List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.

Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ab-, a-, abs-, au- away from Latin ab "away" abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, aversion
ac- sharp or pointed Latin acere acupuncture, acute
acerb- sharp, bitter, sour Latin acerbus acerbic, exacerbate
acid- sour or acid Latin acidus acidosis, acidulation
acr- height, summit, tip Greek ἄκρος (akros) "high", "extreme" acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia
acr- bitter, pungent, sharp, sour Latin acer, acris acrid, acrimony
acu- sharp Latin acutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acupuncture, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" accept, adapt, affect, aggression, annectent, approximate, ascend
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipose
aer-, aeri-, aero-, aeror- air, atmosphere Greek ἀήρ (aēr) "air" aerotitis, aericolous, aeriferous, aeronautics, aeroplane, aerorrhachia, aerosol
aesthet- feeling, sensation Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthētikos) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) "to perceive" aesthetics, anaesthetic
ag-, act- do Latin agere, actus act, agent
agr- field Greek ἀγρός (agros) "field" agronomy,
agri-, -egri- field Latin ager, agris "field, country" agriculture, peregrine
alb- dull white Latin albus albedo, albino, albumen
am-, amat- love Latin amāre, amatus, amor amateur, amatory, amorous
ambi-, am-, amb-, ambo-, an- both, on both sides Latin ambi ambidexterity, ambivalent, amputation, ambiguous, amboceptor, ancipital
ambul- to walk Latin ambulare ambulance, ambulatory
amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amicable, inimical
amph-, amphi- around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek ἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides" amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism
ampl- ample, abundant, bountiful Latin amplus amplification
an-, a-, am-, ar- not, without Greek Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not" anhydrous, ambrosia, arrhythmia, atypical
ana-, am-, an-, anar- again, against, back, up Greek ἀνά (ana) anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anion, anode, anarrhexis
andr- male, masculine Greek ἀνδρός andros androgen, android
anem- wind Greek ἄνεμος anemos anemometer
anim- breath, life, spirit Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" anniversary, annual, biannual, millennium
ant-, anti-, antir- against, opposed to, preventive Greek ἀντί anti "against" antagonist, antibiotic, antipodes, antirrhinum
ante-, anti- before, in front of, prior to Latin ante "before", "against" antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian
anth- flower Greek ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" anther, anthology
anthra-, anthrac- coal Greek ἄνθραξ (anthraks) anthracycline, anthracite, anthrax,
anthrop- human Greek ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man" anthropology, anthropomorphic
ap-, apo-, apor- away from, separate, at the farthest point Greek ἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-, quite" aphelion, apocrine, apogee, apostasy, aporrhinosis
aqu-, aqua-, aque-, aqui- water Latin aqua aquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer
ar- plow, till Latin ărāre arable
ar- be dry Latin ārēre "be dry or parched" arid
arche-, archi- ruler Greek ἀρχή (archē) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) archangel, archetype
archae-, arche- ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος arkhaios "ancient" from arkhē "beginning" archaeology or archeology, archaic
arct- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold Greek ἄρκτος arktos "bear" Arctic Ocean
argent- silver Latin argentum argent, Argentina
areta- virtue Greek ἀρετή aretē aretaic
arist- excellence Greek ἄριστος aristos aristocracy
arthr- joint Greek ἄρθρον (arthron) arthritis, arthropod
astr- star, star-shaped Greek ἄστρον (astron) "star" asterisk, astrology, astronomy
athl- prize Greek ἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat" athlete, pentathlon
-athroid gathered or lumped together Greek αθροίζω (athroidzo) "I gather together" hypoathroid, epiathroid
audi- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" audible, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augēre, auctus "to increase" augend, augmentation
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureate, aureole
auri-, aus- relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle, aurinasal, auscultation
aut-, auto-, autor- self; directed from within Greek αὐτός (autos) "self", "same" autarchy, autograph, automobile, autonomy, autorrhinoscopy
avi- bird Latin avis aviary, aviation
axi- axis Latin axis axisymmetry
axi(o)- merit Greek ἄξιος (axios) "worth" axiology, axiom


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin baculum baculiform, baculum
bar- weight, pressure Greek βάρος (baros) barograph, barometer, barostat
basi-, bas-, basio-, basir-, baso- at the bottom Greek βάσις (basis) "step", from βαίνω (bainō), "I walk, march" basic, basis, basicranial, basioglossal, basirrhinal, basommatophoric, basolateral
bathy-, batho- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús, bathýs) batholith, bathymetry, bathyscaphe
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) benefit, benignity
bi-, bin-, bis- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" biennial, bigamy, binary, binoculars, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus imbibe
bibl- book Greek βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bible, bibliography
bio-, bi- life Greek βίος (bíos) "life" biography, biologist, biology, biosphere, biarch,
blenn-, blenno-, blennor- slime Greek βλέννος (blennos) blennadenitis, blennophobia, blennosperma, blennorrhagia
blast-, blasto- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put forth shoots" blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast, blastocardia, blastochyle
bon- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bore- north Latin from Greek borealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind" borealis
botan-, botano- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon) botanic, botanist, botanology, botany
bov- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine
brachi-, brachio- arm Latin bracchium brachiferous, brachial artery, brachiocubital
brachi-, brachio-, brachion-, brachioni-, brachior- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) brachialgia, brachionerysipelas, brachionigraph, brachiorrhachidian, brachiosaurus
brachy- short Greek βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs) brachycephaly, brachydactyly
brady-, bradys- slow Greek βραδύς (bradús, bradýs) bradycardia, bradysuria
branchi- gill Greek βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion) branchiopod, nudibranch
brev-, brevi- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviation, brevextensor, brevicaudate, brevity
bromat-, bromato-, broma-, bromo- food Greek βρῶμα (brōma) bromatium, bromateccrisis, bromatherapy, bromatology, bromography
brom- oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats" brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom- stench Greek βρῶμος (brōmos) "stench, clangor" bromate, bromide, bromine
bronch- windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos) bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus
bront-, bronto- thunder Greek βροντή (brontē) Brontosaurus, brontology, brontophobia
bucc-, bucci-, bucco- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccilingual, buccolingual
bulb-, bulbi-, bulbo-, bulbor- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbiparous, bulbiform, bulboartrial, bulborrhexis, bulbous, bulbule
bull-, bulli- bubble, flask Latin bulla, "bubble" bullectomy, ebullient, ebullism, bulliferous
burs-, bursa-, bursi-, burso- pouch, purse Latin bursa bursa, bursalogy, bursar, bursary, bursectomy, bursiform, disburse, bursopathy


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
cac-, caco-, cacor- bad Greek κακός (kakos) cachexia, cacophony, cacorrhacitis
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut Latin caedere, caesus caesura, incisor, scissors
calc- stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx "lime" from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble", "limestone" calcite, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere
cali-, call-, calli-, calo- beautiful Greek κάλλος (kallos) "beauty" calisthenics, calligraphy, calophyllous
calor-, calo-, calori- heat Latin calor "heat" calorie, caloradiance, calorigenic
calyp- cover Greek καλύπτειν (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp-, campi-, campo- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" champion, campaign, campicolous, campimetry, campotomy
can- dog Latin canis canine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant- sing Latin canere cantata, canto, cantor
cand- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds) captive, capture, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis capital, decapitation, precipitation
capr- goat Latin caper, capri Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbohydrate
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carcin- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab" carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi- relating to the heart Greek καρδιά (kardia) cardiograph, cardiology
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn-, carni- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnal, carnival, carnivore
carp- fruit Greek καρπός (karpos) "fruit" carpology
carp- wrist Greek καρπός (karpos) "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast- pure Latin castus "chaste" caste, castigate
cata-, cat-, catar- down Greek κατά (katá) "down" catabolic, catalyst, catarrhine, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten- chain Latin catena catenary, concatenation
cathar- pure Greek καθαρός (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal, coda
caus-, -cus- cause or motive Latin causa causative
cav- hollow Latin cavus cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- go Latin cedere, cessus procession, recede, secede
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen- new Greek καινός (kainos) Cenozoic
cen- empty Greek κενός (kenos) cenotaph
cen- common Greek κοινός (koinos) cenobite
cens- to assess Latin censere census
cent- hundred Latin centum cent, centennial, centurion
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenarian, centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
cephal- head Greek κεφαλή (kephalē) cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) keratin, triceratops
cern- sift Latin cernere discern, secern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chir- of the hand or hands Greek χείρ (kheir) "hand" chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise" chelonia
chlor- green Greek χλωρός (khlōros) chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore- relating to dance Greek χορεία (khoreia) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khoros) "chorus" choreography
chord- cord Latin and Greek chorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē) chordata
chrom- color Greek χρῶμα (chrōma) chromium, chromosome, monochrome
chron- time Greek χρόνος (chronos) chronic, chronology, chronometer
chrys- gold Greek χρυσός (khrusos) chrysalis, chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia, supercilious
cine- motion Greek κινέω (kineō) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle, ring Latin circus circular, circus
circum- around Latin circum circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate
cirr- orange Greek κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
civ- citizen Latin civis civic, civility
clad- branch Greek κλάδος (klados) clade
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close Latin claudere, clausus clause, exclusion, include
clav- key Greek κλείς (kleis) "key" from κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close" clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist- closed Greek κλειστός (kleistos) cleistogamy
cleithr- bar, key Greek cleithrum
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed Greek κλίνη (klinē) clinic
clin- lean, recline Latin -clinare declination, inclined
cochl- snail, spiral shell Greek κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos) blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
cogn- know Latin cognoscere, cognitus cognitive, cognizant, recognize
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander, coulee, percolate
coll- hill Latin collis colliculus
coll- neck Latin collum collar
color- color Latin color coloration, coloratura, tricolor
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- with, together Latin cum coagulate, collide, compress, connect, contain, corrode
con- cone Greek κῶνος (kōnos) conic, conical, conoid
condi- season Latin condire condiment
contra- against Latin contra contraception, contradiction, contrast
copr- dung Greek κόπρος (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac- raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial
corn- horn Latin cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corpse, corpuscle
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis cortical, corticosteriod
cosm- universe Greek κόσμος (kosmos) cosmic, cosmonaut
cosmet- the art of dress and ornament Greek κοσμητική (kosmetike) from κόσμος (kosmos) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
-cracy, -crat government, rule, authority Greek κράτος (kratos) democracy
crani- skull Greek κρανίον (kranion) cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
cre- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature
cred- believe, trust Latin credere, creditus credentials, credibility, creditor, incredible
crep- boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos) crepidoma
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribrate
cric- ring Greek κρίκος (krikos) cricoid
crisi-, crit- judge Greek κρίσις (crisis) crisis, critic
crisp- curled Latin crispus crepe, crispate
crist- crest Latin crista cristate
cross- fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossos) crossopterygii
cruc- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural
crypt- hidden Greek κρυπτός (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
cten- comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
cub- cube Greek κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
cur- care for Latin cura, curare accurate, curator, cure
curr-, curs- run Latin currere, cursus concurrent, current, cursive, recursion
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cut- skin Latin cutis cutaneous, cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl- circular Greek κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind- roll Greek κύλινδρος (kulindros) cylinder
cyn- dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos) cynology, cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek κύστις (kustis) cystic
cyt- cell Greek κύτος (kutos) cnidocyte, cytoplasm


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
dactyl- finger, toe, digit Greek δάκτυλος (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn- to inflict loss upon Latin damnāre condemn, damnation, indemnify
de- from, away from, removing, down Latin deletion, dementia, descend
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten Greek δέκα deka, ten decagram, decahedron, decameter
decim- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate
delt- shaped like a Δ Greek δέλτα (delta) deltoid
dem- people Greek δῆμος (dēmos) demagogue, democracy
den- ten each Latin deni denarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr- resembling a tree Greek δένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, "tree" dendrite, dendrochronology
dens- thick Latin densus condense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentifrice, dentures
derm- skin Greek δέρμα (derma) dermis, epidermis, hypodermic, Dermaptera
deuter- second Greek δεύτερος (deuteros) Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity, dextrose
dexi- right Greek δεξιός (deksios) Dexiarchia
di- two Greek δι- (di-) dicot, diode, dipole
dia- apart, through Greek διά (dia) diagram, dialysis, diameter
dict- say, speak Latin dicere, dictus contradict, dictate, dictation, dictionary, edict, predict
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek δεινός (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- double; twofold Greek διπλός (diplos) diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor, indoctrinate
dodec- twelve Greek δώδεκα (dōdeka) dodecahedron, dodecasyllabic
dogmat-, dox- opinion, tenet Greek δόξα dogmatic, orthodox
dom- house Latin domus dome
don- give Latin donare condone, donation
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum dorsal
du- two Latin duo dual
dub- doubtful Latin dubius dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin dux, ducis abduction, conductor, deduction, introduction, production, reduction
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis dulcet, dulcimer
dur- hard Latin durus durable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
dy- two Greek δύο (duo) dyad
dyna- power Greek δύναμαι (dunamai) dynamism, dynasty, dynamite
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ- (dus-) dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ec- out Greek ἐκ (ek) eccentric
ecclesi- assembly, congregation Greek ἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out" Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek ἐκτός (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible, obesity
eg- goat Greek αἴξ, αἰγός (aix) egophony
ego- self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ egocentric
electr- amber Greek ἤλεκτρον (elektron) electron, electricity
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, preempt, redeem
eme- vomit Greek ἐμεῖν, ἔμετος (emetos) emesis, emetic
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulator
en-, em- in Greek ἐν (en) emphasis
encephalo- brain Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos) encephalopathy
endo- inside Greek ἔνδον (endon) endocrine, endocytosis
engy- narrow Greek ἐγγύς (engys) Engystomops
ennea- nine Greek ἐννέα (ennea) ennead, enneagon, enneode
ens- sword Latin ensis ensiform
eo-, eos-, eoso- dawn, east Greek Ἠώς/Ἕως Eocene
ep-, epi- upon Greek ἐπί (epi) epicenter, epistemic, epitaph, epoch
equ-, -iqu- even, level Latin aequus equal, equivalence
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
erg- work Greek έργον (ergon) ergonomics
erot- (sexual) love Greek ἔρως, ἔρωτος (erōs, erōtos) erogenous, erotic
err- stray Latin errare aberration, errant, error
erythr- red Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek ἔσω (esō) esoteric
eth- custom, habit Greek ἦθος (ēthos) ethology
ethm- sieve, sift Greek ἠθμός (ēthmos); ἤθειν (hethein) ethmoid
ethn- people, race, tribe, nation Greek ἔθνος (ethnos) ethnarch, ethnic
etym- true Greek ἔτυμος (etumos) etymology
eu- well, good Greek εὖ (eu) euphoria, euthanasia
eur- wide Greek εὐρύς (eurus) Europe, eurypterid
ex-, e-, ef- from, out Latin ex exclude, extend, extrude
exo- outside Greek ἔξω (eksō) exoskeleton, exothermic
exter-, extra- outer Latin exterus exterior
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extremity, extremophile


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
f-, fat- say, speak Latin fari, fatus fate, infant, preface
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect- make Latin facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis falciform
fall-, -fell-, fals- deceive Latin fallere, falsus falsity, infallibility
fallac- false Latin fallax, fallacis fallacy
famili- a close attendant Latin famulus familiarity
fant- to show Greek φαντάζω (phantazō) fantasy
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fasciculation, fascism
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact Latin foedus, foederis confederation, federal
fel- cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur, femoris femoral
fend-, fens- strike Latin fendere, -fensus defend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra defenestration
fer- carry Latin ferre reference, transfer
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin ficus Ficus
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fides, fidere, fisus confidence, fidelity
fil- thread Latin filum filament
fili- son Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin finis final, finish
find-, fiss- split Latin findere, fissus fission, fissure
firm- firm, strong Latin firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula fistula
fl- blow Latin flare, flatus flatulence, inflation, insufflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus flexible, flexile, flexor, inflection
flig-, flict- strike Latin flīgere, flictus conflict, inflict
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx
foc- hearth Latin focus focal
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin foenum Foeniculum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fons, fontis font, fontal, fontanelle
for- bore, drill Latin forare, foratus foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form- shape Latin forma conformity, deformity, formation, reformatory
form- ant Latin formica formaldehyde, formic acid
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fortification
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
frang-, -fring-, fract-, frag- break Latin frangere, fractus fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus diffusion, effusion, effusive, fusion, profuse, profusion, transfusion
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- steal Latin fur, furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
galact- milk Greek γάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos) galactic
gastr- stomach Greek γαστήρ (gastēr) gastric, gastroenterology
ge- earth Greek γῆ (), γεω- (geō-) geography, geology, geometry
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelatin, gelid
gen- race, kind Greek γένος (genos) eugenics, genocide
ger-, gest- bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus digest, gestation
germin- sprout Latin germen, germinis germination
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glia- glue Greek γλία (glia) glial
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination
gnosc- to know Latin cognoscenti
gon- corner, angle Greek γωνία (gōnía) goniometer, polygon
grad-, -gred-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradus, gradere, gressus grade, regress
gramm- writing Greek γράμμα (gramma) grammar, grammatic
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granite, granola, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous, grandiosity
graph- draw, write Greek γραφή (graphē) grapheme, graphic, graphology
grat- thank, please Latin gratus grace, gratitude, ingrate
grav- heavy Latin gravis aggravation, grave, gravity
greg- flock Latin grex, gregis egregious, gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus disgust, gusto
gutt- drop Latin gutta gutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek γυμνός (gumnos) gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
gyn- woman Greek γυνή (gunē) gynecology


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
hadr- thick Greek ἁδρός (hadros) hadrocodium, hadron
haem-, hem- blood Greek αἷμα (haima) haemophilia, hemoglobin
hal- salt Greek ἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos) halite, halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale, halitosis
hapl- simple, single Greek ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaustion
hedo- pleasure Greek ἡδονή (hēdonē) hedonism
heli- sun Greek ἥλιος (hēlios) heliocentric, heliotrope, helium
hemi- half Greek ἥμισυς (hēmisus) hemicycle, hemisphere
hen- one Greek ἕν (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek ἕνδεκα (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek ἑπτά (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, hes- cling Latin haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent
herb- grass Latin herba herbal, herbicide
hered- heir Latin heres, heredis heredity
herp- creep Greek ἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein) herpes, herpetology
heter- different, other Greek ἕτερος (heteros) heterochromatin, heterodoxy, heterogeneity, heterogeneous
heur- find Greek εὑρίσκω (heuriskō) heuristic
hex- six Greek ἕξ (hex) hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hier- sacred Greek ἱερός (hieros) hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp- horse Greek ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity, hispidulous
histri- actor Latin histrio, histrionis histrionic
hod- way Greek ὁδός (hodos) cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol- whole Greek ὅλος (holos) holistic, holography
hom- same Greek ὁμός (homos) homophone, homozygous
homal- even, flat Greek ὁμαλός (homalos) anomalous
home- like Greek ὅμοιος (homoios) homeostasis
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable, honorarium
hor- boundary Greek ὅρος (horos) aphorism, horizon
hor- hour Greek ὥρα (hōra) horoscope
horm- that which excites Greek ὁρμή (hormē) hormone
hort- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospice, hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhumation, inhume
hyal- glass Greek ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr- water Greek ὕδωρ (hudōr) hydraulics, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr- wet Greek ὑγρός (hugros) hygrometer
hymen- skin or membrane Greek ὑμήν (humēn) hymen, Hymenoptera
hyo- U-shaped Greek ὑοειδής (huoeidēs) hyoid
hyp- under Greek ὑπό (hupo) hypothermia
hyper- above, over Greek ὑπέρ (huper) hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn- sleep Greek ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis
hyster- later Greek ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ichthy- fish Greek ἰχθύς (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek εἴκοσι (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id- shape Greek εἶδος (eidos) idol
ide- idea; thought Greek ιδέα (ideal) ideogram, ideology
idi- personal Greek ἴδιος (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignition
imagin- copy Latin imāgō, imāginis image, imagine
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in import, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- not, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- below, under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra- within Latin intra intramural
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
irid- rainbow Latin iris iridescent
is-, iso- equal, same Greek ἴσος (isos) isometric, isomorphic, isotropic
iter- again Latin iterum, iterare iteration
itiner- journey Latin iter, itineris itinerary


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac-, -ject- cast, throw Latin jacere, iectus ejaculate, eject, interject, reject, trajectory
janu- door Latin janua janitor, January
joc- joke Latin jocus jocularity
judic- judge Latin judex, iudicis adjudicate, judicial, judiciary
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
junior- younger Latin junior juniority
jus-, jur- law, justice Latin ius, iuris jury, justice
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek χίλιοι (chilioi) kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine- movement, motion Greek κινέω (kineō) kinesthetic, kinetic, telekinesis
klept- steal Greek κλέπτης (kleptēs) kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo- glory Greek κῦδος (kudos) kudos


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- work Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- torch Greek λαμπάς (lampas) lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudere laud, laudanum
lav- wash Latin lavare lavatory
lax- not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
lecith- egg yolk Greek λέκιθος (lekithos) lecithin
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leg- law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislative
leg- send Latin legare relegate
lei- smooth Greek λεῖος (leios) leiomyoma
lekan- dish, pot Greek λεκάνη (lekanē) lekane
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek λέπειν, λεπίς, λεπίδος (lepis, lepidos) Lepidoptera
lepsi- grasp, seize Greek λῆψις (lēpsis) epilepsy
leuc-, leuk- white Greek λευκός (leukos) leucocyte
lev- lift, light Latin levis "light" (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
liber- free Latin liber, liberare liberation, liberty
libr- book Latin liber, libri librarian, library
lig- bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
limac- slug Latin limax, limacis limacoid, limacon
line- line Latin linea line, linearity
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
lip- fat Greek λίπος (lipos) lipolysis
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith- stone Greek λίθος (lithos) lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
loc- place Latin locus local, location
log- thought, word, speech Greek λόγος (logos) logic, monologue, morphological, philology
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, eloquence
luc- bright, light Latin lux, lucis Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere, lusus allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
lun- moon Latin luna lunar, lunatic
lysi-, lyti- dissolving Greek λύσις (lusis) analysis, analytic, cytolysis, hydrolysis, lysigeny


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
macr- long Greek μακρός (makros) macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnificent, magnitude
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched Latin malus malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary gland
man- flow Latin mānāre, manatus emanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man- stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
mand- order Latin mandāre, mandatus mandate, remand
mania mental illness Greek μανία (manίā) kleptomania, maniac
manu- hand Latin manus manual, manuscript, manufacture
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris maternity, matriarch, matrix
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximum
mechan- machine or instrument Greek μηχανή (mēkhanē) mechane, mechanics
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius, mediare median, medieval
mega- great, large Greek μέγας (megas) megaphone
mei- less Greek μεῖον (meiōn) meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin melior amelioration
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
memor- remember Latin memor memorial
mening- membrane Greek μήνιγξ (meninx) meningitis
men- month Greek μήν (mēn) menopause
menstru- monthly Latin menstruus menstrual, menstruation
mensur- measure Latin mensura commensurate
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis demented, mentality
mer- part Greek μέρος (meros) polymer
merc- reward, wages, hire Latin merx, mercis mercantile, mercenary, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek μέσος (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek μέτρον (metron) metric, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek μετά (meta) metaphor, metaphysics
mic- grain Latin mica micelle
micro- small Greek μικρός (mikros) microphone, microscope
migr- wander Latin migrare emigrant, migrate
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
milli- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- repeat Greek μίμος (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule, minutiae
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
mis- hate Greek μῖσος (misos) misandry, misogyny
misc-, mixt- mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
mit- thread Greek μίτος (mitos) mitochondrion, mitosis
mitt-, miss- send Latin mittere, missus intermittent, missionary, transmission
mne- memory Greek μνήμη (mnēmē) amnesia, mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola, molere, molitus molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon- one Greek μόνος (monos) monism, monolith, monotone
monil- string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
mord- bite Latin mordere, morsus mordacious, morsel, remorse
morph- form, shape Greek μορφή (morphē) anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin movere, motus mobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
multi- many, much Latin multus multiple, multiplex, multitude
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mut- change Latin mutare mutation
my- mouse Greek μῦς (mus) musophobia
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek μυρίος (murios) myriad, myriapod
myrmec- ant Greek μύρμηξ (murmēx) myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth- story Greek μῦθος (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek μύξα (muxa) Myxini
myz- suck Greek μυζάω (muzaō) Myzopoda


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
nar- nostril Latin naris naris
narc- numb Greek νάρκη (narkē) narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, natus nascent, native
naut- ship Greek ναύτης (nautes) Argonaut, astronaut
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne- new Greek νέος (neos) neologism
necr- dead Greek νεκρός (nekros) necrophobia
nect- swimming Greek νηκτός (nēktos) nectopod
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connect, nexus
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek νῆμα (nēma) nematode
nemor- grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral
nephr- kidney Greek νεφρός (nephros) nephritis
nes- island Greek νῆσος (nēsos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek νευρών (neurōn) neurology, neurosurgeon
nict- beckon, wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox, noctis noctambulist, nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law Greek νόμος (nomos) autonomous, taxonomy
nomad- those who let pasture herds Greek νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomination
non- not Latin non none
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
not- back, south Greek νότος (notos) notochord
not- letter, note, paper Latin notare annotation, notable
noth- spurious Greek νόθος (nothos) nothogenus
nov- nine Latin novem November, novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovation, nova
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim novemdecillion
nox-, noc- harmful Latin noxa noxious
nu- nod Latin nuere innuendo
nub-, nupt- to marry, to wed Latin nubes, nubis, nubere connubial, nubile, prenuptial
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis nucleus
nuch- back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus numeral
nunci- announce Latin nuntius pronunciation
nutri- nourish Latin nutrire malnutrition, nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os- against Latin ob obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostentatious
oct- eight Greek ὀκτώ (oktō) octagon, octahedron, octode
oct- eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octāvus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus, ullage
od- path, way Greek ὁδός (hodos) anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
odi- hate Latin odium odious
odont- tooth Greek ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous, odontos) odontology
odor- fragrant Latin odor odorous
oeco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology
oed- swollen Greek οἴδημα (oidēma) oedema
oen- wine Greek οἶνος (oinos) oenology
oesophag- gullet Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophagos) oesophagus
ogdo- eighth Greek ὄγδοος (ogdoos) ogdoad
-oid like Greek -οειδής (-oeidēs) asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole- oil Latin oleum oleosity
olecran- skull of elbow Latin from Greek ὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon) olecranon
olig- few Greek ὀλίγος (oligos) oligarchy
oliv- olive Latin oliva olivaceous, olivary, olivette
-oma morbid growth, tumor Greek -ωμα melanoma
omas- paunch Latin omasum omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum omental
omin- creepy Latin omen, ominis abominable, ominous
omm- eye Greek ὄμμα (omma) ommatidium
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnivore
omo- shoulder Greek ὦμος omos omohyoid
omphal- navel Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalos) omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris exonerate, onerous
onom- name Greek όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek ὄντος (ontos) ontogeny, ontology
-onym name Greek ὄνυμα (onuma) antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo- egg Greek ᾠόν (oion) oocyte
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis inoperable, opera
opercul- little cover Latin operculum operculum
ophi- snake Greek ὄφις (ophis) ophiophagy
ophthalm- eye Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek ὄπισθεν (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter- either Greek ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt- eye Greek ὀπτός (optos) optical
opt- choose Latin optare adopt, optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle Greek ὄρχις (orchis) orchid
ordin- order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
organ- organ, instrument, tool Greek ὄργανον (organon) organism
ori-, ort- eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient
orn- decorate Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos) ornithology
orth- straight Greek ὀρθός (orthos) orthodontist, orthodoxy, orthosis
oscill- swing Latin oscillum oscillation
oss- bone Latin os, ossis ossification
osteo- bone Greek ὀστοῦν (ostoun) osteoporosis
osti- entrance Latin ostium ostiole
ostrac- shell Greek ὄστρακον (ostrakon) ostracism, ostracoderm
ot- ear Greek οὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos) otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovary, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek ὀξύς (oxus) oxygen, oxymoron


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis pacifism
pach- thick Greek παχύς (pachus) pachydermata, Pachypodium
paed- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) paediatric
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impalement, pale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek παλαιός (palaios) paleontology
palin- back Greek πάλιν (palin) palindrome
pall- be pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- cloak Latin pallium pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustr- in marshes Latin paluster palustral
pan-, pam- all Greek πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) pandemic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par(a)- beside, near Greek παρά (para) parallel, parameter
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part- part Latin pars, partis bipartite, partition
parthen- maiden Greek παρθένος (parthenos) Parthenon, parthenogenesis
parv- little Latin parvus parvovirus
pasc-, past- feed Latin pascere, pastus pasture, repast
pass- pace, step Latin passus
passer- sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine
pat- be open Latin patere patent
path- feel, hurt Greek πάθος (pathos) pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass- suffer, feel, endure, permit Latin pati, passus passive, patience
patr- father Greek πατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria) patriarch
patr- father Latin pater, patris patrilocal
pauc- few Latin paucus paucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pav- Latin pavire pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pecun- money Latin pecunia pecuniary
ped- child Greek παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) pedagogy
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis pedal, quadruped
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pell-, puls- drive Latin pellere, pulsus propellent, propulsor, repellent
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens- hang Latin pendere suspend
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna pennate, pinnate
pent- five Greek πέντε (pente) pentagon, pentode, pentagrid
pentecost- fiftieth Greek πεντηκοστός (pentēkostos) pentecostalism
pept- to digest Greek πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) peptic, peptide
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfection, permeate, persistence, pervade
peran- across, beyond Greek πέραν (peran) Perates
peri- around Greek περί (peri) perigee, perihelion, perimeter, peripheral, periscope
persic- peach Greek περσικός (persikos)
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- strive towards Latin petere appetite, competition
petr- rock Greek πέτρα (petra) petroglyph
phae- dark Greek φαιός (phaios) phaeomelanin, pheochrome
phag- eat Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) phagocyte, sarcophagus
phalang- close formation of troops, finger bones Greek φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalanges
phalar- having a patch of white Greek φάλαρος (phalāros)[1] phalarope
pharmac- drug, medicine Greek φάρμακον (pharmakon) pharmacy
phaner- visible Greek φανερός (phaneros) phanerozoic
pher- bear, carry Greek φέρω (pherō) pheromone
phil-, -phile love, friendship Greek φιλέω (phileō, philia) hydrophile, philosophy
phleg- heat Greek φλέγω (phlegō) phlegm, phlegmatic
phloe- tree bark Greek φλοιός (phloios) phlobaphene, phloem
phob- fear Greek φόβος (phobos) hydrophobia
phon- sound Greek φωνή (phōnē) homophone, microphone, phonograph
phor- carry, bear Greek φόρος (phoros) metaphor
phos-, phot- light Greek φῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos) phosphor, photograph
phragm- fence Greek φράγμα (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind Greek φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) phrenetic, schizophrenia
phryn- toad, toad-like Greek φρύνη (phrunē) Phrynobatrachus
phyl- tribe Greek φύλον (phulon) phylogenetics, phylum
phyll- leaf Greek φύλλον (phullon) chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
physi- nature Greek φύσις (phusis) physics
physalid- bladder Greek φυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is) physalis
phyt- plant Greek φυτόν (phuton) neophyte, phytoplankton
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis
pil- hair Latin pilus depilatory, epilator
pin- drink Greek πίνειν (pinein) pinocytosis
pin- pine Latin pinus pineal gland
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere, pictus depiction, picture
pingu- fat Latin pinguis Pinguicula
pir- pear Latin pirus piriformis muscle
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces, piscivore
pis- pea Greek πίσος (pisos)
plac- plate, tablet Greek πλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus placate, placid
plac-, -plic- please Latin placēre, placitus placebo
plagi- oblique Greek πλάγιος (plagios) plagiocephaly, plagioclase
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct- Latin plangere, planctus plangent
plas- mould Greek πλάθω (plathō) plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek πλατύς (platus) platypus
plaud-, -plod-, plaus-, -plos- approve, clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complement, suppletion
pleb- people Latin plebs, plebis plebeian, plebs
plec- interwoven Greek πλέκω (plekō) plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex
plen- full Latin plenus plenary
plesi- near Greek πλησίος (plēsios) plesiosaur
pleth- full Greek πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek πλευρά (pleura) pleuritis
plic- fold Latin plicare, plicatus duplication, replicate
plinth- brick Greek πλίνθος (plinthos) Plinthograptis
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin pluere
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate
plumb- lead Latin plumbum plumber
plur- more Latin plus, pluris plural, surplus
plurim- most Latin plurimus plurimal
plut- wealth Greek πλοῦτος (ploutos) plutocracy
pluvi- rain Latin pluvia pluvial
pneu- air, breath, lung Greek pnein, πνεῦμα (pneuma) apnoea, pneumatic
pod- foot Greek πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
pogon- beard Greek πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
poie- make Greek ποιέω (poieō) poiesis
pol- pole Greek πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
pole-, poli- city Greek πόλις (polis) metropolis, politics
polem- war Greek πόλεμος (polemos) polemic
poli- grey Greek πολιός (polios) poliomyelitis
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis pollicate
pollin- fine flour Latin pollen, pollinis pollination
poly- many Greek πολύς (polus) polygon
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere, positus component, position, postpone
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis preponderance
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon
popul- people Latin populus, populare population
por- passage Greek πόρος (poros) pore, porosity
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porn- prostitute Greek πόρνη (pornē) pornography
porphyr- purple Greek πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
port- gate Latin porta portal
port- carry Latin portare, portatus export, portable, transportation
post- after, behind Latin post posterior, postscript
pot- drink Latin potus, potare potable
potam- river Greek ποταμός (potamos) hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin- leek-green Greek πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin prex, precis, precāri deprecation
pred- prey Latin praeda, praedari predator
prehend-, prend-, prehens- grasp Latin prehendere, prehensus comprehend, prehensility
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere, pressus pressure
presby- old Greek πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission
preti- price Latin pretium, pretiare
prim- first Latin primus primary, primeval, primitive
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privus, privare, privatus deprivation, privilege
pro- before, in front of Greek πρό (pro) prologue, prostate
pro- for, forward Latin pro procrastinate, propulsion
prob- worthy, good Latin probus, probare probation
proct- anus Greek πρωκτός (prōktos) proctology
propri- one's own, ownership Latin proprius, proprietas appropriate, property, propriety
pros- forward Greek πρός (pros) prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot- first Greek πρῶτος (prōtos) protoplasm
proxim- nearest Latin proximus, proximare approximate, proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamm- sand Greek ψάμμος (psammos) psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud- false Greek ψευδής (pseudēs) pseudonym
psil- bare Greek ψιλός (psilos) epsilon, psilocybin
psych- mind Greek ψυχή (psuchē) psyche, psychology
psychr- cold Greek ψυχρός (psuchros) psychrometer
pter- wing, fern Greek πτερόν (pteron) helicopter, pterodactyl
pto- fall Greek πτῶσις (ptōsis) ptosis
pty- saliva Greek πτύον (ptuon) ptyalin
ptych- fold, layer Greek πτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
pub- sexually mature Latin pubes pubescent, pubic
public- Latin publicus publication
pude- shame Latin pudere impudent, pudendum
pugn- fight Latin pugna, pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere, punctus puncture, pungent
puni- punish Latin punire, punitus impunity, punitive
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, puppet
pur- pure Latin purus impurity, purify
purg- cleanse Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur- purple Latin purpura purpurate, purpureal
put- prune, reckon Latin putāre compute, putative
pyg- rump Greek πυγή (pugē) callipygian, pygostyle
pyl- gate Greek πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn, pulōnos) pylon
pyr- heat, fire Greek πῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion, quadrilateral, quadruped
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenarian, quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary, quarter, quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi quasar
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere quassation
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- rest Latin quies quiet, requiem
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quotiens quota, quotient


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion, erasure
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiance, radiation
radic- root Latin rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin rāmus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- turnip Latin rapum rapeseed
raph- seam Greek ῤαφή (rhaphē) raphe, raphae
rar- rare Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight Latin regere, rectus direct, dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd- rod Greek ῥάβδος (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach- spine Greek ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
rhag- tear, rent Greek ῥαγίζω rhagades
rhe- flow Greek ῥεῖν (rhein) rheostat
rhig- chill Greek ῥῖγος (rhigos) rhigosaurus
rhin- nose, snout Greek ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos) rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek ῥίζα (rhiza) rhizome
rhod- rose Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) rhododendron
rhomb- spinning top Greek ῥόμβος (rhombos) rhombus
rhynch- snout Greek ῥύγχος Rhynchobatus
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere, risus derision, ridicule
robor- oak, strength Latin robur, roboris corroboration
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare derogatory, interrogation
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr- red Latin ruber rubric, ruby
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus eruption, interrupt, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
sacchar- sugar Greek σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
sacr-, secr- sacred Latin sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament
sagac- wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire, saltus resilient, salient, saltus
salic- willow Latin salix, salicis salicin
salv- save Latin salvus, salvare salvation
san- healthy Latin sanus insane, sanity
sanc- holy Latin sancire, sanctus sanctify, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis consanguinity, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- taste, wise Latin sapere insipience, sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponification
sarc- flesh Greek σάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
saur- lizard, reptile Greek σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
sax- rock Latin saxum saxatile, saxicavous, saxicoline, saxifrage, saxifragous
scab- scratch Latin scabere scabies
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scalar, scale
scalen- uneven Greek σκαληνός (skalēnos) scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend, descend, transcendent
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek σκάφη, σκάφος scaphoid bone
scel- leg, thigh Greek σκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos) isosceles
schem- plan Greek σχῆμα (schēma) schematic
schis- split Greek σχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma) schism
sci- know Latin scire prescient, science
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere rescind, scissors
scler- hard Greek σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli- crooked Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek σκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos) horoscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere, scriptus inscribe, scripture
sculp- carve Latin sculpere, sculptus sculpture
scut- shield Latin scutum scute
scyph- cup Greek σκύφος (skyphos) Scyphozoa
se-, sed- apart Latin se secede, sedition
seb- tallow Latin sebum sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- settle, calm Latin sedare, sedatus sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere, sessus reside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
seget- in cornfields Latin segetum
sei- shake Greek σείω, σεισμός (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek σελήνη (selēnē) Selene, selenium
sell- saddle, seat Latin sella sella turcica
sema- sign Greek σῆμα (sēma) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis semifinal
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senility
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus consensus, sentient
sept- fence, partition, enclosure Latin saeptum transept
sept- seven Latin septem septennial
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus septimal, septime
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere, secutus consecutive, sequence
ser-, sat- cultivate Latin serere, satus sative
ser- body fluid Latin serum serous
ser- late Latin serus serein, serotine
serp- crawl, creep Latin serpere, serptus serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- save, protect, serve Latin servare conservation
sesqui- one and a half Latin sesqui sesquicentennial
set- bristle, hair Latin saeta seta, setose
sever- stern, strict, serious Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccation
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- sign Latin signum design, designate, signal
sil- quiet or still Latin silere silence
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil- likeness, trust, group Latin similis assimilate, similarity
simul- imitating, feigning Latin simulare simulation
singul- one each Latin singulus singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay Latin sinus sinusoidal
siph- tube Greek σίφων (siphōn) siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere consist, persistence
sit- food, grain, wheat Greek σῖτος (sitos) sitology
soci- group Latin socius, sociare associate, social
sol- sun Latin sol, solis solar
sol- comfort, soothe Latin solari consolation, solace
sol- alone, only Latin solus desolate, sole, solo, solipsism
solen- pipe, channel Greek σωλήν (sōlēn) solenoid
solv-, solut- loosen, set free Latin solvere, solutus dissolve, solution
soma- body Greek σῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia
somni- dream Latin somnium somnial
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- wise Greek σοφός (sophos) sophist, sophomore
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- observe Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation, esperance
sperm- seed Greek σπέρμα (sperma) angiosperm
sphen- wedge Greek σφήν (sphēn) sphenoid
spher- ball Greek σφαῖρα (sphaira) sphere, spheroid
sphinct- closing Greek σφίγγα sphincter
spic- spike Latin spica spicule
spin- thorn Latin spina spine
spir- breathe Latin spirare respiration
spond-, spons- a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnly Latin spondere, sponsus respond
spondyl- vertebra Greek σπόνδυλος (spondylos) spondylosis
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- scaly, dirty, filthy Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale Latin squama squamous
squarros- spreading at tips Latin squarrosus squarrose
st- stand Latin stare, status stable, station, statistic, statue, status
stagn- pool of standing water Latin stagnare stagnant
stalact- Greek σταλακτίτης (stalaktitēs) stalactite
stalagm- Greek σταλαγμός (stalagmos) stalagmite
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
stasi- standing, discord Greek στάσις (stasis) static
statu-, -stitu- stand Latin statuere institution, statute
stear- fat, tallow Greek στέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos) stearic acid
steg- covering Greek στέγη (stege), στεγανός (steganos) steganography, Stegosaurus
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
sten- narrow Greek στενός (stenos) stenography
stere- solid Greek στερεός (stereos) stereometry
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone Greek στέρνον (sternon) sternum
stich- line, row Greek στίχος (stichos) distich
stigmat- mark, puncture Greek στίγμα (stigma) stigma
still- drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation
stimul- goad, rouse, excite Latin stimulus stimulate
stingu-, stinct- apart Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek στόχος (stochos) stochastic
stom- mouth Greek στόμα (stoma) stomatoplasty
strept- twisted Greek στρεπτός (streptos) Streptococcus
strig- compress Latin strix, strigis strigogyps
strigos- having stiff bristles Latin strigosus from striga strigose
string-, strict- upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus stringent
stroph- turning Greek στροφή (strophē) apostrophe
stru-, struct- to make up, build Latin struere, structus construction, construe
stud- dedication Latin studere student
stup- wonder Latin stupere stupor
styl- column, pillar Greek στῦλος (stulos) Stylites
su-, sut- sew Latin suere, sutus suture
suad-, suas- urge Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis suave
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus- below Latin sub submarine, submerge, suffix, suggest, support
subter- under Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar Latin succarum sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare exude, sudoriferous
sui- self Latin sui sui generis, suicide
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus sulcus
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere, sumptus assumption, consume
super- above, over Latin super supersede
supin- lying back Latin supinus supination, supine
supra- above, over Latin supra supranationalism
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek σύν (sun) symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring- pipe Greek σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos) syringe


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, tacit
tach- swift Greek ταχύς (tachus) tachometer, tachycardia
taeni- ribbon Greek ταινία (tainia) taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal- ankle Latin talus talus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere, tactus contact, tactile, tangent
tapet- carpet Latin tapete, tapetis tapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardigrade, tardy
tars- ankle Greek ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket) tarsal
taur- bull Greek ταῦρος (tauros) Minotaur
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tax- arrangement, order Greek τάξις (taxis) taxonomy
techn- art, skill Greek τέχνη (technē) technology
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere, tectus integument, protection
tele- far, end Greek τῆλε (tēle) telegram, telephone, telescope
tele- complete Greek τέλος (telos) teleology
temn- cut Greek τέμνω (temnō) Temnospondyli
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis contemporary, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold Latin tenere, tentus continent, detention, tenacious, tenor
tend-, tens- stretch, strain Latin tendere, tensus extend, extension, tensile
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuis attenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere tepid, tepor
ter-, trit- rub Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret- rounded Latin teres, teretis subterete, teretial
terg-, ters- wipe Latin tergere, tersus detergent, terse
termin- boundary, limit, end Latin terminus determine, terminal, termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary, ternion
terr- earth Latin terra subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain
terti- third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary
test- witness Latin testis testament, testimony
tetr- four Greek τέσσαρες (tessares) tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text- weave Latin texere, textus context, subtle, textile, texture
thalam- chamber, bed Greek θάλαμος (thalamos) hypothalamus
thalass- sea Greek θάλασσα (thalassa) Panthalassa, thalassemia
than- death Greek θάνατος (thanatos) euthanasia, thanatology
the-, thus- god Greek θεός (theos) enthusiasm, theology
the- put Greek τίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē) Bibliotheca, theca, theme, thesis
thel- nipple Greek θηλή (thēlē) epithelium, thelium, thelial
theori- speculation Greek θεωρία (theōria) theorem, theory
ther- beast, animal Greek θήρ, θηρός (thēr) theroid, theropod
therm- heat, warm Greek θερμός (thermos) endotherm, thermometer
thym- mood Greek θυμός (thumos) dysthymia
thyr- door Greek θύρα (thura) thyratron
thyre- large shield Greek θυρεός (thureos) Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid, timorous
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture
tom- cut Greek τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) atom, ectomy, tome
ton- stretch Greek τόνος (tonos) isotonic, monotone, tone
top- place Greek τόπος (topos) topic, topography, toponymy
torn-, tourn- turn or rotate Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tornos) tornado, tournament
torpe- be numb Latin torpere torpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus subtotal, total, totality
tox- arrow, bow Greek τόξον (toxon) toxic, toxoplasmosis
trab- beam Latin trabs, trabis trabeculae
trachy- rough Greek τραχύς (trachus) trachea
trag- goat Greek τράγος (tragos) tragus
trah-, tract- draw, pull Latin trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez- four-sided, table Greek τράπεζα (trapeza) trapezius, trapezoid
traum- wound Greek τραῦμα (trauma) trauma, traumatic, traumatize
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial, trecentillion
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim tredecimal
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka) triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole Greek τρῆμα (trēma) monotreme, trematode
tri- three Greek τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri- three Latin trēs triangle, triumvirate, trivia
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin- three each Latin trini trinary, trine, trinity
trit- third Greek τρίτος (tritos) tritagonist
tritic- wheat Latin triticum triticale
troch- wheel Greek τροχός (trochos) trochlea
trop- turning Greek τρόπος (tropos) heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek τροφή, τροφός (trophos) dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek τύμπανον (tumpanon) tympani
typ- stamp, model Greek τύπος (tupos) archetype, phenotype, typography


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
uber- fruitful Latin uber, uberare exuberant
uligin- in marshes Latin uligo, uliginis uliginous
ulo- wooly Greek οὖλος (oulos) Ulotrichi
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate, ultimatum
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra penumbra, umbrella
un- one Latin unus, unius unary, unicorn, union
unc- hooked Latin uncus uncinate, Uncinia
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial
und- wave Latin unda abundant, redundancy, undulate
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin undeni undenary
ungui- claw, nail Latin unguis unguiform
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate
ur- tail Greek οὐρά (oura) uroid, uroborus
ur- urine Greek οὖρον (ouron) urology
urb- city Latin urbs, urbis suburbanite, urban, urbanism, urbanize
urg- work Latin urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine, Ursus
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus usual, utility
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
vac- empty Latin vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum
vacc- cow Latin vacca vaccary, vaccination, vaccine
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vagabond, vague
van- empty, vain, idle Latin vanus evanescent, vanity
vap- lack (of) Latin vapor evaporation, vapid, vaporize
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere, vectus vehicle, vector
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena intravenous, venosity, venule
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, convention
vend- sell Latin vendere vendor, vending
vener- respectful Latin venus, veneris venerable, veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation, ventilator
ventr- belly Latin venter, ventris ventral
ver- true Latin verus aver, veracious, verify, verisimilitude, verity
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform, vermin
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vert-, vers- turn Latin vertere, versus convert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera vesperal
vest- clothing, garment Latin vestis divest, vest
vestig- track Latin vestigium investigate, vestigial
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obvious, via
vic- change Latin vicis vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty each Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vicesimus vicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre, visus video, vision
vil- cheap Latin vilis revile, vile, vilify
vill- country house Latin villa villa, village, villain
vill- shaggy hair Latin villus velour, velvet, villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vine, vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere, victus invincible, victory
vir- man Latin vir triumvirate, virility
vir- green Latin virere virid, viridian
visc- thick Latin viscum viscosity
viscer- internal organ Latin viscus, visceris eviscerate, visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital, vitamin
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus vitellogenesis
viti- fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous, vitriol
viv- live Latin vivere revive, survive, vivid
voc- voice Latin vox, vocis provocative, vocal, vocation
vol- fly Latin volare volatility
vol- wish Latin velle volition
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, revolve
vom- discharge Latin vomere vomit
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax devour, voracious
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus votive
vulg- crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpēs, vulpis vulpine


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
xanth- yellow Greek ξανθός (xanthos) xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen- foreign Greek ξένος (xenos) xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer- dry Greek ξηρός (xēros) xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph- sword Greek ξίφος (xiphos) xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl- wood Greek ξύλον (xulon) xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
zel- zeal, jealousy Greek ζῆλος (zēlos) jealousy, zeal
zo- animal, living being Greek ζῷον (zōion) protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon- belt, girdle Greek ζώνη (zōnē) zonal, zone
zyg- yoke Greek ζυγός (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment Greek ζύμη (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme

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