Olsen, Andy. "Local Home Prices Soar in May." Los Angeles Times 23 June 2003: B3.
  11. ^ Griggs, Gregory. "Local Homes Get Even Pricier." Los Angeles Times 21 August 2003: B1.
  12. ^ Gerber, Ross (28 May 2014). "Playing The Surge In California Real Estate". Forbes. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Hale, David (2003). New York and Los Angeles: Politics, Society, and Culture: A Comparative View. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 181–183, 185. ISBN 978-0-226-31369-6. 
  14. ^ Soja, Edward W. (1999). "Taking Los Angeles Apart". Postmodern Geographies:The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory (5th ed.). London: Verso. pp. 224–233. ISBN 978-0-86091-936-0. 
  15. ^ http://www.downtownnews.com/development downtownnews.com
  16. ^ Wolch, Jennifer R.; Manuel Pastor; Peter Dreier (2004). Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4298-4. 
  17. ^ "Orange County to County Commuting". Labor Market Information Division. 
  18. ^ "Riverside County is 'extreme commute' king". North County Times. 
  19. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Releases Data on Population Distribution and Change in the U.S. Based on Analysis of 2010 Census Results". U.S. Census Bureau. March 24, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  20. ^ "The Global Cities Index 2010". Foreign Policy. 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2011. 
  21. ^ Sharon Bernstein and David Pierson, "L.A. moves toward more N.Y-style downtown", Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2007.
  22. ^ "San Fernando Valley". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  23. ^ "Newsroom: Population: Census Bureau Releases State and County Data Depicting Nation's Population Ahead of 2010 Census". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  24. ^ Mapping L.A. - Los Angeles Times. Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
  25. ^ a b Ruther, Walter; Calavan, E. Clair; Carman, Glen E. (1989). "The Origins of Citrus Research in California" (PDF). The Citrus Industry (Oakland: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California) V (Chapter 5). Retrieved August 21, 2007. 
  26. ^ Petrix, Mark (October 30, 2007). "From two orange trees Sprang an Empire". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Retrieved November 15, 2007. 
  27. ^ Sorba, Michael (October 30, 2007). "Rails reach the Inland Empire". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Retrieved November 27, 2007. 
  28. ^ State of California map of Inland Empire
  29. ^ Rosenblatt, Susannah (November 27, 2006). "'Inland' for sure, 'Empire' maybe: Where's the boundary?". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  30. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02: Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses". United States Office of Management and Budget. December 1, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 22, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  32. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau – Combined statistical area population and estimated components of change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008[dead link]
  33. ^ "Older Suburbs in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Local Government Commission. 
  34. ^ Garcia, Matt (2001). A World of its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970 (2nd ed.). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2658-4. 
  35. ^ "Magnet in the West". Time. 1966-09-02. Retrieved 2008-04-24.  "Greater Los Angeles is already the second-most-populous metropolis in the U.S., is almost sure to surpass New York by 1975. Last week alone, some 5,000 people moved into the area. By 1990, such growth will make the city the hub of an uninterrupted urbanized stretch of almost 19 million inhabitants occupying the 175-mile-long, coastal area that runs from Santa Barbara in the north to San Diego in the south."
  36. ^ Reinhold, Robert (1989-08-28). "No Headline". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-24. and the region's population will surpass New York's, reaching 18.3 million in 2010 
  37. ^ Excerpted from California Department of Finance
  38. ^ Los Angeles Times http://projects.latimes.com/mapping-la/neighborhoods/ |url= missing title (help). 
  39. ^ Gross Metropolitan Product - Greyhill Advisors. Greyhill.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
  40. ^ U.S. Metro Economies: GMP – The Engines of America's Growth
  41. ^ BEA Economic Area – Component Counties
  42. ^ White, Ronald D. (August 7, 2011). "Long Beach port chief's long voyage nears an end". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  43. ^ World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
  44. ^ "L.A. council approves framework to build NFL stadium". CBSSports.com. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  45. ^ "Industry Council Approves Pro Football Stadium". nbcla.com. KNBC. July 17, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  46. ^ Adams, John (October 22, 2009). "Los Angeles, Are You Ready For Some NFL Football?". nbcla.com. KNBC. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  47. ^ "L.A. Now". Los Angeles Times. August 10, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Los Angeles Sports Travel". Los Angeles Sports Travel. 

Coordinates: 35°03′25″N 118°15′00″W / 35.0569°N 118.2500°W / 35.0569; -118.2500