|Greater rhea (Rhea americana) in the Wilhelma, Stuttgart, Germany.|
R. americana americana (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Distribution of subspecies|
The greater rhea (Rhea americana) is a flightless bird found in eastern South America. Other names for the greater rhea include the grey, common, or American rhea; ñandú (Guaraní); or ema (Portuguese). One of two species in the genus Rhea, in the family Rheidae, the greater rhea is endemic to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. It inhabits a variety of open areas, such as grasslands, savanna or grassy wetlands. Weighing 50–55 pounds (23–25 kg), the greater rhea is the largest bird in South America. In the wild, the greater rhea has a life expectancy of 10.5 years. It is also notable for its reproductive habits, and for the fact that a group has established itself in Germany in recent years.
- 1 Taxonomy and systematics
- 2 Description
- 3 Distribution and habitat
- 4 Behavior and ecology
- 5 Status and conservation
- 6 Relationship with humans
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Taxonomy and systematics
The greater rhea derives its scientific name from Rhea, a Greek goddess, and the Latinized form of America. It was originally described by Carolus Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae under the name Struthio camelus americanus. He identified specimens from Sergipe, and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in 1758. They are from the family Rheidae, and the order Struthioniformes, commonly known as ratites. They are joined in this order by emus, ostriches, cassowaries, and kiwis, along with the extinct forms moas, and elephant birds.
- R. a. americana – campos of northern and eastern Brazil
- R. a. intermedia – Uruguay and extreme southeastern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul state)
- R. a. nobilis – eastern Paraguay, east of Rio Paraguay
- R. a. araneipes – chaco of Paraguay and Bolivia and the Mato Grosso state of Brazil
- R. a. albescens – plains of Argentina south to the Rio Negro province
Main subspecific differences are the extent of the black coloring of the throat and the height. However, subspecies of the greater rhea differ so little across their range that, without knowledge of the place of origin, it is essentially impossible to identify captive birds by subspecies.
The adults have an average weight of 20–27 kg (44–60 lb) and often measure 127 to 140 cm (50 to 55 in) long from beak to tail; they usually stand about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) tall to the top of the head. The males are generally bigger than the females. Large males can weigh up to 40 kg (88 lb), stand nearly 1.83 m (6.0 ft) tall and measure over 150 cm (59 in) long, although this is rare.
The head and bill are fairly small, the latter measuring 8–10.4 cm (3.1–4.1 in) in length. The legs are long, with the tarsus measuring between 33.5 and 37 cm (13.2 and 14.6 in), and strong and have 22 horizontal plates on the front of the tarsus. They have three toes, and the hind toe is absent. The wings of the American rhea are rather long; the birds use them during running to maintain balance during tight turns, and also during courtship displays.
Greater rheas have a fluffy, tattered-looking plumage, that is gray or brown, with high individual variation, The head, neck, rump, and thighs are feathered. In general, males are darker than females. Even in the wild—particularly in Argentina—leucistic individuals (with white body plumage and blue eyes) as well as albinos occur. Hatchling greater rheas are grey with dark lengthwise stripes.
Distribution and habitat
The greater rhea is endemic to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. This species inhabits grassland dominated by satintail (Imperata) and bahiagrass (Paspalum) species, as well as savanna, scrub forest, chaparral, and even desert and palustrine lands, though it prefers areas with at least some tall vegetation. It is absent from the humid tropical forests of the Mata Atlântica and planalto uplands along the coast of Brazil and extends south to 40° latitude. They prefer lower elevation and seldom go above 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). During the breeding season (spring and summer), it stays near water.
A small non-indigenous population of the greater rhea established itself in Germany. Three pairs escaped from a farm in Groß Grönau, Schleswig-Holstein, in August 2000. These birds survived the winter and succeeded in breeding in a habitat sufficiently similar to their native South American range. They eventually crossed the Wakenitz river and settled in Nordwestmecklenburg in the area around and particularly to the north of Thandorf village. A biosurvey conducted in late 2012 found the population has grown to more than 100 and is settling in permanently.
Behavior and ecology
Individual and flock behavior
The greater rhea is a silent bird except during mating season, when they make low booming noises, and as chicks, when they give a mournful whistle. During the non-breeding season they will form flocks of between 10 and 100 birds. When in flocks, they tend to be less vigilant, but the males can get aggressive towards other males. When chased they will flee in a zigzag pattern, alternately raising one wing then the other. These flocks break up in the winter in time for breeding season.
Feeding and diet
The rhea's diet mainly consists of broad-leaved foliage, particularly seed and fruit when in season, but also insects, scorpions, small rodents, reptiles, and small birds. Favorite food plants include native and introduced species from all sorts of dicot families, such as Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae or Solanaceae. Magnoliidae fruit, for example of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) or avocados (Persea americana, Lauraceae) can be seasonally important. They do not usually eat cereal grains, or monocots in general. However, the leaves of particular grass species like Brachiaria brizantha can be eaten in large quantities, and Liliaceae (e.g. the sarsaparilla Smilax brasiliensis) have also been recorded as foodplants. Even tough and spiny vegetable matter like tubers or thistles is eaten with relish. Like many birds which feed on tough plant matter, the greater rhea swallows pebbles which help grind down the food for easy digestion. It is much attracted to sparkling objects and sometimes accidentally swallows metallic or glossy objects.
In fields and plantations of plants they do not like to eat, e.g., cereals or eucalyptus, the greater rhea can be a species quite beneficial to farmers. It will eat any large invertebrate it can catch; its food includes locusts and grasshoppers, true bugs, cockroaches, and other pest insects. Juveniles eat more animal matter than adults. In mixed cerrado and agricultural land in Minas Gerais (Brazil), R. a. americana was noted to be particularly fond of beetles. It is not clear whether this applies to the species in general but for example in pampas habitat, beetle consumption is probably lower simply due to availability while Orthoptera might be more important. The greater rhea is able to eat Hymenoptera in quantity. These insects contain among them many who can give painful stings, though the birds do not seem to mind. Sometimes, greater rheas will gather at carrion to feed on flies; they are also known to eat dead or dying fish in the dry season, but as vertebrate prey in general not in large quantities.
After the large flocks break up in the winter, they form into three loose groups: single males, flocks of between two to fifteen females, and a large flock of yearlings. As this time approaches, males become more aggressive towards each other. Then they start courting females by calling and raising the front of their body up while keeping their neck straight and ruffling their plumage. They will raise their wings and may run some distance like this, sometime flapping their wings methodically. After doing this and attracting females, they will continue calling at a specific female, and will start to either walk alongside her or in front of her while spreading his wings and lowering his head. As the display continues, he will get more intense and animated and start waving his neck around and in figure eights. Once he has attracted a first mate he will copulate with her and then lead her to his nest. When it is time for the eggs to be laid, the male will typically be on the nest already and will act aggressive when approached by the female, covering his nest with his wings. He will gradually relax and allow her to crouch and lay the egg at the edge of the nest. The male will roll the egg into his nest. Males are simultaneously polygynous, females are serially polyandrous. In practice, this means that the females move around during breeding season, mating with a male and depositing their eggs with the male before leaving him and mating with another male. Males on the other hand are sedentary, attending the nests and taking care of incubation and the hatchlings all on their own. Although recent evidence suggest that dominant males may enlist a subordinate male to roost for him while he starts a second nest with a second harem. The nests are thus collectively used by several females and can contain as many as 80 eggs laid by a dozen females; each individual female's clutch numbers some 5–10 eggs. However, the average clutch size is 26 with 7 different females eggs. Recent evidence has shown that some males will utilize subordinate males to help incubate and protect the eggs. If this happens, the dominant male will find a second harem and start the process over again.
Rhea eggs measure about 130 mm × 90 mm (5.1 in × 3.5 in) and weigh 600 g (21 oz) on average; they are thus less than half the size of an ostrich egg. Their shell is greenish-yellow when fresh but soon fades to dull cream when exposed to light. The nest is a simple shallow and wide scrape in a hidden location; males will drag sticks, grass, and leaves in the area surrounding the nest so it resembles a firebreak as wide as their neck can reach. The incubation period is 29–43 days. All the eggs hatch within 36 hours of each other even though the eggs in one nest were laid perhaps as much as two weeks apart. As it seems, when the first young are ready to hatch they start a call resembling a pop-bottle rocket or even fireworks, even while still inside the egg, thus the hatching time is coordinated. Greater rheas are half-grown about three months after hatching, and sexually mature by their 14th month.
The natural predators of adult greater rheas are limited to the cougar (Puma concolor) and the jaguar (Panthera onca). Feral dogs are known to kill younger birds, and the southern caracara (Caracara plancus) is suspected to prey on hatchlings. Armadillos sometimes feed on greater rhea eggs; nests have been found which had been undermined by a six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus) or a big hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus) and the rhea eggs were broken apart.
Captive-bred greater rheas exhibit significant ecological naïvete. This fearlessness renders them highly vulnerable to predators if the birds are released into the wild in reintroduction projects. Classical conditioning of greater rhea juveniles against predator models can prevent this to some degree, but the personality type of the birds – whether they are bold or shy – influences the success of such training. In 2006, a protocol was established for training greater rheas to avoid would-be predators, and for identifying the most cautious animals for release.
Status and conservation
The greater rhea is considered a Near Threatened species according to the IUCN, and they have a decreasing range of about 6,540,000 square kilometres (2,530,000 sq mi). The species is believed to be declining due to increased hunting and the conversion of central South American grasslands to farmland and ranchland. The populations of Argentina and Uruguay are most seriously affected by the decline.
Farmers sometimes consider the greater rhea pests, because they will eat broad-leaved crop plants, such as cabbage, chard and bok choy. Where they occur as pests, farmers tend to hunt and kill greater rheas. The burning of crops in South America has also contributed to their decline.
The rheas in Germany are legally protected in a similar way to native species. In its new home, the greater rhea is considered generally beneficial as its browsing helps maintain the habitat diversity of the sparsely populated grasslands bordering the Schaalsee biosphere reserve.
Relationship with humans
This species is farmed in North America and Europe similar to the Emu and Ostrich. The main products are meat and eggs, but rhea oil is used for cosmetics and soaps and rhea leather is also traded in quantity. Male greater rheas are very territorial during the breeding season. The infant chicks have high mortality in typical confinement farming situations, but under optimum free-range conditions chicks will reach adult size by their fifth month.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Rhea americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Blake, E.R. (1977)
- Linnaeus, C. (1758)
- Peters, James L. (1931)
- Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003)
- Birdlife International (2008)
- Navarro & Martella (2011), p. 238
- Gotch, A.F. (1995)
- Folch, A. (1992)
- Hodes, C. (2010)
- McFie, H. (2003)
- Mercolli, C. & Yanosky, A. (2001)
- Bologna, G. (1981)
- Accordi, I. & Barcellos, A. (2006)
- Bencke, G. (2007)
- Schuh, H. (2003)
- 3sat.de, March 4, 2013, accessed: October 13, 2013.
- Azevedo et al. (2006)
- Azevedo, C. S. de & Young, R. (2006)
- Giordano, P.F. et al. (2008)
- Elliott, Andrew (1992)
- Goriup, P.D. (1988)
- CITES (1990)
- Accordi, Iury Almeida; Barcellos, André. "Composição da avifauna em oito áreas úmidas da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul [Bird composition and conservation in eight wetlands of the hidrographic basin of Guaíba lake, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]". Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia (in Portuguese with English abstract) 14 (2): 101–115.
- Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini de; Penha Tinoco, Herlandes; Bosco Ferraz, João; Young, Robert John (2006). "The fishing rhea: a new food item in the diet of wild greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae, Aves)". Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia (in English with Portuguese abstract) 14 (3): 285–287.
- Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini de; Young, Robert J. (2006). "Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae): the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in English with Portuguese abstract) 23 (1): 202–210. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752006000100012.
- Bencke, Glayson Ariel (2007-06-22). Avifauna atual do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: aspectos biogeográficos e distribucionais [The Recent avifauna of Rio Grande do Sul: Biogeographical and distributional aspects]. Quaternário do RS: integrando conhecimento, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
- BirdLife International (2008). "Greater Rhea - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 6 Feb 2009.
- Blake, Emmet Reid (1977). Manual of Neotropical Birds: Spheniscidae (penguins) to Laridae (gulls and allies). University of Chicago Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-226-05641-4.
- Bologna, Gianfranco. "Rhea americana Greater Rhea". In Bull, John. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Birds of the World. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-42234-0.
- "Export Ban on Skins and Leather of Rhea Americana" (PDF). CITES. April 30, 1990. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003). "Rheas". In Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 69–73. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Elliott, Andrew (1992). "Genus Rhea". In Josep del Hoyo, Jordi Sargatal, José Cabot. Handbook of the Birds of the World 1. Lynx Edicions. pp. 84–88. ISBN 84-87334-10-5.
- Giordano, Paola F.; Bellis, Laura M.; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B. (2008). "Abundance and spatial distribution of Greater Rhea Rhea americana in two sites on the pampas grasslands with different land use". Bird Conservation International 18 (1). doi:10.1017/S0959270908000075.
- Goriup, Paul D. (1988). Ecology and conservation of grassland birds. BirdLife International. p. 61. ISBN 0-946888-11-6.
- Gotch, A.F. (1995) . "Rheas". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 177. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
- Hodes, C. "Identification – Greater Rhea (Rhea americana)". Cornell. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Korthals, A.; Philipp, F. (2008). Invasive species - How prepared are we?. International conference at the Brandenburgische Akademie "Schloss Criewen", Criewen, Germany.
- Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th edition ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. p. 155.
- Mercolli, Claudia; Yanosky, A. Alberto (2001). "Greater rhea predation in the Eastern Chaco of Argentina". Ararajuba 9 (2): 139–141.
- McFie, Hubert (2003). "Something Rheally Interesting". ACountryLife.Com.
- Navarro, J. L.; Martella, M. B. (2011). "Ratite Conservation: Linking Captive-Release and Welfare". In Glatz, Phil; Lunam, Christine; Malecki, Irek. Animal Welfare, vol. 11: The Welfare of Farmed Ratites. Berlin, Germany: Springer. pp. 237–258. ISBN 978-3-642-19296-8.
- Peters, James Lee (1931). Checklist of Birds of the World (PDF) 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 5.
- Schuh, Hans (2003-03-20). "Alleinerziehender Asylant [Single-parent asylum seeker]". Die Zeit.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rhea americana.|
- Accordi, Iury Almeida; Barcellos, André (Jun 2006). "Composição da avifauna em oito áreas úmidas da Bacia Hidrográfi ca do Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul" [Bird composition and conservation in eight wetlands of the hidrographic basin of Guaíba lake, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia.
- Tinoco, Penha; Young, Robert Young (Jun 2006). "The fishing rhea: a new food item in the diet of wild greater rheas" (PDF). Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia.
- Schuh, Hans (March 20, 2003). "Alleinerziehender Asylant" [Single-parent families seeking asylum]. Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved July 22, 2011.