Greek diaspora

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Map showing the countries with the largest Greek population around the world.

The Greek diaspora or Hellenic diaspora, also known as Omogenia[1][2] (Greek: Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside the traditional Greek homelands, but more commonly in other parts of the Balkans, in southern Russia and Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus (Pontic Greeks), as well as Eastern Anatolia and neighbouring Georgia and the South Caucasus (see Caucasus Greeks, Greeks in Russia, and Greeks in Georgia). Members of the diaspora can be identified as those who themselves, or whose ancestors, migrated from the Greek homelands.[3]

History[edit]

Ancient times[edit]

A map showing the Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic (800 BC – 480 BC) period.

In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city states in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coasts. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies.[4] Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa, with Greek ruling classes established in Egypt, southwest Asia and northwest India.[5]

Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now Uzbekistan, the northern Indian subcontinent (including modern-day Pakistan),[6] and Kuwait.[7] The Hellenistic cities of Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times.[8] Under the Roman Empire, movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin. The Roman Empire became Christianized in the fourth century AD, and in the late Byzantine period, practice of the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a defining hallmark of Greek identity.[9]

Middle Ages[edit]

In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant, Mediterranean and Black Sea maintaining a Greek identity amongst local populations as traders, officials and settlers. Soon after, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate conquered the Levant, Egypt, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations generally remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science in medieval Islam, which in turn contributed to Byzantine science. Members of the Greek diaspora living under Islamic rule occasionally converted to Islam, most notably Al-Khazini in the 12th century.

Fall of Byzantium and exodus to Italy[edit]

A street of Cargèse (Karyes) in Corsica, which was founded by Maniots refugees, with the Greek church in the background.

After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman Empire's conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople and found refuge in Italy, bringing with them many ancient Greek writings that had been lost in the West. These helped contribute to the European Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice, Florence and Rome.

Fall of the Empire of Trebizond and exodus to Russia and Georgia[edit]

Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828-29 many thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated or fled from the Pontic Alps and Eastern Anatolia to the southern areas of the Russian Empire, Russian occupied Georgia, and later the Russian province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia to settle in these areas so as to avoid Ottoman reprisals after having collaborated with Russian armies that had invaded Eastern Anatolia in several of the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late-18th to the early-20th centuries. Others resettled simply to seek new opportunities in trade, mining, and farming, or in the church, military, and state bureaucracy of the Russian Empire (see also Caucasus Greeks, Greeks in Russia, and Greeks in Georgia).[10]

Modern times[edit]

View of the Greek Orthodox church of Vienna.

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Greeks were spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took a major role in its economic life, particularly through the Phanariots who emerged as a class of moneyed ethnically Greek merchants (they commonly claimed noble Byzantine descent) in the latter half of the 16th century and went on to exercise great influence in the administration in the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century - some of them settling in the territory of the present-day Romania and considerably influencing its political and cultural life. Other Greeks settled outside their homelands in the southern Balkans to areas further north through service in the Orthodox church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by the Ottoman authorities following Greek rebellions against Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the many Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. The areas most effected by such population upheavals lay in Greek Macedonia, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population (often including those of Greek convert descent; see Greek Muslims) could easily be used to form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population, often forcing the inhabitants of entire rural districts, particularly in the more vulnerable lowland areas, to abandon their homes.

An even more large scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was of Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia, particularly the province of Kars Oblast in the south Caucasus, following the short lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War. An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountain uplands of northeast Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory, since many had collaborated with or fought in the Russian army against the Muslim Ottomans as a means of regaining territory for Christian Orthodoxy. The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the south Caucasus assimilated with preexisting communities of Caucasus Greeks, while those who settled in the Ukraine and southern Russia came to make up a sizeable proportion of the population of cities such as Mariupol, but in general assimilated and intermarried with their fellow Christian Othodox Russians and continued to participate in further Russo-Turkish wars through service in the Tsarist army.

19th century[edit]

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad and in several cases serving as senior officers in Russian armies that fought against the Ottomans as a means of helping 'liberate' Greeks still living under Ottoman subjugation in Macedonia, Epirus, and Thrace. Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno, Calabria and Bari in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and St Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the whole extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[11] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers. With economic success the diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[12] In fact, many leaders of the Greek struggle for liberation from Ottoman Macedonia and other parts of the southern Balkans with large Greek populations still under Ottoman rule had close links with these same Greek trading and entrepreneurial families, who continued to fund the Greek liberation struggle against the Ottomans and the policy of creating a Greater Greece.

After the Treaty of Constantinople the political situation stabilised somewhat, and some of the displaced families moved back to the newly independent country to become key figures in cultural, educational and political life, especially in Athens. Finance and assistance from overseas were channelled through these family ties, and helped provide institutions such as the National Library, and sent relief after natural disasters.

20th century[edit]

In the 20th century, many Greeks left the traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Australia, Canada, Georgia, Armenia, Italy, Russia, Chile, Argentina, Mexico and South Africa, especially after World War II (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49) and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[3]

After World War I most Greeks living in the territory of modern Turkey were forced or coerced into leaving their homes as part of the population exchange programs between Turkey and Greece. Many came to modern Greece, but The Russian Empire (later USSR) was also a major destination.

After the Greek Civil War many communist Greeks and their families were forced to flee to neighboring Yugoslavia and the Soviet dominated states of Eastern Europe, especially the USSR and Czechoslovakia. Hungary even founded a whole new village, Beloiannisz for Greek refugees, while a large concentration of such Greeks were resettled in the former Sudeten German region of northern Czechoslovakia centred around Krnov (Jegendorff).

Another country to admit Greeks in large numbers was Sweden, where today over 15,000 Greek-Swedish descendants live (see Greeks in Sweden). While many immigrants returned later, these countries still have numerous first and second generation Greeks who maintain their traditions.[3]

The Arab nationalism of President Nasser of Egypt led to the expulsion of a large Greek population from that country in the 1950s. Until that point Alexandria had been an important centre of Greek culture since antiquity, with the business life of the city dominated by Greeks.

With the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and the USSR, numbers of Greeks of the diaspora whose Greek ancestry was "removed" for many generations, immigrated to modern Greece's main urban centres of Athens and Thessaloniki, and also to Cyprus. Movements from Georgia were most numerous.[3]

The term Pontic Greeks is used to refer to Greek-speaking communities who originate in the Black Sea region, but particularly from the Trebizond region, Pontic Alps, Eastern Anatolia, Georgia and the former-Russian South Caucasus province of Kars Oblast (see also Greeks in Georgia, Caucasus Greeks, and Greeks in Russia). After 1919-23 most of these Pontic Greek and Caucasus Greek communities resettled in Greek Macedonia or joined other Greek communities in southern Russia and Ukraine.

Greek nationality[edit]

Main article: Greek nationality law

Any person who is ethnically Greek born outside Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization, providing he/she can prove a parent or grandparent was born as a national of Greece. The Greek ancestor's birth certificate and marriage certificate are required, along with the applicant's birth certificate, and the birth certificates of all generations in between until the relation between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship is proven.

Greek citizenship is acquired by birth by all persons born in Greece, and all persons born to at least one parent who is a registered Greek citizen. People born out of wedlock to a father that is a Greek citizen and a mother that is a non-Greek automatically gain Greek citizenship if the father recognizes them as his child before they turn 18.[13][14]

Today[edit]

Important centers of the Greek diaspora today are the New York City,[15] Boston,[16] and Chicago[17] metropolitan areas, as well as London, Melbourne, Sydney, Montreal, and Toronto.[3]

The SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad is a dependency of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and has compiled several studies on the Greeks of the diaspora.

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available it shows around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the Council of overseas Greeks {SAE} put the figure at around 7 million worldwide. The Greek diaspora is also very active as a lobby defending Greek interests, especially in the USA.[18] Integration, intermarriage and loss of the Greek language also influence the definition and self-definition of Greeks of the diaspora.

To learn more about how factors such as intermarriage and assimilation influence self-identification among young Greeks in the diaspora, and help clarify the estimates of Greeks in the diaspora, the Next Generation Initiative is currently conducting an academically-supervised research study that began in the United States in 2008.

Demographics[edit]

List of countries and territories by Greek population
Rank Country/territory Official data Estimations Article
1  United States 1,280,777 (2011 ACS est.)[19] 3,000,000[20] Greek American
2  Cyprus 690,394 (2011 census, The figure gives the sum of Cypriot citizens and Greek citizens in the Republic of Cyprus)[21]

322 (2006 census, Ethnic Greeks in the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus)[22]

1,150,000[23] Greek Cypriots
3  Australia 378,300 (2011 census, People that declared Greek ancestry)[24] 700,000[25] Greek Australians
4  United Kingdom 78,872 (2011 census, The figure includes Greeks from Greece proper and Greek Cypriots, residing in England and Wales)[26] 400,000[27] Greek Britons
5  Germany 296,307 (2011, Greek citizens)[28] 320,000,[29] 370,000[25] Greeks in Germany
6  Canada 252,960 (2011 census)[30] 720,000[25] Greek Canadians
7  Albania 24,243 (2011 census)[31] 60,000 to 117,000 [32][33][34] Greeks in Albania
8  South Africa N/A 50,000-60,000[35] 120,000[25][36] Greeks in South Africa
9  Russia 85,640 (2010 census)[37] Greeks in Russia and Caucasus Greeks
10  Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census)[38] Greeks in Ukraine
11  Chile 8,500 (2012 census) 90,000-120,000[39] in Santiago and Antofagasta Greeks in Chile
12  Brazil N/A 25,000[40] – 30,000[41] 50,000 in Sao Paulo[42] Greeks in Brazil
13  France 5,747 (2005, Greek citizens)[28] 35,000[43] Greeks in France
14  Argentina 2,196 (2001, born in Greece)[44] 35,000,[45] 50,000[46] Greeks in Argentina
15  Italy 7,250 (2011, Greek citizens)[28] 20,000,[25] 30,000[47] Greeks in Italy
16  Mexico N/A 25,000 [48] Greek Mexican
17  Belgium 14,799 (2011, Greek citizens)[28] Greeks in Belgium
18  Georgia 15,166 (2002 census)[49] Greeks in Georgia and Caucasus Greeks
19  Serbia 725 (2011 census)[50] 15,000[51] Greeks in Serbia
20  Kazakhstan 12,703 (1999 census)[52] Greeks in Kazakhstan
21  Sweden 4,824 (2011, Greek citizens)[28] 12,000–15,000[53] Greeks in Sweden
22  Uzbekistan 10,453 (1989 census)[54] 9,500 [55] Greeks in Uzbekistan
23   Switzerland 7,014 (2010, Greek citizens)[56] 8,340,[25] 11,000[57] Greeks in Switzerland
24  Romania 6,513 (2002 census)[58] Greeks in Romania
25  Austria 2,535 (2009, Greek citizens)[28] 5,000 [59] Greeks in Austria
26  New Zealand N/A 4,500,[60] 10,000[25] Greeks in New Zealand
27  Netherlands N/A 4,000,[25] 12,500[61] Greeks in the Netherlands
28  Egypt N/A 3,000,[62] 5,000[40] Greeks in Egypt
29  Bulgaria 3,408 (2001 census)[63] 28,500[64] Greeks in Bulgaria
30  Czech Republic 3,231 (2001 census)[65] 7,000[66] Greeks in the Czech Republic
31  Moldova N/A 3,000[67] Greeks in Moldova
32  Hungary 3,916 (2011 census)[68] 4,000 - 10,000[69] Greeks in Hungary
33  Turkey N/A 2,500[70] Greeks in Turkey and Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks
34  India N/A 1,900[citation needed]
35  Norway 1,671[71] Greeks in Norway
36  Lebanon N/A 1,500-2,500[25][72] Greeks in Lebanon
37  Denmark 1,678[73] Greeks in Denmark
38  Oman N/A 1,500[25]
39  Poland 1,404 (2002 census)[citation needed] Greeks in Poland
40  Saudi Arabia N/A 1,300[25] Greeks in Saudi Arabia
41  Luxembourg 1,571 (2009)[74]
42  Cameroon N/A 1,200[25]
43  Venezuela N/A 1,148[75]
44  Zimbabwe N/A 1,100[76] Greeks in Zimbabwe
45  Uruguay N/A 1,000,[25] 2,000[77] Greeks in Uruguay
46  Syria N/A 1,000 [25] Greeks in Syria
47  Armenia 900 (2011 census)[78] Greeks in Armenia and Caucasus Greeks
48  Panama N/A 800,[25] 1,000[77]
49  Zambia N/A 800[79] Greeks in Zambia
50  Kyrgyzstan N/A 650–700[80] Greeks in Kyrgyzstan
51  Finland N/A 500[81]
52  Ethiopia N/A 500[82] Greeks in Ethiopia
53  Uganda 426 (1991, Greek citizens)[83]
54  Republic of Macedonia 422 (2002 census)[84] Greeks in the Republic of Macedonia
55  Jordan N/A 400,[25] 600[85]
56 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo N/A 300[86] Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
57  Spain N/A 300,[25] 1,500–2,000[87]
58  Bahamas N/A 300[25]
59  Nigeria N/A 300[88]
60  Tanzania N/A 300[25]
61  Barbados N/A 300[89]
62  The Gambia N/A 300[90]
63  Costa Rica N/A 80,[25] 290[91]
64  Israel N/A 250 (non-Jewish Greek only)[92]

Greeks in Israel and Palestine

65  Sudan N/A 250[93]
66  Azerbaijan N/A 250–300[94] Greeks in Azerbaijan
67  Lithuania N/A 250[95]
68  Malawi N/A 200[96]
69  Colombia N/A 200[25]
70  Ireland N/A 200[25][97]
71  Kenya N/A 200[25]
72  United Arab Emirates N/A 200[25]
73  Morocco N/A 180[25]
74  Peru N/A 150,[25] 350[98]
75  Portugal N/A 150,[25] 240[99]
76  Botswana N/A 150[25]
77  Djibouti N/A 150[25]
78  Estonia 150 (2001 census)[100]
79  Hong Kong N/A 150[25]
80  Kuwait N/A 140[101]
81  Latvia 289 (2011 census)[102] 100[103]
82  Japan N/A 100,[25] 300[104]
83  Bolivia N/A 100[105]
84  People's Republic of China N/A 100[106]
85  Philippines N/A 100[107]
86  Indonesia N/A 72[108]
87  Papua New Guinea N/A 70[25]
88  Iran N/A 60,[25] 80[109]
89  Ivory Coast N/A 60[25]
90  Madagascar N/A 60[25]
91  Slovenia 54 (2002 census)[110]
92  Croatia N/A 50[111]
93  Tunisia N/A 50[25]
94  Senegal N/A 50[25]
95  Thailand N/A 50[112]
96  Central African Republic N/A 40[25]
97  Qatar N/A 40[25]
98  Singapore N/A 40[113]
99  Malta N/A 500[114] Greeks in Malta
100  Cuba N/A 30[25]
101  Algeria N/A 30[25]
102  Eritrea N/A 30[25]
103  Slovakia N/A 100[115]
104  Paraguay N/A 20,[25] 25[113]
105  Chad N/A 20[25]
106  Ecuador N/A 20[25]
107  Guatemala N/A 20[25]
108  Mozambique N/A 20[25]
109  Namibia N/A 20[25]
110  Togo N/A 20[25]
111  Taiwan N/A 20[25]
112  Republic of the Congo N/A 10[25]
113  Belarus N/A unknown – for further information, see [2]
114  Dominican Republic N/A 14[116]
115  Vietnam N/A 10[117]

Notable Greeks of the diaspora[edit]

Notable people of the Greek diaspora (including also of Greek ancestry):

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anagnostou, Yiorgos (2009). Contours of white ethnicity popular ethnography and the making of usable pasts in Greek America. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780821443613. ...providing an alternative to ascription omogenia (of the same race)—a term widely used by state representatives as well sectors of the ethnic media—to refer to Greek populations outside Greece. 
  2. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek diaspora and migration since 1700 society, politics and culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 125. ISBN 9780754693741. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Richard Clogg, The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century, 2000, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  4. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: "Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase" (McGraw-Hill, 2003)
  5. ^ Hellenistic Civilization[dead link]
  6. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha. His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara and the Kabul Valley", Bussagli p101
  7. ^ Failaka Island
  8. ^ "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  9. ^ Peregrine Horden, Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History,2000, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21890-4
  10. ^ See for example Anthony Bryer', 'The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontus' (Variorum, 1980) and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variorum, 1988), as well as works listed in Caucasus Greeks and Greeks in Georgia.
  11. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou, Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, 2000, p.147, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  12. ^ Vassilis Kardasis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775-1861,2001, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1
  13. ^ "Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  14. ^ "Loss of Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  15. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  16. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  17. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  18. ^ Alexander Kitroeff & Stephanos Constantinides, 'The Greek-Americans and US Foreign Policy Since 1950' Etudes helléniques/ Hellenic Studies, vol.6,no.1, Printemps/Spring 1998
  19. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "Greece (08/09)". United States Department of State. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-01. An estimated three million American residents in the United States claim Greek descent. 
  21. ^ http://www.cystat.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf/All/732265957BAC953AC225798300406903?OpenDocument&sub=2&sel=1&e=
  22. ^ "Yaş Grubu, Milliyet ve Cinsiyete Göre Sürekli İkamet Eden(De-jure) KKTC Vatandaşı Nüfus". State Planning Organisation of TRNC. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  23. ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 92, ISBN 1-59884-302-8
  24. ^ "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 census". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Greeks around the Globe (they are quoting the statistics of the General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad as on October 12, 2004)
  26. ^ "2011 Census: QS211EW Ethnic group (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 2009Kb)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  27. ^ Duff, Oliver (3 April 2008). "Pandora: It's all Greek to Boris". The Independent. Retrieved 12 February 2013. ...Mediterranean nation's estimated 400,000-strong British diaspora. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Population by sex, age group and citizenship" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  29. ^ Germany: Greek population in Germany
  30. ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  31. ^ Albanian census 2011
  32. ^ Kosta Barjarba. "Migration and Ethnicity in Albania: Synergies and Interdependencies" (PDF). 
  33. ^ "UNPO". Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2006. 
  34. ^ Jelokova Z., Mincheva L., Fox J., Fekrat B. (2002). "Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project : Ethnic-Greeks in Albania". Center for International Development and Conflict Management, MAR Project, University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved July 26, 2006. 
  35. ^ Greek Foreign Ministry
  36. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Sub-Saharan+Africa/Bilateral+Relation/South+Africa/
  37. ^ "НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СОСТАВ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ" (PDF). Official website of the 2010 Census. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  38. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine: 2001 census
  39. ^ (Spanish) Embajada Griega en Chile.
  40. ^ a b Γενικα Στοιχεια Διασπορασ[dead link][dead link]
  41. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Brazil: The Greek Community
  42. ^ "Histórico de Hospedaria" (in Portuguese). Memorial do Inmigrante, government of Sao Paulo. (click on "Estatísticas Gerais: Imigrantes e Descendentes")
  43. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: France: The Greek Community
  44. ^ (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC): Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2001: País de nacimiento. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  45. ^ ONI: Colectividad Griega (Spanish)
  46. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Argentina: The Greek Community
  47. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Italy: The Greek Community
  48. ^ Comunidad Helenica de Mexico: The Greek side of Mexico
  49. ^ Eurominority: Greeks in Georgia
  50. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији Становништво према националној припадности" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings for 2011. in the Republic of Serbia Population by ethnicity] (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  51. ^ Glas Javnosti: Nama su samo Srbi braća
  52. ^ Japan External Trade Organization: Institute of Developing Economies: Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan
  53. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sweden: The Greek Community
  54. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения Узбекской ССР [1989 all-Soviet census: Ethnic structure of Uzbek SSR] (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  55. ^ Central Asia – Caucasus analyst: Greeks in Uzbekistan
  56. ^ "Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit" (in German). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  57. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Switzerland: The Greek Community
  58. ^ ClubAfaceri: 2002 (Romanian) census
  59. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Austria: The Greek Community
  60. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: New Zealand: The Greek Community
  61. ^ According to the Netherlands Statistical Service, quoted by: Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Netherlands: The Greek Community[dead link]
  62. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Egypt: The Greek Community
  63. ^ Republic of Bulgaria: National Statistical Institute: 2001 census
  64. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bulgaria: The Greek Community
  65. ^ Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  66. ^ According to the Association of Greek Communities in the Czech Republic quoted by the Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  67. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Moldova
  68. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office: 2011 census
  69. ^ History of Hungarian Greeks
  70. ^ However according to the Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey is estimated at 2,500 in 2006. "From “Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity” series of Human Rights Watch" Human Rights Watch, 2 July 2006.
  71. ^ Statistics Norway: Norway: The Greek Community
  72. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lebanon
  73. ^ "BEF5: Folketal pr 1 januar efter køn, alder og fødeland". Danmark statistik. Danmark statistik. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  74. ^ Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg - Etat civil et population du Luxembourg [1]
  75. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Venezuela: The Greek Community
  76. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zimbabwe: The Greek Community
  77. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Uruguay: The Greek Community
  78. ^ National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia: 2011 census
  79. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zambia
  80. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kyrgyzstan: The Greek Community
  81. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Finland: The Greek Community
  82. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Ethiopia: The Greek Community
  83. ^ Census 2002
  84. ^ State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia: Total population, households and dwellings according to the territorial organization of the Republic of Macedonia, 2004.
  85. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Jordan: The Greek Community
  86. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Democratic Republic of Congo: The Greek Community
  87. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Spain: The Greek Community
  88. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Nigeria: The Greek Community
  89. ^ Greek ethnic populations in all countries
  90. ^ Ethnic people groups of the Gambia
  91. ^ Los Griegos en Costa Rica
  92. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Israel: The Greek Community
  93. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sudan: The Greek Community
  94. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Azerbaijan: The Greek Community
  95. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lithuania: The Greek Community
  96. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malawi: The Greek Community
  97. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/Relationships+with+EU+Member+States/Ireland/
  98. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Peru: The Greek Community
  99. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Portugal: The Greek Community
  100. ^ Estonian Statistical Office: Estonia: The Greek Community
  101. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kuwait: The Greek Community
  102. ^ Latvian Statistical Office: Latvia: The Greek Community
  103. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Latvia: The Greek Community
  104. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Japan: The Greek Community
  105. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bolivia: The Greek Community
  106. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: China: The Greek Community
  107. ^ "BILATERAL RELATIONS GREECE-PHILIPPINES". www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  108. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Indonesia: The Greek Community
  109. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Iran: The Greek Community
  110. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Census of population, households and housing 2002
  111. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Croatia: The Greek Community
  112. ^ Greece-Thailand relations
  113. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Singapore: The Greek Community
  114. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malta: The Greek Community
  115. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Slovakia
  116. ^ Dominican Republic-Greece relations
  117. ^ Greek-Vietnamese relations

External links[edit]