Greater short-toed lark
|Greater short-toed lark|
The greater short-toed lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) or sometimes just short-toed lark (but see below) is a small passerine bird. It breeds in southern Europe, north-west Africa, and across temperate Asia from Turkey and southern Russia to Mongolia. It is sometimes considered conspecific with Calandrella cinerea. During migration they form large flocks that fly in synchrony[clarification needed] and at other times they form loose flocks.
Several subspecies have been named but there is considerable geneflow and the species itself forms part of a larger complex. This is a small pale lark, smaller than the skylark. It is dark-streaked greyish-brown above, and white below, and has a strong pointed bill that is pinkish with a grey culmen. It has a pale supercilium, dark patches on each side of its neck and a dark tail. Some birds in the west of the range have a rufous crown. The sexes are similar. Subspecies longipennis is paler than dukhunensis which also has a shorter bill. In winter they fly in large and compact flocks that swing in synchrony. Care must be taken to distinguish this species from other similar Calandrella larks, such as the lesser short-toed lark, Calandrella rufescens.
The nominate form breeds in Europe (Iberia, France, Italy, the Balkans and Romania) and winters in Africa. Subspecies hungarica breeds in the eastern parts of Europe while rubiginosa breeds in north-western Africa. Subspecies hermonensis (sometimes including woltersi) breeds in Turkey, Syria and Egypt. Subspecies artemisiana (considered by some to be synonymous with longipennis) breeds in Asia Minor and winters in southern west Asia. Subspecies longipennis breeds in Ukraine, Mongolia and Manchuria and winters in South Asia mainly in the drier zone of north-western India while dukhunensis breeds on the Tibetan plateau and winters mainly in peninsular India.
The song varies between a dry twittering and a more varied and imitative melody. Flocks will often fly together to water in the mornings at favourite spots. In the evenings they roost in open ground, with each bird squatting in a small depression made in the soil.
Distribution and habitat
All but some southernmost populations are migratory, wintering south to the southern edge of the Sahara and India. This species is a fairly common wanderer to northern and western Europe in spring and autumn. Populations breeding in the Iberian Peninsula winter south of the Sahara in Africa. Here they prefer crop land and dry pastures with short shrubs while the syntopic lesser short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) prefer drier areas.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Calandrella brachydactyla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Rasmussen, PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx edicions. p. 303.
- Vaurie, Charles (1951). "A study of Asiatic larks.". Bulletin of the AMNH 97: 435–526. hdl:2246/952.
- Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular Handbook of Indian Birds. 4th edition. Gurney and Jackson, London. p. 256.
- Dickinson, E.C. & R.W.R.J. Dekker (2001). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 11. A preliminary review of the Alaudidae." (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden 335: 61–84.
- Ali, S & S D Ripley (1986). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan 5 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 19–22.
- Tomek, T., & Bocheński, Z. (2005). "Weichselian and Holocene bird remains from Komarowa Cave, Central Poland." (PDF). Acta zoologica cracoviensia 48A (1–2): 43–65. doi:10.3409/173491505783995743.
- Suarez, Francisco; Vincente Garza & Manuel B Morales (2002). "Habitat use of two sibling species, the Short-toed Calandrella brachydactyla and the Lesser Short-toed C. rufescens Larks in mainland Spain" (PDF). Ardeola 49 (2): 259–272.
- Mahesh, SS (2009). "Management of Greater Short-toed Larks Calandrella brachydactyla in Indian aerodromes.". Indian Birds 5 (1): 2–6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Calandrella brachydactyla.|
- Videos, photos and sounds - Internet Bird Collection
- Ageing and sexing (PDF; 2.9 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze