Greek Muslims

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This article is about Muslims of Greek ethnic origin who today live mainly in Turkey, Albania, Syria and Lebanon, and notable Greek Muslims in history and at present. For the multi-ethnic Muslim minority in Thrace, see Muslim minority of Greece.
Greek Muslims
Ελληνόφωνοι μουσουλμάνοι
Pargalı İbrahim Paşa.jpg
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha.jpg
Turgut Reis.jpg
De sultane-moeder.jpeg
Hussein Hilmi Pacha.JPG
Ibrahim Edhem Pasha.jpg
Isma'il Raghib Pasha.jpg
Ahmed Vefik Pasha.jpg
Osman Hamdi Bey.jpg
YusufIslam velvetgoldmine82.jpg
Total population
1.4 million[citation needed]
Regions with significant populations
Turkish, Greek (Pontic Greek, Cretan Greek, Cypriot Greek)
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Other Greeks, Turks

Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin whose adoption of Islam (and often the Turkish language and identity) dates to the period of Ottoman rule in the southern Balkans. They consist primarily of the descendants of the elite Ottoman Janissary corp and Ottoman-era converts to Islam from Greek Macedonia (e.g., Vallahades), Crete (Cretan Muslims), northeastern Anatolia and the Pontic Alps (Pontic Greeks). They are currently found mainly in western Turkey (particularly the regions of Izmir, Bursa, and Edirne) and northeastern Turkey (particularly in the regions of Trabzon, Gumushane, Sivas, Erzinjan, Erzurum, and Kars (see also Caucasus Greeks of Georgia and Kars Oblast). Despite their ethnic Greek origin the contemporary Greek Muslims of Turkey have largely been fully assimilated into the Turkish-speaking (and in the northeast Laz-speaking) Muslim population. Although some of their elders have retained a knowledge of Greek and Pontic Greek, very few are likely to call themselves 'Greek Muslims' because of longstanding pressures to assimilate into Turkish society and the close association of Greece and Greeks with Orthodox Christianity and a historic, military threat to the Turkish Republic. In the late Ottoman period (particularly following the Greek-Turkish war of 1897-98) several communities of Greek Muslims from Crete and southern Greece were also relocated to Libya, Lebanon and Syria, where in towns like al-Hamidiyah some of the older generation continue to speak Greek.[1] Historically, Greek Orthodoxy has been associated with being Romios, i.e. Greek, and Islam with being Turkish, despite ethnic or linguistic references.

Most Greek-speaking Muslims in Greece left for Turkey during the 1920s population exchanges under the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations (sometimes in return for Turkish-speaking Christians such as the Karamanlides), with the exception of the Muslims (Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks) in East Macedonia and Thrace, Northern Greece, who are officially recognized as a religious but [controversially] not as an ethnic minority by the Greek Government.[2]

In Turkey, where most Greek-speaking Muslims live, there are various groups of Greek-speaking Muslims, some autochthonous, some from parts of present-day Greece and Cyprus who migrated to Turkey under the population exchanges or immigration.

A Muslim Greek Mamluk (Louis Dupré, oil on canvas, 1825).

Reasons for conversion to Islam[edit]

Devşirme (blood tax) was one of the organized practices by which the Ottomans took boys from their Christian families, who were later converted to Islam with the aim of selecting and training the ablest of them for leading positions in the Ottoman society. As a rule [citation needed], the Ottomans did not require the Greeks to become Muslims, although a minority did so in order to avert the socioeconomic hardships of Ottoman rule,[3] take advantage of greater employment prospects and possibilities of advancement in the Ottoman government bureaucracy and military, or simply because of the corruption of the Greek clergy.[4] Subsequently this people became part of the Muslim community of the millet system, which was closely linked to Islamic religious rules. At that time people were bound to their millets by their religious affiliations (or their confessional communities), rather than to their ethnic origins.[5] Muslim communities prospered under the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottoman law did not recognize such notions as ethnicity and the Muslims of any ethnic background enjoyed precisely the same rights and privileges.[6] Another major reason for converting to Islam was the well organized taxation system based on religion.[7] Major taxes were Defter and İspençe but the worst of all was Χαράτσι [8] in which a paper was issued that was saying "the holder of this certificate is able to keep his head on the shoulders since he paid the Χαράτσι tax for this year ...". All these of course were waived if the person would convert and become Muslim,.[9][10][11]

Pontic Greek Muslims[edit]

Muslims of Pontic Greek origins, speakers of the Pontic language (named Ρωμαίικα Roméika, not Ποντιακά Pontiaká as it is in Greece), which is spoken by some people in Tonya, Maçka, Sürmene, Çaykara, the Dernekpazarı districts of Trabzon, Rize and the province of Kars. Due to mass migration from the region, high linguistic assimilation to Turkish, and the fact that the language has no official status, the total number of the speakers may be guessed; roughly 2,000 mainly elderly speakers.[citation needed] According to Heath W. Lowry's[12] great work about Ottoman tax books[13] (Tahrir Defteri) with Halil İnalcık it is claimed that most Turks of Trabzon city are of Greek origin. The community is usually considered deeply religious Sunni Muslims of Hanafi madh'hab. Sufi orders such as Qadiri and Naqshbandi have a great impact.

Cretan Muslims[edit]

Main article: Cretan Turks

Cretan Turks (Turkish: Girit Türkleri, Greek: Τουρκοκρητικοί) or Cretan Muslims (Turkish: Girit Müslümanları) cover Muslims who arrived in Turkey after or slightly before the start of the Greek rule in Crete in 1908 and especially in the framework of the 1923 agreement for the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations and have settled on the coastline stretching from the Çanakkale to İskenderun. Today, only elderly women may be found to be fluent in Cretan Greek and only estimates can be made regarding their number. They often name the language as Cretan (Kritika (Κρητικά) or Giritçe) instead of Greek. The Cretan "Turk" (i.e., Greek Muslim) are Sunnis of the (Hanafi) rite with a highly influential Bektashi minority that helped shape the folk Islam and religious tolerance of the entire community. Significant numbers of Cretan Muslims were re-settled in other Ottoman controlled areas around the eastern Mediterranean by the Ottomans following the establishment of the autonomous Cretan State in 1898. Most ended up in coastal Syria and Lebanon, particularly the town of Al-Hamidiyah, in Syria, (named after the Ottoman sultan who settled them there), and Tripoli in Lebanon where many continue to speak Greek as their mother tongue. Others were resettled in Ottoman Tripolitania especially in the east side cities like Susa and Benghazi, where they are distinguishable by their Greek surnames. Many of the older members of this community still speak Cretan Greek in their homes.[citation needed]

Epirote Muslims[edit]

Muslims from the region of Epirus, known collectively as Yanyalılar (Yanyalı in singular, meaning "person from Ioannina") in Turkish and Τουρκογιαννιώτες Turkoyanyótes in Greek (Τουρκογιαννιώτης Turkoyanyótis in singular, meaning "Turk from Ioannina"), who had arrived in Turkey in two waves of migration in 1912 and after 1923. Although the majority of the Epirote Muslim population was of Albanian origin, Greek Muslim communities existed in the towns of Souli,[14] Margariti (both majority-Muslim),[15][16] Ioannina, Preveza, Louros, Paramythia, Konitsa, and elsewhere in the Pindus mountain region.[17] Hoca Es'ad Efendi, a Greek-speaking Muslim from Ioannina who lived in the eighteenth century, was the first translator of Aristotle into Turkish.[18] The community now is fully integrated into Turkish culture. Those Muslims from Epirus of mainly Albanian rather than Greek convert origin are usually described as Cham Albanians.

Macedonian Greek Muslims[edit]

Muslims living in Haliacmon valley of western Macedonia were Greek-speaking.[19] They were known collectively as Vallahades and had probably converted to Islam en masse in the late 1700s. Although the Vallahades had retained much of their Greek culture and language, unlike most Muslim converts from Greek Macedonia and elsewhere in the southern Balkans who generally adopted the Turkish language and identity. However, the Vallahades were still considered by other Greeks to have become "Turkish in soul" and so were not exempt from the 1922-23 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which was based on religious affiliation (Christian Orthodox and Muslim) rather than language and ethnicity. The Vallahades were generally settled in western Asia Minor and eventually became completely assimilated into Turkish Muslim mainstream, although some of the older generation still have a knowledge of their ancestral Greek language. According to Todor Simovski's assessment (1972), in 1912 in the region of Macedonia in Greece there were 13,753 Muslim Greeks.[20] In contrast, most Greek-speakers from Epirus, Thrace, and other parts of Macedonia who had converted to Islam in the earlier Ottoman period generally also adopted Turkish and so more speedily and thoroughly assimilated into the Ottoman Turkish ruling elite.

Cypriot Muslims[edit]

Main article: Linobamvaki

In 1878 the Muslim inhabitants of Cyprus (constituting about 1/3 of the island's population, which then numbered 40,000 inhabitants) were classified as being either Turkish or "neo-Muslim." The latter were of Greek origin, Islamised but speaking Greek, and similar in character to the local Christians.The last of such groups was reported to arrive at Antalya in 1936. These communities are thought to have abandoned Greek in the course of integration.[21]


In the Middle Ages the Greek population of Crimea traditionally adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, even despite undergoing linguistic assimilation by the local Crimean Tatars. In 1777–1778, when Catherine the Great of Russia conquered the peninsula from the Ottoman Empire, the local Orthodox population was forcibly deported and settled north of the Azov Sea. In order to avoid deportation, some Greeks chose to convert to Islam. Crimean Tatar-speaking Muslims of the village of Kermenchik (renamed to Vysokoe in 1945) kept their Greek identity and were practising Christianity in secret for a while. In the nineteenth century the lower half of Kermenchik was populated with Christian Greeks from Turkey, whereas the upper remained Muslim. By the time of the Stalinist deportation of 1944, the Muslims of Kermenchik had already been identified as Crimean Tatars, and were forcibly expelled to Central Asia together with the rest of Crimea's ethnic minorities.[22]

Lebanon and Syria[edit]

There are about 7,000 Greeks living in Tripoli, Lebanon and about 8,000 in Al Hamidiyah, Syria.[23] The majority of them are Muslims of Cretan origin. Records suggest that the community left Crete between 1866 and 1897, on the outbreak of the last Cretan uprising against the Ottoman empire, which ended the Greco-Turkish War of 1897.[23] Sultan Abdul Hamid II provided Cretan Muslim families who fled the island with refuge on the Levantine coast. The new settlement was named Hamidiye after the sultan.

Many Greek Muslims of Lebanon somewhat managed to preserve their identity and language. Unlike neighbouring communities, they are monogamous and consider divorce a disgrace. Until the Lebanese Civil War, their community was close-knit and entirely endogamous. However many of them left Lebanon during the 15 years of the war.[23]

Greek Muslims constitute 60% of Al Hamidiyah's population. The percentage may be higher but is not conclusive because of hybrid relationship in families. The community is very much concerned with maintaining its culture. The knowledge of the spoken Greek language is remarkably good and their contact with their historical homeland has been possible by means of satellite television and relatives. They are also known to be monogamous.[23]

Central Asia[edit]

In the Middle Ages, after the Seljuq victory over the Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV, many Byzantine Greeks were taken as slaves to Central Asia. The most famous among them was Al-Khazini, a Byzantine Greek slave taken to Merv, then in the Khorasan province of Persia but now in Turkmenistan, who was later freed and became a famous Muslim scientist.[24]

Other Greek Muslims[edit]

Muslims of partial Greek descent (non-conversions)[edit]

  • Ahmed I - (1590–1617), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother Handan Sultan (originally named Helena (Eleni)) - wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III
  • Ahmed III - (1673–1736), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan), originally named Evemia, who was the daughter of a Greek Cretan priest
  • Bayezid I - (1354–1403), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Gulcicek Hatun or Gülçiçek Hatun) wife of Murad I
  • Bayezid II - (1447–1512), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Amina Gul-Bahar or Gulbahār Khātun, tr:I. Gülbahar Hatun), a Greek Orthodox woman of noble birth from the village of Douvera, Trabzon
  • Hasan Pasha (son of Barbarossa) (c. 1517-1572) was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of Algiers, Algeria. His mother was a Morisco. He succeeded his father as ruler of Algiers, and replaced Barbarossa's deputy Hasan Agha who had been effectively holding the position of ruler of Algiers since 1533.
  • Hayreddin Barbarossa, (c. 1478–1546), privateer and Ottoman admiral, Greek mother, Katerina from Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, (however most probably also his father had been a Greek Muslim covert)
  • Ibrahim I, (1615–1648), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan), the daughter of a priest from the island of Tinos; her maiden name was Anastasia and was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history
  • Muhammad al-Mahdi (الإمام محمد بن الحسن المهدى) also known as Hujjat ibn al-Hasan, final Imām of the Twelve Imams Shi'a, Greek mother, Her Greatness Narjis (Melika), was a Byzantine princess who pretended to be a slave so that she might travel from her kingdom to Arabia
  • Murad I, (1360–1389) Ottoman sultan, Greek mother, (Nilüfer Hatun (water lily in Turkish), daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar or Byzantine Princess Helen (Nilüfer))
  • Murad IV (1612–1640), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Valide Sultan, Kadinefendi Kösem Sultan or Mahpeyker, originally named Anastasia)
  • Mustafa I - (1591–1639), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Valide Sultan, Handan Sultan, originally named Helena (Eleni))
  • Mustafa II - (1664–1703),[25][26][27][28] Ottoman sultan, Greek Cretan mother (Valide Sultan, Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush, originally named Evemia)
  • Oruç Reis, (also called Barbarossa or Redbeard), privateer and Ottoman Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean. He was born on the island of Midilli (Lesbos), mother was Greek (Katerina)
  • Osman II - (1604–1622), Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Valide Sultan, Mahfiruze Hatice Sultan, originally named Maria)
  • Selim I, Ottoman sultan, Greek mother (Gulbahar Sultan, also known by her maiden name Ayşe Hatun); his father, Bayezid II, was also half Greek through his mother's side (Valide Sultan Amina Gul-Bahar or Gulbahar Khatun - a Greek convert to Islam) - this made Selim I three-quarters Greek
  • Suleiman I (Suleiman the Magnificent), Ottoman sultan, his father Bayezid II was three-quarters Greek; (Suleiman's mother was of Georgian origin).
  • Shah Ismail I - (1487-1524) the founder of Turkic-Persian Safavid Dynasty of Iran: Ismā'il's mother was an Aq Qoyunlu (Turkmen) noble, Martha, the daughter of Turkmen Uzun Hasan by his Pontic Greek wife Theodora Megale Komnene, better known as Despina Hatun. Theodora was the daughter of Emperor John IV of Trebizond whom Uzun Hassan married in a deal to protect Trebizond from the Ottomans.
  • Kaykaus II, Seljuq Sultan. His mother was the daughter of a Greek priest; and it was the Greeks of Nicaea from whom he consistently sought aid throughout his life.
  • Osman Hamdi Bey - (1842 – 24 February 1910), Ottoman statesman and art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter, the son of İbrahim Edhem Pasha,[29] a Greek[30] by birth abducted as a youth following the Massacre of Chios. He was the founder of the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.[31]
  • Ibn al-Rumi - Arab poet was the son of a Persian mother and a half-Greek father.
  • Sheikh Bedreddin - (1359–1420) Revolutionary theologian, Greek mother named "Melek Hatun".

Muslims of Greek descent (non-conversions)[edit]

Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855–1922/1923) was born into a Muslim family of Greek descent on Lesbos.
Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1823-1891) Ottoman statesman, diplomat and playwright of Greek ancestry who presided over the first Turkish parliament

Greek converts to Islam[edit]

İbrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893) was an Ottoman statesman of Greek origin.[55]
  • Al-Khazini - (flourished 1115–1130) was a Greek Muslim scientist, astronomer, physicist, biologist, alchemist, mathematician and philosopher - lived in Merv (modern-day Turkmenistan)
  • Atik Sinan or "Old Sinan" - Ottoman architect (not to be confused with the other Sinan who's origins are disputed between Greek or Armenian (see below))
  • Carlos Mavroleon - son of a Greek ship-owner, Etonian heir to a £100m fortune, close to the Kennedys and almost married a Heseltine, former Wall Street broker and a war correspondent, leader of an Afghan Mujahideen unit during the Afghan war against the Soviets - died under mysterious circumstances in Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Damat Hasan Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier between 1703-1704.[56] He was originally a Greek convert to Islam from the Morea.[57][58]
  • Diam's (Mélanie Georgiades) French rapper of Greek origin.
  • Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan (1642–1715) was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV and Valide Sultan to their sons Mustafa II and Ahmed III (1695–1715). She was born to a priest in Rethymno, Crete, then under Venetian rule, her maiden name was Evmania Voria and she was an ethnic Greek.[26][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67] She was captured when the Ottomans conquered Rethymno about 1646 and she was sent as slave to Constantinople, where she was given Turkish and Muslim education in the harem department of Topkapı Palace and soon attracted the attention of the Sultan, Mehmed IV.
  • Gawhar al-Siqilli,[68][69][70][71] (born c. 928-930, died 992), of Greek descent originally from Sicily, who had risen to the ranks of the commander of the Fatimid armies. He had led the conquest of North Africa[72] and then of Egypt and founded the city of Cairo[73] and the great al-Azhar mosque.
  • Gazi Evrenos - (d. 1417), an Ottoman military commander serving as general under Süleyman Pasha, Murad I, Bayezid I, Süleyman Çelebi and Mehmed I
  • Hamza Yusuf - American Islamic teacher and lecturer
  • Handan Sultan, wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III
  • İbrahim Edhem Pasha, born of Greek ancestry[29][55][74][75][76] on the island of Chios, Ottoman statesman who held the office of Grand Vizier in the beginning of Abdulhamid II's reign between 5 February 1877 and 11 January 1878
  • İshak Pasha (? - 1497, Thessaloniki) was a Greek (though some reports say he was Croatian) who became an Ottoman general, statesman and later Grand Vizier. His first term as a Grand Vizier was during the reign of Mehmet II ("The Conqueror"). During this term he transferred Turkmen people from their Anatolian city of Aksaray to newly conquered İstanbul to populate the city which had lost a portion of its former population prior to conquest. The quarter of the city is where the Aksaray migrants had settled is now called Aksaray. His second term was during the reign of Beyazıt II.
  • John Tzelepes Komnenos - (Greek: Ἰωάννης Κομνηνὸς Τζελέπης) son of Isaac Komnenos (d. 1154). Starting about 1130 John and his father, who was a brother of Emperor John II Komnenos ("John the Beautiful"), plotted to overthrow his uncle the emperor. They made various plans and alliances with the Danishmend leader and other Turks who held parts of Asia Minor. In 1138 John and his father had a reconciliation with the Emperor, and received a full pardon. In 1139 John accompanied the emperor on his campaign in Asia Minor. In 1140 at the siege of Neocaesarea he defected. As John Julius Norwich puts it, he did so by "embracing simultaneously the creed of Islam and the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan Mesud I." John Komnenos' by-name, Tzelepes, is believed to be a Greek rendering of the Turkish honorific Çelebi, a term indicating noble birth or "gentlemanly conduct". The Ottoman Sultans claimed descent from John Komnenos.
  • Kösem Sultan - (1581–1651) also known as Mehpeyker Sultan was the most powerful woman in Ottoman history, consort and favourite concubine of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603-1617), she became Valide Sultan from 1623–1651, when her sons Murad IV and Ibrahim I and her grandson Mehmed IV (1648–1687) reigned as Ottoman sultans; she was the daughter of a priest from the island of Tinos - her maiden name was Anastasia
  • Leo of Tripoli (Greek: Λέων ὸ Τριπολίτης) was a Greek renegade and pirate serving Arab interests in the early tenth century.
  • Mahfiruze Hatice Sultan - (d 1621), maiden name Maria, was the wife of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and mother of Osman II.
  • Mahmud Pasha Angelović - Mahmud Pasha or Mahmud-paša Anđelović (1420–1474), also known simply as Adni, was Serbian-born, of Byzantine noble descent (Angeloi) who became an Ottoman general and statesman, after being abducted as a child by the Sultan. As Veli Mahmud Paşa he was Grand Vizier in 1456–1468 and again in 1472–1474. A capable military commander, throughout his tenure he led armies or accompanied Mehmed II on his own campaigns.
  • Mimar Sinan (1489–1588) - Ottoman architect - his origins are possibly Greek. There is not a single document in Ottoman archives which state that Sinan was Armenian or Greek, only "Orthodox Christian". Those who suggest that he could be Armenian do this with the mere fact that the largest Christian community living at the vicinity of Kayseri were Armenians, but there was also a considerably large Greek population (e.g. the father of Greek-American film director Elia Kazan) in Kayseri. Actually, in Ottoman records, Sinan's father is named "Hristo", which suggests Greek ancesty, and which is probably why Encyclopedia Britannica states that he was of Greek origin.
  • Misac Palaeologos Pasha, a member of the Byzantine Palaiologos dynasty and the Ottoman commander in the first Siege of Rhodes (1480). He was an Ottoman statesman and Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1499-1501.
  • Mustapha Khaznadar (مصطفى خزندار, 1817–1878), was Prime Minister of the Beylik of Tunis[77] from 1837 to 1873. Of Greek origin,[78][79][80][81][82] as Georgios Kalkias Stravelakis[82][83][84] he was born on the island of Chios in 1817.[83] Along with his brother Yannis, he was captured and sold into slavery[85] by the Ottomans during the Massacre of Chios in 1822, while his father Stephanis Kalkias Stravelakis was killed. He was then taken to Smyrna and then Constantinople, where he was sold as a slave to an envoy of the Bey of Tunis.
Muslim Greeks of the 19th century Ottoman Empire. Left: Mustapha Khaznadar (ca. 1817–1878) was a muslim Greek who served as Prime Minister of Tunis.[79] Right: Raghib Pasha (ca. 1819–1884) was a Greek convert to Islam who served as Prime Minister of Egypt.
  • Narjis, mother of Muhammad al-Mahdi the twelfth and last Imam of Shi'a Islam, Byzantine Princess, reportedly the descendant of the disciple Simon Peter, the vicegerent of Jesus
  • Pargalı İbrahim Pasha (d. 1536), the first Grand Vizier appointed by Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire (reigned 1520 to 1566)
  • Raghib Pasha (1819–1884), was Prime Minister of Egypt.[86] He was of Greek ancestry[87][88][89][90] and was born in Greece[91] on 18 August 1819 on either the island of Chios following the great Massacre[92] or Candia[93] Crete. After being kidnapped to Anatolia he was brought to Egypt as a slave by Ibrahim Pasha in 1830[94] and converted to Islam. Raghib Pasha ultimately rose to levels of importance serving as Minister of Finance (1858–1860), then Minister of War (1860–1861). He became Inspector for the Maritime Provinces in 1862, and later Assistant (Arabic: باشمعاون‎) to viceroy Isma'il Pasha (1863–1865). He was granted the title of beylerbey and then appointed President of the Privy council in 1868. He was appointed President of the Chamber of Deputies (1866–1867), then Minister of Interior in 1867, then Minister of Agriculture and Trade in 1875. Isma'il Ragheb became Prime Minister of Egypt in 1882.
  • Rum Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1466-1469.
  • Turgut Reis - (1485–1565) was a notorious Barbary pirate of the Ottoman Empire. He was born of Greek descent[95][96][97][98][99][100] in a village near Bodrum, on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. After converting to Islam in his youth[99] he served as Admiral and privateer who also served as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey, later Pasha, of Tripoli. Under his naval command the Ottoman Empire was extended across North Africa.[101] When Tugut was serving as pasha of Tripoli, he adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast.[102]
  • Yaqut al-Hamawi (Yaqut ibn-'Abdullah al-Rumi al-Hamawi) (1179–1229) (Arabic: ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Islamic biographer and geographer renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
  • Yusuf Islam (born Steven Demetre Georgiou; 21 July 1948, aka Cat Stevens) the famous singer of Cypriot Greek origin, converted to Islam at the height of his fame in December, 1977[103] and adopted his Muslim name, Yusuf Islam, the following year.
  • Jamilah Kolocotronis, Greek-German ex. Lutheran scholar and writer.
  • Ahmed Resmî Efendi (English, "Ahmed Efendi of Resmo"), also called Ahmed bin İbrahim Giridî ("Ahmed the son of İbrahim the Cretan"), was a Greek-Ottoman statesman, diplomat and author of the late 18th century. In international relations terms, his most important - and unfortunate - task was to act as the chief of the Ottoman delegation during the negotiations and the signature of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. In the literary domain, he is remembered for various works among which his sefâretnâme recounting his embassies in Berlin and Vienna occupy a prominent place. He was Turkey's first ever ambassador in Berlin.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Barbour, S., Language and Nationalism in Europe, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-823671-9
  2. ^ See Hugh Poulton, 'The Balkans: minorities and states in conflict ', Minority Rights Publications, 1991.
  3. ^ Crypto-Christians of the Trabzon Region of Pontos
  4. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 135-144
  5. ^ Ortaylı, İlber. "Son İmparatorluk Osmanlı (The Last Empire: Ottoman Empire)", İstanbul, Timaş Yayınları (Timaş Press), 2006. pp. 87–89. ISBN 975-263-490-7 (Turkish).
  6. ^ Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Richard C. Frucht, ISBN 1576078000, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 803.
  7. ^ Taxation in the Ottoman Empire
  8. ^ el:Χαράτσι
  9. ^ Νικόλαος Φιλιππίδης (1900). Επίτομος Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους 1453-1821. Εν Αθήναις: Εκ του Τυπογραφείου Α. Καλαράκη. Ανακτήθηκε στις 23 Ιουλίου 2010.
  10. ^ Ιωάννης Λυκούρης (1954). Η διοίκησις και δικαιοσύνη των τουρκοκρατούμενων νήσων : Αίγινα - Πόρος - Σπέτσαι - Ύδρα κλπ., επί τη βάσει εγγράφων του ιστορικού αρχείου Ύδρας και άλλων. Αθήνα. Ανακτήθηκε στις 7 Δεκεμβρίου 2010.
  11. ^ Παναγής Σκουζές (1777 - 1847) (1948). Χρονικό της σκλαβωμένης Αθήνας στα χρόνια της τυρανίας του Χατζή Αλή (1774 - 1796). Αθήνα: Α. Κολολού. Ανακτήθηκε στις 6 Ιανουαρίου 2011.
  12. ^ Professor. Department of Near Eastern Studies. Princeton University
  13. ^ Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583 ISBN 975-518-116-4
  14. ^ Municipality of Paramythia, Thesprotia.
  15. ^ Historical Abstracts: Bibliography of the World's Historical Literature. Published 1955
  16. ^ Handbook for Travellers in Greece by Amy Frances Yule and John Murray. Published 1884. J. Murray; p. 678
  17. ^ Das Staatsarchiv by Institut für auswärtige Politik (Germany), Berlin (Germany) Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, Germany Auswärtiges Amt Today. Published 1904. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.h.; p.31
  18. ^ Dimitris Tziovas, Greece and the Balkans: Identities, Perceptions and Cultural Encounters since the Enlightenment by Dēmētrēs Tziovas. Published 2003. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.; p.56
  19. ^ Jubilee Congress of the Folk-lore Society by Folklore Society (Great Britain). Published 1930; p.140
  20. ^ Who are the Macedonians? by Hugh Poulton. Published 2000, Indiana University Press; p. 85
  21. ^ Peter Alford Andrews, Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3-89500-297-6
  22. ^ The Russian World: Kermenchik - Crimea's Lonely Spot? by I.Kovalenko
  23. ^ a b c d Greek-Speaking Enclaves of Lebanon and Syria by Roula Tsokalidou. Proceedings II Simposio Internacional Bilingüismo. Retrieved 4 December 2006
  24. ^ Klotz, "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure".

    "Al-Khazini (who lived in the 12th century), a slave of the Seljuk Turks, but of Byzantine origin, probably one of the spoils of the victory of the Seljuks over the Christian emperor of Constantinople, Romanus IV Diogenes."

  25. ^ Freely, John (1996). Istanbul: the imperial city. Viking. p. 242. ISBN 0-14-024461-1. "Rabia Gulnus a Greek girl who had been captured in the Ottoman invasion of Crete. Rabia Gulnus was the mother of Mehmet’s first two sons, the future sultans Mustafa II and Ahmet III" 
  26. ^ a b Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91. "She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664-1703), and Ahmed III (1673-1736)." 
  27. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0-521-22128-5. "the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan" 
  28. ^ Palmer, Alan (2009). The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Barnes & Noble. p. 27. ISBN 1-56619-847-X. "Unusually, the twenty-nine-year old Ahmed III was a brother, rather than a half- brother, of his predecessor; their Cretan mother, Rabia" 
  29. ^ a b Shankland, David (2004). Archaeology, anthropology, and heritage in the Balkans and Anatolia: the life and times of F.W. Hasluck, 1878-1920. Isis Press. p. 125. ISBN 975-428-280-3. "Osman Hamdi Bey's father, Edhem Pasha (ca. 1818-1893) was a high official of the Empire. A Greek boy captured on Chios after the 1822 massacres, he was acquired and brought up by Husrev Pasha, who sent him to Paris in 1831 in order to acquire a western education." 
  30. ^ Yust, Walter (1956). Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 119. OCLC 3467897. "HAMDI BEY, OSMAN (1842-1910), Turkish statesman and art expert, son of Hilmi Pasha,[who?] one of the last of the grand viziers of the old regime, was born at Istanbul. The family was of Greek origin. Hilmi Pasha himself, as a boy of 12, was rescued from the massacre of the Greeks at Chios in 1825 and bought by Mahmud" 
  31. ^ "Osman Hamdi Bey". Retrieved 2009-07-13. "Osman Hamdi Bey..Statesman and art expert who asserted the right of Constantinople to receive the finds made by various archaeological enterprises in the Ottoman Empire. Hamdi Bey founded the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul and became its director in 1881. His enlightened taste and energy did much to establish the reputation of the museum and its impressive collection of Greco-Roman antiquities." 
  32. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner." 
  33. ^ Wheeler, Edward J, ed. (1909). Current Literature. Current Literature Pub. Co. p. 389. OCLC 4604506. "His Excellency Hussein Hilmi Pacha is a Turk "of the isles." The politest Turks of all come from the isles. There is also Greek blood in his veins," 
  34. ^ Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section (1920). Handbooks prepared under the direction of the Historical section of the foreign office. H.M. Stationary off. p. 45. OCLC 27784113. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner." 
  35. ^ Abbott, George Frederick (1909). Turkey in transition. E. Arnold. p. 149. OCLC 2355821. "For Hilmi is a novus homo. A native of Mytilene, of obscure origin, partly Greek, he began his career as secretary to Kemal Bey" 
  36. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. "Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene." 
  37. ^ Archivum ottomanicum v. 23. Mouton. 2006. p. 272. "Hüseyin Hilmi (1855-1923), who was to become Grand Vezir twice in 1909" 
  38. ^ Trivedi, Raj Kumar (1994). The critical triangle: India, Britain, and Turkey, 1908-1924. Publication Scheme. p. 77. ISBN 81-85263-91-4. OCLC 31173524. "the Ottoman Red Crescent Society of which Hilmi Pasha was the head, which he said, utilized their money for the purpose it was contributed by Muslims in India." 
  39. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0-7146-4154-5. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) (Ottoman Inspector-General of Macedonia, 1902-8" 
  40. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0-7146-4154-5. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) Minister for the Interior, 1908-9)" 
  41. ^ Kent, Marian (1996). The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0-7146-4154-5. "Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1855-1923) Ambassador at Vienna, 1912-18" 
  42. ^ a b Berkes, Niyazi – Ahmad, Feroz (1998). The development of secularism in Turkey. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 29. ISBN 1-85065-344-5. "Ahmed Vefik Pasa (1823-91), the grandson of a Greek convert to Islam and the holder of several of the highest positions, was one of those interested in Turkish studies." 
  43. ^ Galton, Sir Francis (1864). Vacation tourists and notes of travel in 1860 [1861, 1962-3]. Macmillan. p. 91. OCLC 228708521. "The statesman whom the Turks like best is Achmet Vefyk Effendi. Although a Greek by descent, he is a more orthodox Moslem than Fuad or Aali, and is the head of the reforming party, whose object is to bring about reform for the purpose of re-establishing the Turkish empire on the basis on which it stood in its palmy day, rather than adopt European customs." 
  44. ^ Stewart, Desmond (1971). The Middle East: temple of Janus. Doubleday. p. 189. OCLC 135026. "Ahmed Vefik Pasha was the grandson of a Greek convert to Islam." 
  45. ^ Layard, Sir Austen Henry – Bruce, William Napier – Otway, Sir Arthur John (1903). Sir A. Henry Layard, G.C.B., D.C.L. J. Murray. p. 93. OCLC 24585567. "Fuad Pasha — unlike Ahmed Vefyk, who had Greek blood in his veins — was a pure Turk by descent." 
  46. ^ Pickthall, Marmaduke William - Islamic Culture Board – Asad, Muhammad (1975). Islamic culture. Islamic Culture Board - Hyderabad, Deccan. OCLC 1774508. "Ahmad Vefik Pasha) (grandson of a Greek convert) published influential works : Les Tuns Anciens et Modernes (1169) and Lahja-i-Osmani, respectively" 
  47. ^ Macfie, A. L. (1998). The end of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923. Longman. p. 85. ISBN 0-582-28763-4. "In 1876 Ahmed Vefik Pasha, the grandson of a Greek convert to Islam, and a keen student of Turkish customs, published the first Turkish-Ottoman dictionary" 
  48. ^ Taher, Mohamed (1997). Encyclopaedic survey of Islamic culture. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. p. 97. ISBN 81-7488-487-4. "Ahmad Vefik Pasha) (grandson of a Greek convert) published influential works : Les Turcs Anciens et Modernes ( 1 1 69) and Lahja-i-Osmani, respectively" 
  49. ^ "Ahmed Vefik Paşa". Retrieved 2009-08-12. "Ahmed Vefik Paşa Ottoman statesman and scholar born 6 July 1823, Constantinople [now Istanbul] died 2 April 1891, Constantinople… He presided over the first Turkish Parliament (1877) and was twice appointed grand vizier (chief minister) for brief periods in 1878 and 1882." 
  50. ^ "Ahmed Vefik Paşa". Retrieved 2009-08-12. "Ahmed Vefik Paşa Ottoman statesman and scholar born 6 July 1823, Constantinople [now Istanbul] died 2 April 1891, Constantinople....In 1879 he became the vali (governor) of Bursa, where he sponsored important reforms in sanitation, education, and agriculture and established the first Ottoman theatre." 
  51. ^ Houtsma, Martinus T. (1987). E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913 - 1936, Volume 9. Brill. p. 1145. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. "RESMI, AHMAD Ottoman statesman and historian. Ahmad b. Ibrahim, known as Resmi, belonged to Rethymo (turk. Resmo; hence his epithet) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. J. v. Hammer, GOR, viii. 202). He was born in III] (1700) and came in 1146 (1733) to Stambul where he was educated, married a daughter of the Ke is Efendi" 
  52. ^ Müller-Bahlke, Thomas J. (2003). Zeichen und Wunder: Geheimnisse des Schriftenschranks in der Kunst- und Naturalienkammer der Franckeschen Stiftungen : kulturhistorische und philologische Untersuchungen. Franckesche Stiftungen. p. 58. ISBN 9783931479466. "ISBN 3-931479-46-3" "Ahmed Resmi Efendi (1700-1783). Der osmanische Staatsmann und Geschichtsschreiber griechischer Herkunft. Translation “Ahmed Resmi Efendi (1700-1783). The Ottoman statesman and historian of Greek origin”" 
  53. ^ European studies review (1977). European studies review, Volumes 7-8. Sage Publications. p. 170. "Resmi Ahmad (-83) was originally of Greek descent. He entered Ottoman service in 1733 and after holding a number of posts in local administration, was sent on missions to Vienna (1758) and Berlin (1763-4). He later held a number of important offices in central government. In addition, Resmi Ahmad was a contemporary historian of some distinction." 
  54. ^ Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb (1954). Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill. p. 294. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. "Ahmad b. Ibrahim, known as Resmi came from Rethymno (Turk. Resmo; hence his epithet?) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. Hammer- Purgstall, viii, 202). He was born in 1112/ 1700 and came in 1 146/1733 to Istanbul," 
  55. ^ a b Latimer, Elizabeth Wormeley (2008). Russia and Turkey in the Nineteenth Century. BiblioBazaar. p. 204. ISBN 0-559-52708-X. "Gand vizier Edhem Pasha…The history of Edhem is a curious one. He was born of Greek parents, and saved from the massacre of Scio in 1822. He was then sold as a slave in Constantinople, and bought by the grand vizier." 
  56. ^ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy, Nicole Svobodny, Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1971-4. "Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704." 
  57. ^ Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev - Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p. 224. ISBN 954-523-072-X. "Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea. He began his career as imperial armourer and rose to the post of Grand Vezir (1703). He married the daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV, Hatice Sultan, fell into disgrace and was exiled with his wife to izmit." 
  58. ^ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy, Nicole Svobodny, Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1971-4. "Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law… “he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner.”" 
  59. ^ Baker, Anthony E (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146. ISBN 975-413-062-0. "The Valide Sultan was born Evmania Voria, daughter of a Greek priest in a village near Rethymnon on Crete. She was captured by the Turks when they took Rethymnon in 1645." 
  60. ^ Freely, John (1996). Istanbul: the imperial city. Viking. p. 242. ISBN 0-14-024461-1. "Rabia Gulnus a Greek girl who had been captured in the Ottoman invasion of Crete. Rabia Gulnus was the mother of Mehmet’s first two sons, the future sultans Mustafa II and Ahmet III." 
  61. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0-521-22128-5. "the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan." 
  62. ^ Palmer, Alan (2009). The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Barnes & Noble. p. 27. ISBN 1-56619-847-X. "Unusually, the twenty-nine-year old Ahmed III was a brother, rather than a half- brother, of his predecessor; their Cretan mother, Rabia." 
  63. ^ Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82. ISBN 88-8080-014-0. "Their mother, a Cretan, lady named Rabia Gulnus, continued to wield influence as the Walide Sultan - mother of the reigning sultan." 
  64. ^ Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne (2006). Ottoman women builders. Ashgate. p. 46. ISBN 0-7546-3310-1. "The sultan appears to have been in no hurry to leave his prized concubine from the Ottoman conquest of Rethymnon, Crete - the haseki Emetullah Gulnus, and their new son Mustafa." 
  65. ^ Buturović, Amila; Schick, İrvin Cemil (2007). Women in the Ottoman Balkans: gender, culture and history. I.B.Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 1-84511-505-8. "Mahpeikir [Kösem Mahpeyker] and Revia Gülnûş [Rabia Gülnûş] were Greek." 
  66. ^ Freely, John (2000). Inside the Seraglio: private lives of the sultans in Istanbul. Penguin. p. 163. ISBN 84-493-0962-X. "Mehmet had by now set up his own harem, which he took with him in his peregrinations between Topkapi Sarayi and Edirne Sarayi. His favourite was Rabia Gülnûş Ummetüllah, a Greek girl from Rethymnon." 
  67. ^ Freely, John (2001). The lost Messiah. Viking. p. 132. ISBN 0-670-88675-0. "He set up his harem there, his favourite being Rabia Giilniis Ummetiillah, a Greek girl from Rethymnon on Crete." 
  68. ^ Raymond, André (2000). Cairo. Harvard University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-674-00316-0. "After the accession of the fourth Fatimid caliph, al-Mu'izz (953- 975), a cultivated and energetic ruler who found an able second in Jawhar, an ethnic Greek, conditions for conquest of Egypt improved." 
  69. ^ Richardson, Dan (2003). Egypt. Rough Guides. p. 133. ISBN 1-84353-050-3. "The Fatimid general, Gohar (Jewel), a converted ~ Greek, immediately began a new city where the dynasty henceforth reigned * (969-1171)." 
  70. ^ Collomb, Rodney (2006). The rise and fall of the Arab Empire and the founding of Western pre-eminence. Spellmount. p. 73. ISBN 1-86227-327-8. "a Greek mercenary born in Sicily, and his 100000-man army had little" 
  71. ^ Saunders, John Joseph (1990). A History of Medieval Islam. Routledge. p. 133. ISBN 0-415-05914-3. "Under Mu’izz (955-975) the Fatimids reached the height of their glory, and the universal triumph of isma ‘ilism appeared not far distant. The fourth Fatimid Caliph is an attractive character: humane and generous, simple and just, he was a good administrator, tolerant and conciliatory. Served by one of the greatest generals of the age, Jawhar al-Rumi, a former Greek slave, he took fullest advantage of the growing confusion in the Sunnite world." 
  72. ^ Chodorow, Stanley – Knox, MacGregor – Shirokauer, Conrad – Strayer, Joseph R. – Gatzke, Hans W. (1994). The Mainstream of Civilization. Harcourt Press. p. 209. ISBN 0-15-501197-9. "The architect of his military system was a general named Jawhar, an islamicized Greek slave who had led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt" 
  73. ^ Fossier, Robert – Sondheimer, Janet – Airlie, Stuart – Marsack, Robyn (1997). The Cambridge illustrated history of the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-521-26645-9. "When the Sicilian Jawhar finally entered Fustat in 969 and the following year founded the new dynastic capital, Cairo, 'The Victorious', the Fatimids ..." 
  74. ^ Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. D. Appleton. 1878. p. 268. OCLC 184889012. "EDHEM PASHA, the successor of Midhat Pasha as Grand Vizier, was born at Chio, of Greek parents, in 1823. He was saved, when a child, by Turkish soldiers" 
  75. ^ Littell, Eliakim (1888). The Living age. The Living Age Co. p. 614. OCLC 10173561. "Edhem Pasha was a Greek by birth, pure and unadulterated, having when an infant been stolen from the island of Chios at the time of the great massacre there" 
  76. ^ Gilman, Daniel Coit (1906). The New International Encyclopaedia. Dodd, Mead and company. p. 644. OCLC 223290453. "A Turkish soldier and statesman, born of Greek parents on the island of Chios. In 1831 he was taken to Paris, where he was educated in engineering" 
  77. ^ Morsy, Magali (1984). orth Africa, 1800-1900: a survey from the Nile Valley to the Atlantic. Longman. p. 185. ISBN 0-582-78377-1. "Mustafa Khaznadar became Prime Minister in 1837, a position he maintained under three successive bey-s, more or less continuously until 1873." 
  78. ^ Ziadeh, Nicola A. (1969). Origins of nationalism in Tunisia. Librarie du Liban. p. 11. OCLC 3062278. "Mustafa Khaznadar was of Greek origin (b. 1817), and proved to be one of the most influential persons Tunisia saw in her modern history. He took the interest of his master and the country to heart and did all he could to prevail on Ahmad Bey to see that Tunisia acquired as much as she could" 
  79. ^ a b Fage, J. D.; Oliver, Roland Anthony; Sanderson, G. N. (1985). The Cambridge history of Africa, Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780521228039. "ISBN 0-521-22803-4" "Politically, the only person of any account in the Bardo palace was the prime minister, the all-powerful Mustafa Khaznadar, a mamluk of Greek extraction, who had managed to remain in power, under three beys, since 1837. The khaznadar, intelligent and cunning, maintained at court a careful balance between France and England, but his own sympathies were on the side of Great Britain on account of his connections with Wood, the British consul. At the palace, he alone exercised influence over the feeble spirit of the bey." 
  80. ^ Association of Muslim Social Scientists.; International Institute of Islamic Thought (2008). The American journal of Islamic social sciences, Volume 25, Issues 1-4. American journal of Islamic social sciences (AJISS). p. 56. OCLC 60626498. "A mamluk of Greek origin raised by Prince Ahmad (later Ahmad Bey). Khaznadar first worked as the prince's private treasurer before the latter succeeded his father to the throne in 1837. Then, he immediately became Ahmad Bey's khaznadar (treasurer )" 
  81. ^ Rowley, Harold Henry; Weis, Pinkas Rudolf (1986). Journal of Semitic Studies, Volumes 31-32. Manchester University Press. p. 190. OCLC 1782837. "the Greek Mustafa Khaznadar, a former slave who from 1837 to 1873 was Minister of Finance and the actual ruler of the country" 
  82. ^ a b Shivji, Issa G. (1991). State and constitutionalism: an African debate on democracy. SAPES Trust. p. 235. ISBN 0-7974-0993-9. "The Hussienite Dynasty was itself of Greek origin and Prime Minister Mustapha Kharznader was a Greek whose original name was Stravelakis." 
  83. ^ a b Binous, Jamila – Jabeur, Salah (2002). Houses of the Medina: Tunis. Dar Ashraf Editions. p. 143. OCLC 224261384. "Mustapha’s name was in fact Georges Kalkias Stravelakis, born in l8l7 on the island of Chio (Greece) where he was captured during the l824 massacres" 
  84. ^ Gallagher, Nancy Elizabeth (2002). Medicine and Power in Tunisia, 1780-1900. Cambridge University Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-521-52939-5. "Mustafa Khaznadar (George Kalkias Stravelakis) was born on the island of Chios in 1817. The nephews were sons of a brother who had remained in Chios in 1821. Bin Diyaf stated that he had learned of his expenditure from a receipt he had seen on the fifteenth page of a state treasury register kept by Khaznadar." 
  85. ^ Simon, Reeva S. – Mattar, Philip – Bulliet, Richard W. (1996). Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 1018. ISBN 0-02-897062-4. "Mustafa Khaznader was born Georges Kalkias Stravelakis, on the island of Chios. In 1821, during the Greek rebellion against the Turks, he was seized, taken to Constantinople, and sold into slavery, In 1821 he was sent to Tunis, where he was sold again." 
  86. ^ Mohamed, Duse (1911). In the land of the pharaohs: a short history of Egypt from the fall of Ismail to the assassination of Boutros Pasha. D. Appleton and company. p. xii. OCLC 301095947. "PRIME MINISTERS * Ragheb Pasha was Prime Minister from July 12, 1882" 
  87. ^ Vizetelly, Edward (1901). From Cyprus to Zanzibar, by the Egyptian delta: the adventures of a journalist in the isle of love, the home of miracles, and the land of cloves. C.A. Pearson. p. 118. OCLC 81708788. "This Ragheb Pasha, a decrepit old man with a reputation of venality, was of Greek extraction, and had originally been a Greek slave." 
  88. ^ The Nineteenth century, Volume 13. Henry S. King & Co. 1883. p. 121. OCLC 30055032. "Ragheb Bey, as I knew him first, was a Candiote, a Mussulman of Greek origin, and gifted with the financial cunning of his race. He began political life in Egypt under Said Pasha, as an employe in the financial department where he was speedily promoted to a high…" 
  89. ^ ‘Izz al-‘Arab, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz (2002). European control and Egypt's traditional elites: a case study in elite economic nationalism Volume 15 of Mellen studies in economics. Edwin Mellen Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-7734-6936-2. "Isma'il Pasha Raghib and al-Shaykh al-Bakri. Raghib was an established figure in the state administrative machinery, who came from Greek origins, and who had held various portfolios in finance and served as President of the first Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab in 1866." 
  90. ^ Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen (1980). Secret history of the English occupation of Egypt: being a personal narrative of events Volume 2 of Centenary of the Arabi revolution 1881-1981. Arab Centre for Research and Publishing. OCLC 7840850. "Ragheb Pasha is (as mentioned by Ninet) of Greek descent, though a Moslem" 
  91. ^ Schölch, Alexander (1981). Egypt for the Egyptians!: the socio-political crisis in Egypt, 1878-1882. Ithaca Press. p. 326. ISBN 0-903729-82-2. "Isma'il Raghib was born in Greece in 1819; the sources differ over his homeland. After first being kidnapped to Anatolia, he was brought as a slave to Egypt in 1246 (1830/1), by Ibrahim Pasha, and there he was ‘converted’ from Christianity" 
  92. ^ McCoan, James Carlile (1898). Egypt. P. F. Collier. p. 102. OCLC 5663869. "Raghib Pasha, the new Minister — by birth a Sciote Greek, sold into Egypt after the massacre of 1822 — is said to be an able administrator, and enjoys a high personal character" 
  93. ^ The Nineteenth century, Volume 13. Henry S. King & Co. 1883. p. 121. OCLC 30055032. "Ragheb Bey, as I knew him first, was a Candiote, a Mussulman of Greek origin" 
  94. ^ Schölch, Alexander (1981). Egypt for the Egyptians!: the socio-political crisis in Egypt, 1878-1882. Ithaca Press. p. 326. ISBN 0-903729-82-2. "Isma'il Raghib …After first being kidnapped to Anatolia, he was brought as a slave to Egypt in 1246 (1830/1), by Ibrahim Pasha, and there he was ‘converted’ from Christianity" 
  95. ^ Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. "ISBN 0-292-71922-1" "One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. He participated in the successful Ottoman assault on Tripoli in 1551 against the Knights of St. John of Malta." 
  96. ^ Beeching Jack (1983). The galleys at Lepanto: Jack Beeching. Scribner. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9780684179186. "ISBN 0-684-17918-0" "And the corsairs' greatest leader, Dragut, had also done time, at the oar of a Genoese galley. Dragut was born of Greek parents, Orthodox Christians, at Charabulac on the coast of Asia Minor, but a Turkish governor took a fancy to the boy and carried him off to Egypt." 
  97. ^ Chambers, Iain (2008). Mediterranean crossings: the politics of an interrupted modernity. Duke University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9780822341260. "ISBN 0-8223-4126-3" "Neither was the career of Dragut, another Greek whom we find in 1540s on the Tunisian coast and in 1561 installed at Tripoli in Barbary, in place of the Knights of Malta whom the Turks had expelled five years earlier." 
  98. ^ Pauls, Michael ; Facaros, Dana (2000). Turkey. New Holland Publishers. pp. 286–287. ISBN 9781860110788. "ISBN 1860110789" "It is named after the 16th-century Admiral Turgut (Dragut), who was born here to Greek parents; his mentor Barbarossa, another Greek who 'turned Turk', in a moment of unusual humility declared that Dragut was ahead of him 'both in fishing and bravery’." 
  99. ^ a b Lewis, Dominic Bevan Wyndham (1931). Charles of Europe. Coward-McCann. pp. 174–175. OCLC 485792029. "A new star was now rising in the piratical firmament, Barbarossa's lieutenant Dragut-Reis, a Greek who had been taken prisoner by the corsairs in his youth and had turned Mahometan." 
  100. ^ Braudel, Fernand (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II, Volume 2. University of California Press. pp. 908–909. ISBN 9780520203303. "ISBN 0-520-20330-5" "Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys." 
  101. ^ Reynolds, Clark G. (1974). Command of the sea: the history and strategy of maritime empires. Morrow. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780688002671. "ISBN 0-688-00267-6" "Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546." 
  102. ^ Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. "ISBN 0-292-71922-1" "One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. ... While pasha, he built up Tripoli and adorned it, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African littoral." 
  103. ^ Fitzsimmons, Mick; Harris, Bob (5 January 2001). "Cat Stevens - A Musical Journey". Taped documentary interview synopsis. BBC2. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]