List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.

Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.

A[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ab-, a-, abs-, au- away from Latin ab abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, auference, aversion
acer-, acri- bitter, sharp, sour Latin acer (acris), acerbus, acere acerbic, acrid, acrimony, exacerbate
acet- sour, vinegar Latin acetum acetate, acetic, acetone, acetum
acid- acidic, sour Latin acidus acidiferous, acidifiant, acidity, acidosis, acidulation
acr-, acro- height, summit, tip Greek ἄκρος (akros) "high", "extreme" acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia, acropolis
acu-, acut- sharp, pointed Latin acutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" accurate, acerose, acupuncture, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" accept, adapt, affect, agglomerate, aggrandize, aggregate, aggression, annectent, approximate, ascend
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipocellular, adipose
aer-, aeri-, aero-, aeror- air, atmosphere Greek ἀήρ (aēr) "air" aerie, aeriferous, aerobic, aerodynamic, aeronautics, aeroplane, aerorrhachia, aerosol, aerotitis
aesthet- feeling, sensation Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthētikos) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) "to perceive" aesthetics, anaesthetic
aether-, ether- upper pure, bright air Latin aether ether, ethereal
aev-, ev- age Latin aevum age, coeval, eon, eternal, longevity, medieval, primeval
ag-, -ig-, act- do, go, move Latin agere, actus act, action, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambiguous, castigate, cogent, cogitate, cogitation, excogitate, mitigate, navigate
ag-, -agogue lead Greek ἄγειν (agein) (cognate with Latin agere) agony, antagonist, antagonize, demagogue, pedagogue, pedagogy, stragegy, synagogue
agri-, -egri- field Latin ager, agris "field, country" agriculture, peregrine
agro- field Greek ἀγρός (agros) "field" agroforestry, agronomy
alac- cheerful Latin alacer alacrity, allegro
alb- dull white Latin albus albedo, albino, albumen
alg- pain Greek algos analgesic, arthralgia, neuralgia
ali-, alter- other Latin alius alias, alibi, alien, alter, alternate, altruism
alt-, alti- high, deep Latin altus, altitudo altimeter, altitude
am-, amat-, amor- love, liking Latin amāre, amatus, amor amateur, amatory, amenity, amoration, amorous, enamoured
ami-, amic-, imic- friend Latin amicus amiable, amicable, amity, enemy, enmity, inimical
ambi-, am-, amb-, ambo-, an- both, on both sides Latin ambi ambidexterity, ambient, ambiguous, ambivalent, amboceptor, amputation, ancipital
ambul-, ambl- to walk Latin ambulare ambulance, ambulatory, preamble
amph-, amphi- both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek ἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides" amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism
ampl- ample, abundant, bountiful, large Latin amplus ample, amplify, amplitude
an-, a-, am-, ar- not, without Greek Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not" anaerobic, anhydrous, ambrosia, arrhythmia, atheism, atypical
ana-, am-, an-, anar- again, against, back, up Greek ἀνά (ana) anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anarrhexis, anion, anode
andr- male, masculine Greek ἀνήρ (anér) androgen, android, polyandrous, polyandry
anem-, anemo- wind Greek ἄνεμος (anemos) anemometer
anim- breath, life, spirit Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" anniversary, annual, centennial, millennium, perennial
ant-, anti-, antir- against, opposed to, preventive Greek ἀντί (anti) "against" antagonist, antagonize, antibiotic, antipodes, antirrhinum
ante-, anti- before, in front of, prior to; old Latin ante "before", "against"; see also antiquus "old" antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian, antiquated, antique, antiquity
anth-, antho- flower Greek ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" anther, anthology
anthra-, anthrac- coal Greek ἄνθραξ (anthraks) anthracycline, anthracite, anthrax,
anthrop-, anthropo- human Greek ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man" anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope, philanthropy
ap-, apo-, apor- away from, separate, at the farthest point Greek ἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-, quite" aphelion, apocrine, apocryphal, apogee, apostasy, apostate, aporrhinosis
aper- open Latin aperire aperture, overt, overture
aqu-, aqua-, aque-, aqui- water Latin aqua aquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer
ara- plow, till Latin ărāre arable
arcan- box Latin arcanus arcane, arcanum
arch-, arche-, archi- ruler Greek ἀρχή (archē) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) anarchy, archangel, archetype, architect, autarchy, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, oligarchy
archae-, arche- ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος (arkhaios) "ancient" from arkhē "beginning" archaeology, archaic, archaism
arct- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold Greek ἄρκτος (arktos) "bear" Arctic Ocean
ard- heat, glow, passion Latin ardere "to burn" ardent, ardor, arson
ardu- difficult Latin arduus "high, steep" arduous
argent- silver Latin argentum argent, Argentina
areta- virtue Greek ἀρετή (aretē) aretaic
arid- be dry Latin ārēre "be dry or parched" arid
arist- excellence Greek ἄριστος (aristos) aristocracy
art- art Latin ars, artis artist, artillery, artisan, inert, inertia
arthr- joint Greek ἄρθρον (arthron) arthritis, arthropod
aster-, astr- star, star-shaped Greek ἄστρον (astron) "star" aster, asterisk, asteroid, astrology, astronomy, astronaut
athl- prize Greek ἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat" athlete, triathlon, pentathlon
-athroid- gathered or lumped together Greek αθροίζω (athroidzo) "I gather together" hypoathroid, epiathroid
audi- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" audible, audio, audiology, audition, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augēre, auctus "to increase" auction, augend, augment, augmentation, augur, augury, august, author, auxiliary, inauguration
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureate, aureole
auri-, aus- relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" auricle, aurinasal, auscultate, auscultation
aut-, auto-, autor- self; directed from within Greek αὐτός (autos) "self", "same" autarchy, autocracy, autograph, automatic, automobile, autonomy
avi-, au- bird Latin avis auspicious, avian, aviary, aviation,
axi- axis Latin axis axis, axisymmetry
axi(o)- merit Greek ἄξιος (axios) "worth" axiology, axiom

B[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
bac- rod-shaped Latin baculum baculiform, baculum
bal-, bol- throw Greek ballein ball, ballista, ballistic, devil, diabolic, hyperbole, metabolism, parable, problem, symbol
bar- weight, pressure Greek βάρος (baros) barograph, barometer, barostat
basi-, bas-, basio-, basir-, baso- at the bottom Greek βάσις (basis) "step", from βαίνω (bainō), "I walk, march" base, basic, basis, basicranial, basioglossal, basirrhinal, basommatophoric, basolateral, debase
bathy-, batho- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús, bathýs) batholith, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell-, belli- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent, rebellion
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, benignant, benignity
bi-, bin-, bis- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" bicycle, biennial, bifocal, bigamy, binary, binoculars, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus bib, beer, beverage, imbibe
bibl- book Greek βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bible, bibliography
bio-, bi- life Greek βίος (bíos) "life" biodiversity, biography, biohazard, biology, biome, biometric, biosphere
blenn-, blenno-, blennor- slime Greek βλέννος (blennos) blennadenitis, blennophobia, blennosperma, blennorrhagia
blast-, blasto- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put forth shoots" blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast, blastocardia, blastochyle
bon- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bore- north Latin from Greek borealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind" borealis
botan-, botano- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon) botanic, botanist, botanology, botany
bov-, bu- cow, ox Latin bos, bovis bovine, bucinator muscle
brachi-, brachio- arm Latin bracchium brachiferous, brachial artery, brachiocubital
brachi-, brachio-, brachion-, brachioni-, brachior- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) brachialgia, brachionerysipelas, brachionigraph, brachiorrhachidian, brachiosaurus
brachy- short Greek βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs) brachycephaly, brachydactyly
brady-, bradys- slow Greek βραδύς (bradús, bradýs) bradycardia, bradysuria
branchi- gill Greek βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion) branchiopod, nudibranch
brev-, brevi- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviate, brevextensor, brevicaudate, brevity, brief
bromat-, bromato-, broma-, bromo- food Greek βρῶμα (brōma) bromatium, bromateccrisis, bromatherapy, bromatology, bromography
brom- oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats" brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom- stench Greek βρῶμος (brōmos) "stench, clangor" bromate, bromide, bromine
bronch- windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos) bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus
bront-, bronto- thunder Greek βροντή (brontē) Brontosaurus, brontology, brontophobia
bucc-, bucci-, bucco- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccilingual, buccolingual
bulb-, bulbi-, bulbo-, bulbor- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbiparous, bulbiform, bulboartrial, bulborrhexis, bulbous, bulbule
bull-, bulli- bubble, flask Latin bullire, bulla bullectomy, ebullient, ebullism, bulliferous
burs-, bursa-, bursi-, burso- pouch, purse Latin bursa bursa, bursalogy, bursar, bursary, bursectomy, bursiform, disburse, bursopathy

C[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
cac-, caco-, kako-, kaki- bad Greek κακός (kakos) cachexia, cacography, cacophony, cacorrhacitis, kakistocracy
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accident, cadaver, cadence, cascade, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut, kill Latin caedere, caesus caesura, democide, exorcise, genocide, germicide, homicide, incisor, scissors
cal- call Latin calare calendar, claim, class, conciliate, conciliatory, council, intercalate, nomenclature
calc- stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "lime", from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble", "limestone" calcite, calcitrant, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere, chalk, recalcitrant
cali-, call-, calli-, calo- beautiful Greek καλός (kalos) "beautiful"; κάλλος (kallos) "beauty" calisthenics, calligraphy, calophyllous, kaleidoscope
calor-, calo-, calori- heat Latin calor "heat" caldron, caloric, calorie, calorigenic, calorimeter
calum- trick, lie, deceive Latin calumnia "slander, trickery", from calvi' "to trick, deceive" calumnious, calumny, cavil, challenge
calyp- cover Greek καλύπτειν (kaluptein) apocalypse
camer- vault Latin camera bicameral, camera
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" camp, campaign, campicolous, campimetry, campus, champion
can- dog Latin canis canine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant- sing Latin cantare frequentative of canere accent, cantata, canto, cantor, chant, enchant, recant
cand-, cend- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds) capable, captive, caption, captivate, capture, conception, except, forceps, incipient, intercept, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis capital, capitulate, capitulation, captain, decapitate, precipitation, recap, recapitulate
capr- goat Latin caper, capri caprice, Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbo- coal Latin carbo, carbonis carbohydrate, carbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare incarceration
carcin- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab" carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi- relating to the heart Greek καρδιά (kardia) cardiograph, cardiology, electrocardiogram
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal
carn-, carni- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnage, carnal, carnival, carnivore, charnel, incarnadine, incarnate, reincarnation
carp- fruit Greek καρπός (karpos) "fruit" carpology
carp- wrist Greek καρπός (karpos) "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast- pure, cut Latin castrare and castus, from kes- (to cut) caste, castigate, castrate, chaste, chastity, incest
cata-, cat-, catar- down Greek κατά (katá) "down" catabolic, catacomb, catalyst, catarrhine, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten- chain Latin catena catenary, concatenation
cathar- pure Greek καθαρός (katharos) catharsis
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal, coda
caus-, -cus- cause or motive Latin causa accuse, because, causal, causative, cause, excuse
caust-, caut- burn Greek καίειν (kaiein) calm, caustic, cauterize, holocaust
cav- hollow Latin cavus cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- move, yield, go, surrender Latin cedere, cessus accede, cede, concede, precede, procedure, proceed, procession, recede, secede, succeed, success
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen- new Greek καινός (kainos) Cenozoic
cen- empty Greek κενός (kenos) cenotaph
cen- common Greek κοινός (koinos) cenobite
cens- to assess Latin censere censure, census
cent- hundred Latin centum cent, centennial, centurion, percent
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenarian, centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
centri- center Latin centrum central, center, concentrate, concentric, centrifugal, centripetal
cephal- head Greek κεφαλή (kephalē) cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας (keras), κέρατος (keratos) keratin, triceratops
cern-, cer- sift Latin cernere ascertain, certain, concern, discern, secern
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chir- of the hand or hands Greek χείρ (kheir) "hand" chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise" chelonia
chlor- green Greek χλωρός (khlōros) chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore- relating to dance Greek χορεία (khoreia) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khoros) "chorus" choreography, chorus
chord- cord Latin and Greek chorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē) chordata, cord
chrom- color Greek χρῶμα (chrōma) chromatic, chrome, chromium, chromosome, monochrome, polychrome
chron- time Greek χρόνος (chronos) anachronism, chronic, chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize
chrys- gold Greek χρυσός (khrusos) chrysalis, chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia, supercilious
cine- motion Greek κινέω (kineō) cinema
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle, ring Latin circulus, circus circle, circular, circulate, circus
circum- around Latin circum circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe
cirr- orange Greek κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
cit- call, start Latin citare, frequentative of ciere citation, cite, excite, incite, solicit, solicitous
civ- citizen Latin civis civic, civil, civilian, civility, civilization
clad- branch Greek κλάδος (klados) clade
clam- cry out Latin clamare acclaim, claim, clamor, exclamation, proclamation, reclamation
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, clear, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close, shut Latin claudere, clausus clause, claustrophobia, conclude, exclude, exclusive, include, occlusion, occult, recluse, seclude
clav- key Greek κλείς (kleis) "key" from κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close" clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist- closed Greek κλειστός (kleistos) cleistogamy
cleithr- bar, key Greek cleithrum
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed Greek κλίνη (klinē) clinic
clin- lean, recline Latin -clinare decline, declination, incline, inclination, recline
cochl- snail, spiral shell Greek κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
cogn- know Latin cognoscere (see also gnoscere) cognition, cognitive, cognizance, cognizant, cognoscenti, connoisseur, incognito, recognize,
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos) blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander, coulee, percolate
coll- hill Latin collis colliculus
coll- neck Latin collum accolade, collar
color- color Latin color coloration, coloratura, tricolor
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- with, together Latin cum coagulate, collide, compress, connect, contain, corrode
con- cone Greek κῶνος (kōnos) conic, conical, conoid
condi- season Latin condire condiment
contin- contain Latin continere (see also tenere) contain, content, contents, continence, continent, continue, countenance
contra- against Latin contra contraband, contraception, contradict, contraindicate, contrast, contravene
copi- plenty Latin copia copious, copy, cornucopia
copr- dung Greek κόπρος (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
copul- bond Latin copula "that which binds" copula, copulation, couple
cor-, cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial, core, concord, courage, discord, discordant, encourage, record
corac- raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
cori- hide, leather Latin corium, corii excoriate
corn- horn Latin cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corp-, corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corporal, corporeal, corpse, corpulent, corpuscle, incorporate
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis cortical, corticosteriod
cosm- universe Greek κόσμος (kosmos) cosmic, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmos, microcosm
cosmet- the art of dress and ornament Greek κοσμητική (kosmetike) from κόσμος (kosmos) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
-cracy, -crat government, rule, authority Greek κράτος (kratos) aristocracy, autocracy, bureaucracy, democracy, plutocracy, technocracy, theocracy
crani- skull Greek κρανίον (kranion) cranium
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
crea- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature, creole, procreation, recreation
cred- believe, trust Latin credere, creditus accreditation, credence, credentials, credibility, credible, credit, creditor, credo, credulity, credulous, creed, discredit, incredible, incredulous, miscreant, recreant
crep- boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos) crepidoma
cresc-, crease, cru-, crew- grow, rise Latin crescere accretion, accrue, concrete, crescendo, crescent, crew, decrease, increase, recruit
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribrate
cric- ring Greek κρίκος (krikos) cricoid
crisp- curled Latin crispus crepe, crispate
crist- crest Latin crista cristate
crit-, crisi- judge, separate Greek κρίνειν (krinein), κρίσις (krisis) crisis, criterion, critic, critical, diacritic, endocrine, hypocrisy
cross- fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossos) crossopterygii
cruc- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural
-cry wail, shriek Latin critare, from quiritare cry, decry, descry
crypt- hidden Greek κρύπτειν (kruptein) "to hide", κρυπτός (kruptos) apocryphal, cryptic, cryptography
cten- comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
cub- cube Greek κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, culprit, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
cur-, cura- care for Latin cura, curare accurate, curative, curator, cure, curious, manicure, pedicure, secure, sinecure
curr-, curs- run, course Latin currere, cursus concur, concurrent, corridor, courier, course, currency, current, cursive, cursor, cursory, discourse, excursion, incur, occur, recur, recursion, recursive
curv- bent Latin curvus curvature
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cult-, col- cultivate, till, inhabit Latin colere colony, cult, cultivate, cultivation, culture
cut- skin Latin cutis cutaneous, cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl- circular Greek κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclic, cyclone, cyclops, unicycle
cylind- roll Greek κύλινδρος (kulindros) cylinder
cyn- dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos) cynology, cynosure
cyst- capsule Greek κύστις (kustis) cystic
cyt- cell Greek κύτος (kutos) cnidocyte, cytoplasm

D[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
dactyl- digit, finger, toe Greek δάκτυλος (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn- to inflict loss upon Latin damnāre condemn, damnation, indemnify
de- from, away from, removing, down Latin deletion, dementia, descend
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek- ten Greek δέκα (deka), ten decade, decagram, decahedron, Decalogue, decameter
decim- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate
delt- shaped like a Δ Greek δέλτα (delta) deltoid
dem- people Greek δῆμος (dēmos) demagogue, democracy, demography, endemic, epidemic
den- ten each Latin deni denarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr- resembling a tree Greek δένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, (drys) "tree" dendrite, dendrochronology, rhododendron
dens- thick Latin densus condense, dense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentifrice, dentures
derm- skin Greek δέρμα (derma) Dermaptera, dermatology, dermis, epidermis, hypodermic, taxidermy
deuter- second Greek δεύτερος (deuteros) Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity, dextrose
dexi- right Greek δεξιός (deksios) Dexiarchia
di- two Greek δι- (di-) dicot, diode, dipole
dia- apart, through Greek διά (dia) diagram, dialysis, diameter
dict- say, speak, proclaim Latin dicere, dictare abdicate, benediction, malediction, contradict, dictate, dictator, dictation, diction, dictionary, dictum, edict, predict, verdict
dida- teach Greek διδάσκειν (didaskein) didactic
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dilu-, delu- flood, wash away Latin diluere antediluvian, deluge, dilution, diluvial, diluvian
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek δεινός (deinos) dinosaur
dipl- double; twofold Greek διπλός (diplos) diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor, doctrine, document, indoctrinate
dodec- twelve Greek δώδεκα (dōdeka) dodecahedron, dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, tenet Greek δόξα (doxa) "opinion", from δοκεῖν (dokein) "to appear, seem, think" dogma, dogmatic, dogmatism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox
dol- pain Latin dolere "to grieve", also dolus "grief" and dolor "pain" condolence, dol, doleful, dolorous, indolence
dom- house Latin domus dame, dome, domestic, domicile
domin- master Latin dominus "master"; (from domus "house") danger, domain, dominant, dominate, domination, domineer, dominion, domino, dungeon, predominant
don- give Latin dōnum, donare condone, donate, donation, donor, pardon
dont- tooth Greek ὀδόντος (odontos) orthodontist, periodontal
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors-, dos- back Latin dorsum dorsal, dossier, endorse
-drome run, step Latin dromos hippodrome, palindrome, syndrome
du- two Latin duo dual, duality, duo, duplex, duplicity
dub- doubtful Latin dubius doubt, dubiety, dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin ducere abduce, abduct, conduce, deduce, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, seduce
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis billet-doux, dolce, dulcet, dulcimer
dur- hard Latin durus, durare durable, duration, duress, endure, obduracy, obdurate, obduration
dy- two Greek δύο (duo) dyad
dyna- power Greek δύναμαι (dunamai) dynamic, dynamism, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ- (dus-) dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy

E[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ec- out Greek ἐκ (ek) eccentric
ecclesi- assembly, congregation Greek ἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out" Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology, economics, economy, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek ἐκτός (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible, obesity
eg- goat Greek αἴξ, αἰγός (aix) egophony
ego- self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ egocentric
electr- amber Greek ἤλεκτρον (elektron) electron, electricity
elem-, alm- pity Greek ἐλεημοσύνη (eleemosyne) almoner, alms, eleemosynary
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, preempt, redeem
eme- vomit Greek ἐμεῖν, ἔμετος (emein, emetos) emesis, emetic
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulator
en-, em- in Greek ἐν (en) emphasis, enclitic, enthusiasm
encephal- brain Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos) encephalopathy
endo- inside, within Greek ἔνδον (endon) endocardial, endocrine, endocytosis, endoskeleton, endosperm
engy- narrow Greek ἐγγύς (engys) Engystomops
ennea- nine Greek ἐννέα (ennea) ennead, enneagon, enneode
ens- sword Latin ensis ensiform
eo-, eos- dawn, east Greek Ἠώς/Ἕως (ēṓs) Eocene
ep-, epi- upon Greek ἐπί (epi) ephemeral, epicenter, epidemic, epistemic, epitaph, epithet, epoch
equ-, -iqu- even, equal, level Latin aequus equal, equanimity, equate, Equator, equilibrium, equinox, equipoise, equity, equivalence, equivocal, equivocate, iniquity
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
erg- work Greek έργον (ergon) allergy, energy, erg, ergometer, ergonomics, ergophobia, liturgy, metallurgy, organ, surgeon, synergy
erot- (sexual) love Greek ἔρως, ἔρωτος (erōs, erōtos) erogenous, erotic
err- stray Latin errare aberration, err, errant, erroneous, error
erythr- red Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek ἔσω (esō) esoteric
eth- custom, habit Greek ἦθος (ēthos) ethology
ethm- sieve, sift Greek ἠθμός (ēthmos); ἤθειν (hethein) ethmoid
ethn- people, race, tribe, nation Greek ἔθνος (ethnos) ethnarch, ethnic
etym- true Greek ἔτυμος (etumos) etymology
eu- well, good Greek εὖ (eu) euphoria, euthanasia
eur- wide Greek εὐρύς (eurus) Europe, eurypterid
ex-, e-, ef- from, out Latin ex exclude, exist, exit, extend, extrude
exo- outside Greek ἔξω (eksō) exoskeleton, exothermic
extra- outer Latin extra, extraneus and exterus estrange, exterior, extra, extraordinary, strange
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extreme, extremity, extremophile

F[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, fact-, -fect-, -feat, -feit, -fic-, -ify do, make Latin facere, factus affair, affect, affectation, amplify, artifact, artifice, benefactor, benefice, benefit, confection, counterfeit, defeat, defect, disaffect, edifice, effect, face, facile, facsimile, fact, faction, factitious, factor, factory, fake, fashion, feasible, feat, feature, fiat, forfeit, infect, laissez-faire, manufacture, modify, office, perfect, proficient, prolific, refectory, sacrifice, scientific, suffice, surfeit, traffic
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis defalcation, falcate, falciform, falchion, falcon
fall-, fallac-, fals- false, deceive Latin fallere, falsus, fallax, fallacis default, fail, fallacious, fallacy, fallible, false, falsetto, falsify, falsity, fault
famili- a close attendant Latin famulus familiarity, family
fari-, fat- say, speak Latin fari, see also fateri affable, bifarious, confess, fable, fame, fascinate, fate, infant, nefarious, preface, profess
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fasciculation, fascism
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact Latin foederare, from foedus (genitive foederis); see also fides "faith" confederacy, confederation, federal, federate, federation
fel- cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur (genitive femoris) femoral, femur
fend-, fens- strike Latin fendere, -fensus defend, fend, offend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra defenestration
fer- to bear, carry Latin ferre aquifer, circumference, confer, conifer, defer, differ, ferry, fertile, infer, Lucifer, offer, prefer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferous
ferv- boil, glow Latin fervere ferment, fervent, fervid, fervor, perfervid
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin ficus Ficus, fig
fict-, fig- to form, shape Latin fingere "to touch, handle; devise; fabricate, alter, change" dough, effigy, feign, fiction, fictitious
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fides "faith, trust", from fidere "to trust" confidante, confidence, confident, diffident, faith, fealty, fidelity, fiduciary, infidel, perfidious, perfidy
fil- thread Latin filum defile, filament, file, filigree, fillet, profile
fili- son Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin finis affinity, confine, define, final, finale, finance, fine, finish, finite, infinite, refine
find-, fiss- split Latin findere, fissus fission, fissure
firm- firm, strong Latin firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula fistula
fix- fix Latin fixare, frequentative of figere affix, fix, fixation, fixture, prefix, suffix, transfix
fl- blow Latin flare, flatus flare, flatulence, flavor, flute, inflation, insufflation
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus deflect, circumflex, flex, flexible, flexile, flexion, flexor, inflect, inflection, reflect, reflection, reflex
flig-, flict- strike Latin flīgere, flictus afflict, conflict, inflict, profligacy, profligate
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, fluv-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus affluent, confluence, effluent, fluctuate, fluctuation, fluency, fluent, fluid, fluidity, flush, fluvial, flux, influence, influx, superfluous
foc- hearth Latin focus focal, focus,
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin foenum Foeniculum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fons, fontis font, fontal, fontanelle
for- bore, drill Latin forare, foratus foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form- shape Latin forma conform, deform, form, formal, formation, formula, formulate, inform, perform, reform, uniform
form- ant Latin formica formaldehyde, formic acid
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis fort, forte, fortify, fortitude, fortress
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
fract-, frag-, frang-, -fring- break Latin frangere, fractus defray, diffract, fractal, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frangible, fray, infraction, infringe, refract, refractory, refrain
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugacious, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus diffusion, effusion, effusive, fusion, profuse, profusion, transfusion
fulm- flash Latin fulmen "lightning flash" fulminant, fulminate, fulmination
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- steal Latin fur, furare furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus fuscous, obfuscate, obfuscation

G[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
galact- milk, Arjun Greek γάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos) galactic
gamy- marriage Greek γάμος, γάμου (gamos, gamou) bigamy, endogamy, gamete, monogamy, polygamy
garg- chatter Latin garrire gargantuan, gargle, gargoyle, garrulous, jargon
gastr- stomach Greek γαστήρ (gastēr) gastric, gastritis, gastroenterology, gastrointestinal, gastronomic, gastropod
ge-, geo- earth Greek γῆ (), γεω- (geō-) apogee, Geocentrism, geode, geography, geology, geometry, Pangea, perigree
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelatin, gelid
gen- beget Latin gignere, genus (genitive generis), see also generare congenial, engender, gender, generate, generation, genial, genius, genital, genitive, gentle, genuine, genus, indigenous, ingenious, ingenuous, primogenitor, progeny
gen- birth, beget, race, kind Greek γίγνεσθαι (gignesthai), and related γένος (genos); see also γενεά (genea) allergen, antigen, biogenesis, eugenics, gene, genealogy, genesis, genetic, genocide, gonad, heterogeneous, homogeneous, hydrogen, pathogen
germ- sprout Latin germen, germinis germ, German, germane, germination
gest- bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus congest, digest, gestation
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator
glia- glue Greek γλία (glia) glial
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globe, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify
gloss-, glot- tongue Greek γλῶσσα (glóssa) epiglottis, glossary, polyglot
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination, glue, gluten
gnosc- know Latin gnoscere acquaint, cognition, cognitive, cognizance, cognizant, cognoscenti, connoisseur, ignorant, incognito, noble, note, recognize
gnost- know Greek γιγνώσκειν (gignoskein) agnostic, diagnosis, Gnostic, prognosis
gon- corner, angle Greek γωνία (gōnía) goniometer, polygon
grad-, gred-, gress- walk, step, go Latin gradi "to step", from gradus "step" aggression, egress, grade, gradual, graduate, progress, regress, transgress
gramm- writing Greek γράμμα (gramma) grammar, grammatic, telegram
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granite, granola, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous, grandiosity
graph- draw, write Greek γραφή (graphē) autograph, graph, grapheme, graphene, graphic, graphite, graphology, photograph
grat- thank, please Latin gratus, see also gratia congratulate, grace, grateful, gratify, gratitude, gratuity, gratulate, ingrate, ingratiate
grav- heavy Latin gravis aggravate, grave, gravitate, gravity
greg- flock, herd Latin grex, gregis aggregate, congregation, egregious, gregarian, gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus disgust, gusto
gutt- drop Latin gutta gutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek γυμνός (gumnos) gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
gyn- woman Greek γυνή (gunē) gynecology

H[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus habit, prohibition
hadr- thick Greek ἁδρός (hadros) hadrocodium, hadron
haem-, hem- blood Greek αἷμα (haima) haemophilia, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemorrhage, hemostat
hal- salt Greek ἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos) halite, halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, inhale, halitosis
hapl- simple, single Greek ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaustion
hedo- pleasure Greek ἡδονή (hēdonē) hedonism
heli- sun Greek ἥλιος (hēlios) heliocentric, heliograph, heliotrope, helium
hemer- day Latin hemera ephemeral
hemi- half Greek ἥμισυς (hēmisus) hemicycle, hemisphere
hen- one Greek ἕν (hen) henad, hyphen
hendec- eleven Greek ἕνδεκα (hendeka) hendecagon
hept- seven Greek ἑπτά (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, heir- heir Latin heres heir, heiress, hereditary, heredity, heritage, inherit
here-, hes- cling, stick Latin haerere, haesus adhere, adhesive, cohere, coherent, cohesive, hesitate, inherent
herald- messenger, envoy Latin heraldus herald, heraldic, heraldry
herb- grass Latin herba herbal, herbicide, herbivore
hered- heir Latin heres, heredis heredity
herp- creep Greek ἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein) herpes, herpetology
heter- different, other Greek ἕτερος (heteros) heterochromatin, heterodoxy, heterogeneity, heterogeneous, heterosexual
heur- find Greek εὑρίσκω (heuriskō) heuristic
hex- six Greek ἕξ (hex) hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hier- sacred Greek ἱερός (hieros) hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp- horse Greek ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity, hispidulous
histri- actor Latin histrio, histrionis histrionic
hod- way Greek ὁδός (hodos) cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol- whole Greek ὅλος (holos) holistic, holography
hom- same Greek ὁμός (homos) homogeneous, homophone, homonym, homosexual, homozygous
homal- even, flat Greek ὁμαλός (homalos) "even", from ὁμός (homos) "same" anomalous, anomaly
home- like Greek ὅμοιος (homoios) homeostasis
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable, honorarium
hor- boundary Greek ὅρος (horos) aphorism, horizon
hor- hour Greek ὥρα (hōra) horoscope
horm- that which excites Greek ὁρμή (hormē) hormone
hort- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospice, hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhume, exhumation, human, humane, humanity, humus, inhume
hyal- glass Greek ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr- water Greek ὕδωρ (hudōr) dehydrate, hydrant, hydrate, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr- wet Greek ὑγρός (hugros) hygrometer
hymen- skin or membrane Greek ὑμήν (humēn) hymen, Hymenoptera
hyo- U-shaped Greek ὑοειδής (huoeidēs) hyoid
hyp- under Greek ὑπό (hupo) hypothermia, hypotonic
hyper- above, over Greek ὑπέρ (huper) hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn- sleep Greek ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotize
hyster- later Greek ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis

I[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ichthy- fish Greek ἰχθύς (ichthus) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek εἴκοσι (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
id- shape Greek εἶδος (eidos) idol
ide- idea; thought Greek ιδέα (ideal) ideogram, ideology
idi- personal Greek ἴδιος (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignite, ignition
imagin- copy Latin imāgō, imāginis image, imagine
in- (1), im- in, on Latin in import, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- not, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra- below, under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra- within Latin intra intramural
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci irascible, irate
irid- rainbow Latin iris iridescent
is-, iso- equal, same Greek ἴσος (isos) isometric, isomorphic, isotonic, isotropic
iter- again Latin iterum, iterare iteration
itiner- journey Latin iter, itineris itinerary

J[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac-, -ject- cast, throw Latin jacere (also spelled iacere), iectus deject, ejaculate, eject, inject, interject, project, reject, trajectory
janu- door Latin janua janitor, January
joc- joke Latin jocus (also spelled iocus) jocose, jocular, jocularity, jocund, jocundity, joke
judic- judge Latin judex, iudicis adjudicate, judicial, judiciary
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin iungere, junctus conjunction, enjoin, injunction, juncture, join, junction
junior- younger Latin junior junior, juniority
jus-, jur- law, justice Latin ius, iuris abjure, jurisprudence, jury, just, justice, objurgate, perjury
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition

K[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek χίλιοι (chilioi) kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine- movement, motion Greek κινέω (kineō) kinesthetic, kinetic, telekinesis
klept- steal Greek κλέπτης (kleptēs) kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo- glory Greek κῦδος (kudos) kudos

L[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- work Latin labor collaboration, elaboration
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- torch Greek λαμπάς (lampas) lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis dilapidate, lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudare "to praise" laud, laudanum, laudable, laudation, summa cum laude
lav- wash Latin lavare launder, laundry, lava, lavation, lavatory, lave, lavender, lavish, lotion
lax- not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
lecith- egg yolk Greek λέκιθος (lekithos) lecithin
led-, les- hurt Latin laedere, laesus lesion
leg-, lect- read, gather Latin legere collect, diligence, election, intelligence, lectern, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson, neglect, religion, sacrilege, select
leg- law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislate, legislation, legislative, legislator, legislature, legitimate, legitimize, privilege
leg- send Latin legare (from legis) delegate, league, legacy, legato, relegate
lei- smooth Greek λεῖος (leios) leiomyoma
lekan- dish, pot Greek λεκάνη (lekanē) lekane
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek λέπειν, λεπίς, λεπίδος (lepis, lepidos) Lepidoptera
lepsi- grasp, seize Greek λῆψις (lēpsis) epilepsy
leuc-, leuk- white Greek λευκός (leukos) leucocyte
lev- lift, light, raise Latin levare "lighten, raise", from levis "light" (in weight) alleviate, elevate, elevator, leaven, lever, leverage, levitation, levity, levy, relieve
liber-, liver- free Latin liber, liberare deliver, deliverance, liberal, liberalize, liberate, liberation, libertine, liberty
libr- book Latin liber, libri librarian, library
lig- bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
limac- slug Latin limax, limacis limacoid, limacon
limpa- clear, water Latin limpa "water" limpid
line- line Latin linea line, linearity
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
lip- fat Greek λίπος (lipos) lipolysis
liq- flow Latin liquere deliquesce, liquefy, liqueur, liquid, liquor, prolix
lit- prayer, supplication Greek λιτή (lite) litany
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, literary, literature, obliterate
lith- stone Greek λίθος (lithos) lithic, lithosphere, megalith, Mesolithic, monolith, Neolithic, Paleolithic
loc- place Latin locus, locare allocate, local, locality, locate, location, locomotion, locus
log-, -logy word, reason, speech, though Greek λόγος (logos), λογία (logia) analogy, anthology, apology, biology, dialogue doxology, ecology, epilogue, etymology, eulogy, geology, ideologue, logarithm, logic, logogram, meteorology, monologue, morphological, neologism, neurology, philology, prologue, psychology, tautology, terminology, theology, toxicology, trilogy, zoology
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, circumlocution, colloquial, colloquy, elocution, eloquent, eloquence, grandiloquent, interlocution, loquacious, loquacity, magniloquent, obloquy, soliloquy
luc- bright, light Latin lux (genitive lucis), lucere elucidate, lucid, Lucifer (bearer of light), lucubrate, noctilucent, pellucid, translucent
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere, lusus allude, illusion
lumin- light Latin luminare, from lumen illumination, luminary, luminous
lu-, luv-, lut- wash Latin luere (see also diluere, fluere and pluere) ablution, alluvium, colluvium, diluvium, elute, elution, elluviation, eluvium, illuviation, illuvium, pollution
lun- moon Latin luna luna, lunar, lunatic
lysi-, lyti- dissolving Greek λύσις (lusis) analysis, analytic, cytolysis, hydrolysis, lysigeny

M[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
macer- lean Latin macer emaciate, meager
macro- long Greek μακρός (makros) macro, macroeconomics, macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimous, magnate, magnificent, magnify, magnitude, magnum
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
mal- bad, wretched Latin malus malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary gland
man- flow Latin mānāre, manatus emanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man- stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
man-, manu- hand Latin manus emancipate, manacle, manage, maneuver, manual, manufacture, manicure, manifest, manuscript
mand-, mend- order, commit Latin mandāre, mandatus command, commend, commendation, countermand, demand, mandate, mandatory, recommend, remand
mania mental illness Greek μανία (manίā) kleptomania, mania, maniac, pyromania
mar- sea Latin mare, maris marine, maritime
mascul- male, man Latin masculus, masculi emasculate, masculine
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris maternal, maternity, matriarch, matriarchate, matrimony, matrix, matron
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maximum
mechan- machine or instrument Greek μηχανή (mēkhanē) mechane, mechanics
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius, mediare median, mediate, medieval, Mediterranean, mediocre, media, medium
mega- great, large, million Greek μέγας (megas) megacycle, megaphone, megalopolis, megaton
mei- less Greek μεῖον (meiōn) meiosis
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
melior- better Latin meliorare "to improve", from melior "better" ameliorate, amelioration, meliorism
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous
memor- remember Latin memor commemorate, memoir, memorable, memorial, memorize, memory
mening- membrane Greek μήνιγξ (meninx) meningitis
men-, mens-, ment- mind Latin mens, mentis comment, dement, demented, mental, mentality, mention, momento, reminisce, reminiscence
men- month Greek μήν (mēn) menopause
mend- defect, fault Latin mendax "lying, a liar", from menda "defect, fault" amend, amendment, mendacious, mendacity
menstru- monthly Latin menstruus menstrual, menstruation
mensur- measure Latin mensura "measurement" commensurate
mer- part Greek μέρος (meros) polymer
merc- reward, wages, hire Latin merx, mercis mercantile, mercenary, merchant
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek μέσος (mesos) Mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr- measure Greek μέτρον (metron) altimeter, barometer, calorimeter, centimeter, meter, metric, millimeter, thermometer
meta- above, among, beyond Greek μετά (meta) metabolism, metamorphic, metamorphosis, metaphor, metaphase, metaphysics, metastatic, meteor, method
mic- grain Latin mica micelle
micro- small Greek μικρός (mikros) microcosm, microeconomics, micrometer, microphone, microscope, microwave
migr- wander Latin migrare emigrant, immigrant, migrant, migrate, migration
milit- soldier Latin miles, militis military, militia
milli- thousand Latin mille millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenary
mim- repeat Greek μίμος (mimos) mime, mimic
min- jut Latin minere prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule, minutiae
mina- lead Latin minare, variant of minari amenable, demeanor, menace, promenade
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
mis- hate Greek μῖσος (misos) misandry, misogyny
misc-, mixt- mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
miser- unhappy, wretched Latin miser miser, miserable, miserly, misery
mit-, miss- send Latin mittere, missus commit, emit, intermittent, missile, mission, missionary, omit, permit, remit, submit, transmit
mit- thread Greek μίτος (mitos) mitochondrion, mitosis
mne- memory Greek μνήμη (mnēmē) amnesia, mnemonic
mol- grind Latin mola, molere, molitus molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon- one Greek μόνος (monos) monism, monolith, monopoly, monopsony, monotone
mon- warn Latin monere admonish, monitor, monster, monument, premonition, summon
monil- string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
monstra- show Latin monstrare demonstrate, muster, remonstrate
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
mor- disposition Latin mos moral, morose
mord- bite Latin mordere, morsus mordacious, morsel, remorse
moro- foolish, dull Greek μωρός (moros) "foolish, dull" moron, moronic, oxymoron, oxymoronic, sophomore, sophomoric
morph- form, shape Greek μορφή (morphē) amorphous, anthropomorphism, dimorphic, metamorphosis, morpheme, morphology
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, mortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
mov-, mob-, mot- move, motion Latin movere, motus commotion, emotion, mobile, momentum, motile, motion, motive, motor, move, movement, mutiny, promote, remove
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
multi- many, much Latin multus multifold, multilingual, multiple, multiplex, multiply, multitude
mund- world Latin mundus anima mundi, map, mundane
mur- wall Latin murus, muri immured, mural
mus- mouse Greek μῦς (mus) musophobia
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mut- change Latin mutare immutable, mutation
my- to shut (the eyes) Latin myein miosis, myopia, myopic, mystery
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek μυρίος (murios) myriad, myriapod
myrmec- ant Greek μύρμηξ (murmēx) myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth- story Greek μῦθος (muthos) mythic, mythology
myx- slime Greek μύξα (muxa) Myxini
myz- suck Greek μυζάω (muzaō) Myzopoda

N[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
nar- nostril Latin naris naris
narc- numb Greek νάρκη (narkē) narcolepsy, narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, nasci (past participle natus) innate, nascent, natal, native, renaissance
naut- ship Greek ναύτης (nautes) Argonaut, astronaut, nautical
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne-, neo- new Greek νέος (neos) Neolithic, neologism, neonate, neophyte
neb-, nub- cloud Latin nebula, nubes nebula, nebulosity, nebulous, nuance, nubilous, obnubilate
necr- dead Greek νεκρός (nekros) necrophobia
nect- swimming Greek νηκτός (nēktos) nectopod
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connect, nexus
neg- say no Latin negare negative
nema- hair Greek νῆμα (nēma) nematode
nemor- grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral
nephr- kidney Greek νεφρός (nephros) nephritis
nes- island Greek νῆσος (nēsos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek νευρών (neurōn) neural, neuritis, neurologist, neurology, neuron, neuropathic, neurosurgeon, neurotic
nict- beckon, wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation
noct- night Latin nox (genitive noctis) equinox, noctambulist, noctilucent, nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law, order Greek νόμος (nomos) agronomy, astronomy, autonomous, autonomy, bionomics, economics, economy, gastronomy, metronome, numismatic, taxonomy
nomad- those who let pasture herds Greek νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomen-, nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomenclature, nominate, nomination, ignominious, ignominy
non- not Latin non none
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
not- back, south Greek νότος (notos) notochord
not- letter, note, paper Latin notare annotation, notable
noth- spurious Greek νόθος (nothos) nothogenus
nov- nine Latin novem November, novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovate, innovation, nova, novel, novice, renovate
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim novemdecillion
nox-, noc- harmful Latin noxa noxious
nu- nod Latin nuere innuendo
nub-, nupt- to marry, to wed Latin nubes, nubis, nubere connubial, nubile, prenuptial
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis nucleus
nuch- back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudity
null- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus enumerate, innumerable, numeral, numeration
nunci- announce Latin nuntius pronunciation
nutri- nourish Latin nutrire malnutrition, nutrient

O[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os- against Latin ob obduracy, obdurate, obduration, obfuscate, obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostensible, ostentatious
oct- eight Greek ὀκτώ (oktō) octagon, octahedron, octode
oct- eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octāvus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus, ullage
od- path, way Greek ὁδός (hodos) anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
odi- hate Latin odium odious
odont- tooth Greek ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous, odontos) odontology
odor- fragrant Latin odor odorous
oeco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology
oed- swollen Greek οἴδημα (oidēma) oedema
oen- wine Greek οἶνος (oinos) oenology
oesophag- gullet Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophagos) oesophagus
ogdo- eighth Greek ὄγδοος (ogdoos) ogdoad
-oid like Greek -οειδής (-oeidēs) asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole- oil Latin oleum oleosity
olecran- skull of elbow Latin from Greek ὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon) olecranon
olig- few Greek ὀλίγος (oligos) oligarchy, Oligocene, oligopoly, oligosaccharide, oligotrohic
oliv- olive Latin oliva olivaceous, olivary, olivette
-oma morbid growth, tumor Greek -ωμα melanoma
omas- paunch Latin omasum omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum omental
omin- creepy Latin omen, ominis abominable, ominous
omm- eye Greek ὄμμα (omma) ommatidium
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnipresent, omniscient, omnivore
omo- shoulder Greek ὦμος (omos) omohyoid
omphal- navel Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalos) omphalectomy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris exonerate, onerous
onom- name Greek όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
ont- existing Greek ὄντος (ontos) ontogeny, ontology
-onym name Greek ὄνυμα (onuma) anonymous, antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo- egg Greek ᾠόν (oion) oocyte
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis cooperate, inoperable, opera, operate, opus
opercul- little cover Latin operculum operculum
ophi- snake Greek ὄφις (ophis) ophiophagy
ophthalm- eye Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
opisth- behind Greek ὄπισθεν (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter- either Greek ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt- eye Greek ὀπτός (optos) optical, panoptic
opt- choose Latin optare adopt, optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
or- mouth Latin os, oris oral, orator
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle Greek ὄρχις (orchis) orchid
ordin- order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
organ- organ, instrument, tool Greek ὄργανον (organon) organism
ori-, ort- eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient
orn- decorate Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos) ornithology
orth- straight Greek ὀρθός (orthos) orthodontist, orthodox, orthodoxy, orthopedic, orthosis, unorthodox
oscill- swing Latin oscillum oscillation
oss- bone Latin os, ossis ossification
osteo- bone Greek ὀστοῦν (ostoun) osteoporosis
osti- entrance Latin ostium ostiole
ostrac- shell Greek ὄστρακον (ostrakon) ostracism, ostracoderm
ot- ear Greek οὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos) otology
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovary, ovule
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek ὀξύς (oxus) oxygen, oxymoron

P[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis appease, Pacific Ocean, pacifism, pacifist, pacify
pach- thick Greek παχύς (pachus) pachydermata, Pachypodium
paed- child Greek παῖς (pais), genitive παιδός (paidos) orthopedic, paediatric, page, pedagogue, pedagogy, pedant, pedantic, pediatric, pedophilia
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impalement, pale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek παλαιός (palaios) Paleo Diet, Paleolithic era, paleomagnetism, paleontology, paleopsychology, Paleozoic
palin- back Greek πάλιν (palin) palindrome
pall- be pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- cloak Latin palliare "to cover, cloak", from pallium "cloak" pall, palliate, palliative, pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palustr- in marshes Latin paluster palustral
pan-, pam- all Greek πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) Pan-American, panacea, pandemic, pandemonium, panoply, panoptic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par- equal Latin par disparage, par, peer
para- beside, near Greek παρά (para) parallel, parameter
parc-, pars- spare, save Latin parcere, parsus parcity, parsimony
pare- prepare, provide, procure Latin parare compare, disparate, empire, imperative, pare, prepare, separate, vituperate
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part- part Latin pars, partis apart, bipartite, compartment, depart, impartial, parcel, part, partial, participate, particle, partisan, partition
parthen- maiden Greek παρθένος (parthenos) Parthenon, parthenogenesis
parv- little Latin parvus parvovirus
pasc-, past- feed Latin pascere, pastus pastor, pasture, repast
pass- pace, step Latin passus
passer- sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine
pat- be open Latin patere paten, patent
path- feeling, disease Greek πάθος (pathos) antipathy, apathy, empathy, pathetic, pathogen, pathology, sympathy
pater-, patr- father Latin pater (genitive patris) paternity, patrilocal, patriot, patron, patronage, patronize, patronymic
pater-, patr- father Greek πατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria) patriarch
pati-, pass- suffer, feel, endure, permit Latin pati, passus passion, passive, patience
pauc- few Latin paucus paucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pav- beat Latin pavire pave, pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccare impeccable
pect- fixed Greek πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pecu- property Latin pecunia "property", from pecu "cattle" peculiar, pecuniary, pecunious
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis centipede, impede, pedal, pedestrian
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pell-, puls- drive, push Latin pellere, pulsus appulse, compel, compulsory, dispel, expel, expulsion, impulse, propel, propellent, propulsor, pulsate, pulse, push, repel, repellent, repulsive
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pen-, poen-, puni- punish Latin punire "punish" (earlier poenire), from poena "punishment" impune, impunity, pain, penal, penalize, penalty, penance, penitence, penitent, penitentiary, pine, punish, punitive, repent, subpoena
pend-, pens- hang Latin pensare, frequentative of pendere append, penchant, pendant, pending, pendulum, pensive, prepense, suspend, suspense
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna, pinna pennate, pinnacle, pinnate, pinnule
pent- five Greek πέντε (pente) pentagon, pentagram, pentagrid, pentode
pentecost- fiftieth Greek πεντηκοστός (pentēkostos) pentecostalism
pept- digest Greek πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) dyspepsia, peptic, peptide, peptone
per- thoroughly, through Latin per perfection, permeate, persistence, peruse, pervade
peran- across, beyond Greek πέραν (peran) Perates
peri- around Greek περί (peri) perigee, perihelion, perimeter, peripheral, periscope
persic- peach Greek περσικός (persikos)
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- strive towards Latin petere appetite, competition, petition, petulant, repetition
petr- rock Greek πέτρα (petra) petroglyph
phae- dark Greek φαιός (phaios) phaeomelanin, pheochrome
phag- eat Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) bacteriophage, macrophage, phagocyte, sarcophagus
phalang- close formation of troops, finger bones Greek φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalanges
phalar- having a patch of white Greek φάλαρος (phalāros)[1] phalarope
pharmac- drug, medicine Greek φάρμακον (pharmakon) pharmacy
phan-, phen- to show, visible Greek φαινειν (phainein) diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, fantasy, phanerozoic, phantasm, phantom, phase, phene, phenetic, phenology, phenomenon, photic, sycophant, theophany, tryptophan
pher-, phor- bear, carry Greek φέρω (pherō), φόρος (phoros) metaphor, pheromone
phil-, -phile love, friendship Greek φιλέω (phileō, philia) bibliophile, hydrophile, philanthropy, philharmonic, philosophy
phleg- heat, inflammation Greek ϕλέγω (phlegein) "to burn", φλέγω (phlegō) phlegm, phlegmatic
phloe- tree bark Greek φλοιός (phloios) phlobaphene, phloem
phob- fear Greek φόβος (phobos) acrophobia, claustrophobia, ergophobia, homophobia, hydrophobia
phon- sound Greek φωνή (phōnē) cacophony, euphony, homophone, microphone, phonetic, phonograph, symphony
phos-, phot- light Greek φῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos) phosphor, phosphorus, photic, photo, photoelectric, photogenic, photograph, photosynthesis
phragm- fence Greek φράγμα (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind Greek φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) frenetic, schizophrenia
phryn- toad, toad-like Greek φρύνη (phrunē) Phrynobatrachus
phyl- tribe Greek φύλον (phulon) phylogenetics, phylum
phyll- leaf Greek φύλλον (phullon) chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
physi- nature Greek φύσις (phusis) physics
physalid- bladder Greek φυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is) physalis
phyt- plant Greek φυτόν (phuton) neophyte, phytoplankton
pi- kind, devout, pity Latin pius expiate, impious, piety, pious, pity
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis piceous
pil- hair Latin pilus depilatory, epilator
pil- pillar, ball Latin pila pile, pill, pillar, pillory
pin- drink Greek πίνειν (pinein) pinocytosis
pin- pine Latin pinus pineal gland
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere, pictus depiction, picture, pigment
pingu- fat Latin pinguis Pinguicula, pinguitude
pir- pear Latin pirus piriformis muscle
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces, piscivore
pis- pea Greek πίσος (pisos)
plac- plate, tablet Greek πλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos) duplex, duplicity
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus implacable, placable, placate, please, supple
plac-, plea- please Latin placēre, placitus complacent, displease, placebo, placid, plea, please, pleasure
plagi- oblique Greek πλάγιος (plagios) plagiocephaly, plagioclase
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct- Latin plangere, planctus plangent
plas- mould Greek πλάθω (plathō) plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek πλατύς (platus) platypus
plaud-, -plod-, plaus-, -plos- approve, clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complement, complete, deplete, implement, replete, suppletion, supply
pleb- people Latin plebs, plebis plebeian, plebs
plec- interwoven Greek πλέκω (plekō) plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex
plen- full Latin plenus plenary, plenitude, plenty, replenish
plesi- near Greek πλησίος (plēsios) plesiosaur
pleth- full Greek πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek πλευρά (pleura) pleuritis
plic- fold Latin plicare, plicatus appliance, application, apply, duplication, explicate, explicit, implicate, implicit, imply, ply, replicate, supplicant, supplicate, supplication
plinth- brick Greek πλίνθος (plinthos) Plinthograptis
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin pluere, see also pluvia pluvial
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate
plumb- lead Latin plumbum plumber
plur-, plus- more Latin plus, pluris double, plural, pluralist, plus, quadruple, surplus, triple
plurim- most Latin plurimus plurimal
plut- wealth Greek πλοῦτος (ploutos) plutocracy
pneu- air, breath, lung Greek pnein, πνεῦμα (pneuma) apnoea, pneumatic, phneumonia
pod- foot Greek πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) antipode, podiatry, tripod
pogon- beard Greek πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
poie- make Greek ποιέω (poieō) poet, poiesis
pol- pole Greek πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
pole-, poli- city Greek πόλις (polis) acropolis, megalopolis, metropolis, police, policy, politics
polem- war Greek πόλεμος (polemos) polemic
poli- grey Greek πολιός (polios) poliomyelitis
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis pollicate
pollin- fine flour Latin pollen, pollinis pollination
poly- many Greek πολύς (polus) polyandry, polygamy, polygon, polysaccharide, polytheistic
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere, positus apposite, component, deposit, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impound, opponent, position, positive, postpone, posture, proponent
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis, ponderare ponder, preponderance
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon
popul- people Latin populus, populare population, popular, populous
por- passage Greek πόρος (poros) pore, porosity
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porn- prostitute Greek πόρνη (pornē) pornography
porphyr- purple Greek πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
port- carry Latin portare "to carry", porta "gate" comportment, deport, export, import, port, portable, portage, portal, porter, portfolio, purport, rapport, report, support, transport
portion- part, share Latin portio portion, proportion
post- after, behind Latin post posterior, posterity, postscript
pot- power Latin potere "be powerful", from potis "powerful, able" despot, impotent, possess, potent, potentate, potential, power
pot- drink Latin potus, potare potable, potion
potam- river Greek ποταμός (potamos) hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin- leek-green Greek πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin precāri "to ask, beg, pray", from prex "prayer" deprecation, imprecation, pray, prayer, precarious
pred- prey Latin praeda, praedari predator
prehend-, prend-, prehens- grasp Latin prehendere, prehensus apprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, enterprise, prehensility, prehension, prey, prison, prize, reprehend, surprise
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere, pressus pressure
presby- old Greek πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission
preti- price Latin pretium, pretiare
prim- first Latin primus primacy, primal, primary, prime, primeval, primitive
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privus, privare, privatus deprivation, privilege
pro- before, in front of Greek πρό (pro) prologue, prostate
pro- for, forward Latin pro procrastinate, propulsion
prob- worthy, good Latin probare "prove to be worthy", probus approbation, approve, disapprobation, opprobrium, probable, probation, probe, probity, proof, prove, reprobate, reprove
proct- anus Greek πρωκτός (prōktos) proctology
prodig- waste Latin prodigus "wasteful", from prodigere "drive away, waste" prodigal, prodigality
prodig- prodigy Latin prodigium "prodigy" prodigious, prodigy
propri- one's own, ownership Latin proprietas "appropriateness, ownership", from proprius "one's own" appropriate, property, proprietary, proprietor, propriety
pros- forward Greek πρός (pros) prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot- first Greek πρῶτος (prōtos) protagonist, Proterozoic, protocol, protoindustrial, protoplasm, prototype, protozoan
proxim- nearest Latin proximus, proximare approximate, proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamm- sand Greek ψάμμος (psammos) psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud- false Greek ψευδής (pseudēs) pseudonym
psil- bare Greek ψιλός (psilos) epsilon, psilocybin
psych- mind Greek ψυχή (psuchē) psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
psychr- cold Greek ψυχρός (psuchros) psychrometer
pter- wing, fern Greek πτερόν (pteron) helicopter, pterodactyl
pto- fall Greek πτῶσις (ptōsis) ptosis
pty- saliva Greek πτύον (ptuon) ptyalin
ptych- fold, layer Greek πτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
pub- sexually mature Latin pubes, puberis pubescent, pubic
public- Latin publicus publication, publicity
pude- shame Latin pudere impudent, pudendum, repudiate
pug-, pugn- fight Latin pugnare "to fight", from pugnus "fist" impugn, pugilism, pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere, punctus acupuncture, expunge, poignant, point, punch, punctual, punctuation, puncture, pungent
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, pupate, puppet
pur- pure Latin purare "to purify", from purus "pure" impurity, pure, puree, purge, purify, purity
purg- cleanse Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur- purple Latin purpura purpurate, purpureal
put- prune, reckon Latin putāre amputation, compute, dispute, impute, putative, reputation
pyg- rump Greek πυγή (pugē) callipygian, pygostyle
pyl- gate Greek πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn, pulōnos) pylon
pyr- heat, fire Greek πῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis

Q[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion, quadrilateral, quadruped
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenarian, quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus quartary, quarter, quartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi quasar
quatern- four each Latin quaterni quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass- shake Latin quatere quassation
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere Inquisition, query
qui- rest Latin quies quiet, requiem
quin- five each Latin quini quinary
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque quinquennium
quint- fifth Latin quintus quintary, quintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quotiens quota, quotient

R[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion, erasure
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiance, radiation
radic- root Latin rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin rāmus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- turnip Latin rapum rapeseed
raph- seam Greek ῤαφή (rhaphē) raphe, raphae
rar- rare Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
rect-, reg-, -rig- straight, direct Latin regere "to direct, lead straight, guide", related rectus "straight, right" correct, direct, dirigible, erect, erection, ergo, rectangle, rectify, rectitude, rectum, regent, regime, regimen, regiment, region, surge
reg-, rex- king Latin rex (genitive regis) anorexia, regal, regicide, rex, royal
regul- rule Latin regula "to rule" regular, regulate, regulation, rule
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
reneg- deny Latin renegare renegade, renege
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd- rod Greek ῥάβδος (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach- spine Greek ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
rhag- tear, rent Greek ῥαγίζω rhagades
rhe- flow Greek ῥεῖν (rhein) rheostat
rhig- chill Greek ῥῖγος (rhigos) rhigosaurus
rhin- nose, snout Greek ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos) rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhiz- root Greek ῥίζα (rhiza) rhizome
rhod- rose Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) rhododendron
rhomb- spinning top Greek ῥόμβος (rhombos) rhombus
rhynch- snout Greek ῥύγχος Rhynchobatus
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere "to laugh" (past participle risus) deride, derision, ridicule, ridiculous, risible
robor- oak, strength Latin roborare "to strengthen", from robur, robus "strength" corroborate, corroboration, robust
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare abrogate, arrogant, arrogate, derogatory, interrogation, prerogative, prorogue, rogation, rogue, surrogate
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr- red Latin ruber rubric, ruby
rudi- unskilled, rough, unlearned Latin rudis erudite, erudition, rude, rudimentary
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus abrupt, corruptible, disrupt, erupt, eruption, interrupt, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural

S[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
sacchar- sugar Greek σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
sacr-, -secr- sacred Latin sacrare, from sacer (genitive sacri) consecrate, desecrate, sacrament, sacred, sacrosanct
sagac- wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacious, sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire, saltus resilient, salient, saltus
salic- willow Latin salix, salicis salicin
salu- health, welfare Latin salus salubrious, salubrity, salutary, salute
salv- save Latin salvus, salvare salvage, salvation, salve
san- healthy Latin sanus insane, sanity
sanc- holy Latin sancire (past participle sanctus) sacrosanct, saint, sanctify, sanction, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis consanguinity, sanguinary, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- taste, wise Latin sapere "to have a taste, be wise", related to sapor "taste, flavor" insipid, insipience, sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponification
sarc- flesh Greek σάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
sart- tailor Latin sartor "tailor", from sarcire "to mend" sartorial
sati- enough Latin satis asset, sate, satiate, satiety, satisfy, saturate
saur- lizard, reptile Greek σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
sax- rock Latin saxum saxatile, saxicavous, saxicoline, saxifrage, saxifragous
scab- scratch Latin scabere scabies
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scalar, scale
scalen- uneven Greek σκαληνός (skalēnos) scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend, descend, transcendent
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek σκάφη, σκάφος scaphoid bone
scel- leg, thigh Greek σκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos) isosceles
schem- plan Greek σχῆμα (schēma) schematic
schis- split Greek σχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma) schism
sci- know Latin scire conscience, conscious, conscientious, omniscious, omniscient, prescient, science, scienter
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere rescind, scissors
scler- hard Greek σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli- crooked Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek σκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos) horoscope, kaleidoscope, microscope, periscope, scope, stethoscope, telescope
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere, scriptus describe, inscribe, manuscript, prescribe, scribble, scribe, script, scripture, subscribe
scrupl- uneasiness Latin scrupus "sharp stone" scruple, scrupulous, unscrupulous
sculp- carve Latin sculpere, sculptus sculpture
scut- shield Latin scutum scute
scyph- cup Greek σκύφος (skyphos) Scyphozoa
se-, sed- apart Latin se secede, sedition
seb- tallow Latin sebum sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- settle, calm Latin sedare, sedatus sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere, sessus assiduous, insidious, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, resident, sediment, sedulity, sedulous, session, subside, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
seget- in cornfields Latin segetum
sei- shake Greek σείω, σεισμός (seismos) seismograph
selen- moon Greek σελήνη (selēnē) Selene, selenium
sell- saddle, seat Latin sella sella turcica
sema- sign Greek σῆμα (sēma) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis semifinal
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senescent, senile, senility, senior
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus assent, consensus, consent, dissent, resent, scent, sensation, sense, sensible, sensitive, sensory, sentence, sentient, sentience, sentiment
sept- fence, partition, enclosure Latin saeptum transept
sept- seven Latin septem septennial
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus septimal, septime
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere, from sequi, see also secutus consecutive, consequence, ensue, non sequitur, obsequious, prosecute, pursue, second, sequel, sequence, subsequent
ser-, sat- cultivate Latin serere, satus sative
ser- body fluid Latin serum serous
ser- late Latin serus serein, serotine
serp- crawl, creep Latin serpere, serptus serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- save, protect, serve Latin servare conserve, deserve, observe, preserve, reserve, servant, service, servile, servitude, subservient
sesqui- one and a half Latin sesqui sesquicentennial
set- bristle, hair Latin saeta seta, setose
sever- stern, strict, serious Latin severus severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccus desiccation
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- sign Latin signum design, designate, insignia, signal, signature, significant
sil- quiet or still Latin silere silence
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil-, simul- likeness, imitating Latin simulare "to emulate", from similis "alike" assimilate, dissimilate, dissemble, ensemble, resemble, semblance, similar, similarity, simile, similitude, simulacrum, simular, simulate, simulation, simulator, simultaneous, verisimilar, verisimilitude
singul- one each Latin singulus singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay Latin sinus sinusoidal
siph- tube Greek σίφων (siphōn) siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, persist, resist, solstice, subsist
sit- food, grain, wheat Greek σῖτος (sitos) sitology
soci- group Latin socius, sociare associate, social
sol- sun Latin sol, solis solar, solstice
sol- console, comfort, soothe Latin solari consolation, console, solace
sol- alone, only Latin solus desolate, sole, soliloquy, solipsism, solitaire, solitary, solitude, solo
solen- pipe, channel Greek σωλήν (sōlēn) solenoid
solv-, solut- loosen, set free Latin solvere, solutus absolute, absolve, dissolute, dissolve, resolute, resolve, soluble, solute, solution, solve, solvent
soma- body Greek σῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia, somnambulist, somnolent
somni- dream Latin somnium somnial
son- sound Latin sonus resonance
soph- wise Greek σοφός (sophos) philosophy, sophism, sophist, sophisticate, sophomore, sophomoric
sopor- deep sleep Latin sopor sopor, soporific
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror sorority
sparse-', -sperse sprinkle Latin spargere asperse, aspersion, disperse, intersperse, sparse
spati- space Latin spatium spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere aspect, conspicuous, expect, inspect, introspective, prospect, respect, retrospective, species, specific, specimen, specious, speculate, spectacle, spectator
spect- watch, look at Latin spectare spectator
specul- observe Latin speculari speculation
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare desperation, esperance
sperm- seed Greek σπέρμα (sperma) angiosperm
sphen- wedge Greek σφήν (sphēn) sphenoid
spher- ball Greek σφαῖρα (sphaira) hemisphere, sphere, spheroid, stratosphere
sphinct- closing Greek σφίγγα sphincter
spic- spike Latin spica spicule
spin- thorn Latin spina spine
spir- breathe Latin spirare aspire, conspire, expire, inspire, perspire, respiration, spirit
spond-, spons- a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnly Latin spondere, sponsus respond
spondyl- vertebra Greek σπόνδυλος (spondylos) spondylosis
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- scaly, dirty, filthy Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale Latin squama squamous
squarros- spreading at tips Latin squarrosus squarrose
st- stand Latin stare "to stand", also causative form statuere "to enact, set", from status "condition, position" circumstance, consist, constant, constitute, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, stable, stamen, stamina, stance, stanchion, stanza, state, static, station, stationary, statistic, statue, status, staunch, stay, substance, substitute, superstition
stagn- pool of standing water Latin stagnare stagnant
stala- dripping, trickling Greek σταλακτός (stalaktos) and σταλαγμός (stalagmos), both from σταλάζειν (stallassein) "to drip" stalactite, stalagmite
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
stasi- standing, discord Greek στάσις (stasis) static
statu-, -stitu- stand Latin statuere institution, statute
stear- fat, tallow Greek στέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos) stearic acid
steg- covering Greek στέγη (stegē), στεγανός (steganos) steganography, Stegosaurus
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
stell- send Greek στέλλω (stellein) apostle, epistle, stole
sten- stand Greek στεναί (stenai) apostasy, apostate
sten- narrow Greek στενός (stenos) stenography, stenosis
stere- solid Greek στερεός (stereos) stereometry
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus stratify
stern- breastbone Greek στέρνον (sternon) sternum
stich- line, row Greek στίχος (stichos) distich
stigmat- mark, puncture Greek στίγμα (stigma) astigmatic, stigma
still- drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation
stimul- goad, rouse, excite Latin stimulus stimulate
stin- stand Latin stinare destination, obstinate
stingu-, stinct- apart Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek στόχος (stochos) stochastic
stom- mouth Greek στόμα (stoma) stomatoplasty
streper- noise Latin strepere obstreperous
strept- twisted Greek στρεπτός (streptos) Streptococcus
strig- compress Latin strix, strigis strigogyps
strigos- having stiff bristles Latin strigosus from striga strigose
string-, strict- tight, upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus astringent, constrain, constrict, constringe, restrict, strain, strict, stringent
stroph- turning Greek στροφή (strophē) apostrophe
stru-, struct- to make up, build Latin struere, structus construct, construction, construe, destroy, destruct, instruct, obstruct, structure
stud- dedication Latin studere student
stup- wonder Latin stupere stupid, stupor
styl- column, pillar Greek στῦλος (stulos) Stylites
su-, sut- sew Latin suere, sutus couture, suture
suad-, suas- urge Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis assuage, suave, suavity
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus- below Latin sub submarine, submerge, suffix, suggest, support
subter- under Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar Latin succarum sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare exude, sudoriferous
sui- self Latin sui sui generis, suicide
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus sulcus
sum- sum Latin summare "to sum up", from summa "sum" consummate, consummation, sum, summa cum laude, summary, summation
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere, sumptus assume, assumption, consume, consumption, presumption, subsume
super- above, over Latin super insuperable, soprano, sovereign, summit, superable, superb, supercilious, supercomputer, superficial, superfluous, superheat, superimpose, superior, superlative, supermarket, supernal, supernatural, supernova, superposition, superpower, superscript, supersede, supersonic, superstition, supervene, supervise, supreme, supremum, surname, surplus, surround, survive
supin- lying back Latin supinus supination, supine
supra- above, over Latin supra supranationalism
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek σύν (sun) symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring- pipe Greek σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos) syringe

T[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, reticence, tacit, taciturn
tach- swift Greek ταχύς (tachus) tachometer, tachycardia
taeni- ribbon Greek ταινία (tainia) taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal- ankle Latin talus talus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere (past participle tactus) attain, contact, contagious, contingent, contingency, contiguous, intact, tactile, tangent, tangible
tapet- carpet Latin tapete, tapetis tapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardigrade, tardy
tars- ankle Greek ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket) tarsal
taur- bull Greek ταῦρος (tauros) Minotaur
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tax- arrangement, order Greek τάξις (taxis) taxonomy
techn- art, skill Greek τέχνη (technē) technology
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere, tectus integument, protection
tele- far, end Greek τῆλε (tēle) telecast, telegram, telegraph, telepathy, telephone, telescope, television
tele- complete Greek τέλος (telos) teleology
temn- cut Greek τέμνω (temnō) Temnospondyli
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis contemporaneous, contemporary, extemporaneous, tempo, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold Latin tenere, tentus abstain, contain, content, contents, continence, continent, continue, countenance, detain, detention, maintain, pertain, pertinacious, pertinacity, pertinent, retention, tenacious, tenacity, tenant, tenet, tenor, untenable
tend-, tens- stretch, strain Latin tendere (past participle tensus) attend, contend, contention, contentious, extend, extension, extent, intend, ostensible, ostentatious, portend, portent, portentous, pretense, tend, tendentious, tendency, tender, tensile, tension
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuare "make thin", from tenuis "thin" attenuate, extenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere tepid, tepor
ter-, trit- rub Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret- rounded Latin teres, teretis subterete, teretial
terg-, ters- wipe Latin tergere, tersus detergent, terse
termin- boundary, limit, end Latin terminus determine, terminal, termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary, ternion
terr- earth Latin terra inter, subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain, terrarium, terrestrial, territory
terti- third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary
test- witness Latin testis attest, contest, detest, protest, testament, testify, testimony
tetr- four Greek τέσσαρες (tessares) tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text- weave Latin texere, textus context, subtle, pretext, text, textile, texture
thalam- chamber, bed Greek θάλαμος (thalamos) hypothalamus
thalass- sea Greek θάλασσα (thalassa) Panthalassa, thalassemia
than- death Greek θάνατος (thanatos) euthanasia, thanatology
the-, thus- god Greek θεός (theos) atheism, enthusiasm, monotheism, polytheism, theology
the- put Greek τίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē) antithesis, Bibliotheca, deem, doom, epithet, hypothesis, synthesis, theca, thematic, theme, Themis, thesis
thel- nipple Greek θηλή (thēlē) epithelium, thelium, thelial
theori- speculation Greek θεωρία (theōria) theorem, theory
ther- beast, animal Greek θήρ, θηρός (thēr) theroid, theropod
therm- heat, warm Greek θερμός (thermos) thermal, endotherm, hypothermia, thermometer, thermos, thermostat
thym- mood Greek θυμός (thumos) dysthymia
thyr- door Greek θύρα (thura) thyratron
thyre- large shield Greek θυρεός (thureos) Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid, timorous
-tim- most Latin -timus, e.g. in intimus "inmost", optimus "best", ultimus "last" intimate, intimation, optimum, ultimate
ting-, tinct- moisten Latin tingere, tinctus tincture
tom- cut Greek τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) anatomy, appendectomy, atom, dichotomy, ectomy, embolectomy, tome, tonsillectomy, vasectomy
ton- stretch Greek τόνος (tonos) isotonic, monotone, tone
top- place Greek τόπος (topos) atopy, isotope, topiary, topic, topography, topology, toponymy, utopia
torn-, tourn- turn or rotate Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tornos) tornado, tournament
torpe- be numb Latin torpere torpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus contort, distort, extort, extortion, retort, torque, torsion, tortuous, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus subtotal, total, totality
tox- arrow, bow Greek τόξον (toxon) antitoxin, intoxicate, toxic, toxology, toxoplasmosis
trab- beam Latin trabs, trabis trabeculae
trachy- rough Greek τραχύς (trachus) trachea
trag- goat Greek τράγος (tragos) tragus
trah-, tract- draw, pull Latin tractare, frequentative of trahere, tractus attract, contract, detract, retract, subtract, subtrahend, tractable, traction, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans intransigent, tradition, transact, transcend, transient, transitory, transport
trapez- four-sided, table Greek τράπεζα (trapeza) trapezius, trapezoid
traum- wound Greek τραῦμα (trauma) trauma, traumatic, traumatize
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial, trecentillion
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim tredecimal
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka) triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole Greek τρῆμα (trēma) monotreme, trematode
trepid- tremble Latin trepidare "to tremble, hurry", from trepidus "alarmed, scared" intrepid, trepid, trepidation
tri- three Greek τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri- three Latin trēs triangle, triumvirate, trivia
trib- rub Greek τρίβειν (tribein) diatribe, tribology
tribu- pay Latin tribuere "to pay", from tribus attribute, contribute, retribution, tribe, tribulation, tribunal, tribune, tributary, tribute
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin- three each Latin trini trinary, trine, trinity
trit- third Greek τρίτος (tritos) tritagonist
tritic- wheat Latin triticum triticale
troch- wheel Greek τροχός (trochos) trochlea
trop- turning Greek τρόπος (tropos) heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
troph- feed, grow Greek τροφή, τροφός (trophos) dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
truc- fierce Latin trux, trucis truculent
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude
tum- to swell up Latin tumere contumely, contumacious, tumid, tumor, tumular, tumulose, tumulous, tumult, tumultuous
turb- disturb Latin turba disturb, perturb, turbid, turbine, turbulent,
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek τύμπανον (tumpanon) tympani
typ- stamp, model Greek τύπος (tupos) archetype, phenotype, prototype, type, typewriter, typical, typify, typography, typology

U[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
uber- fruitful Latin uber, uberare exuberant
uligin- in marshes Latin uligo, uliginis uliginous
ulo- wooly Greek οὖλος (oulos) Ulotrichi
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate, ultimatum
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra adumbrate, penumbra, umbrage, umbrella
un- one Latin unus, unius unanimous, unary, unicorn, unify, union, universe, university
unc- hooked Latin uncus uncinate, Uncinia
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia uncial
und- wave Latin unda abundant, redundancy, undulate
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin undeni undenary
ungui- claw, nail Latin unguis unguiform
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungulate
ur- tail Greek οὐρά (oura) uroid, uroborus
ur- urine Greek οὖρον (ouron) urology
urb- city Latin urbs, urbis suburbanite, urban, urbanism, urbanize
urg- work Latin urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine, Ursus
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus usual, utility
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide

V[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
vac- empty Latin vacare evacuate, vacancy, vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuous, vacuum
vacc- cow Latin vacca vaccary, vaccination, vaccine
vacil- waver Latin vacillare "sway, be untrustworthy" vacillate, vacillation
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vagabond, vague
val- strength, worth Latin valere ambivalence, avail, equivalent, evaluate, prevail, valence, valiant, valid, valor, value
van- empty, vain, idle Latin vanus "empty", also vanescere "vanish" evanescent, vain, vanish, vanity
vap- lack (of) Latin vapor evaporation, vapid, vaporize
vari- vary Latin variare variable, variance, variant, variate, variation, variety, various, vary
varic- straddle Latin varicare "to straddle", from varus "bowlegged" prevaricate
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere "to carry", vectus invective, inveigh, vector, vehement, vehicle
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena intravenous, venosity, venule
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convention, event, intervene, intervention, invent, prevent, revenue, souvenir, supervene, venue, venture
vend- sell Latin vendere vendor, vending
vener- respectful Latin venus, veneris venerable, veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation, ventilator
ventr- belly Latin venter, ventris ventral
ver- true Latin verus aver, veracious, verdict, verify, verisimilar, verisimilitude, verity, very
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform, vermin
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vers-, vert- turn Latin versus, past participle of vertere adverse, adversity, advertise, anniversary, avert, controversy, controvert, converse, convert, diversify, divert, extrovert, introvert, inverse, invert, perverse, pervert, reverse, revert, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, versatile, verse, version, versus, vertex, vertical, vertigo
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera vesperal
vest- clothing, garment Latin vestire "to clothe", related to vestis "garment" divest, invest, investiture, transvestite, travesty, vest, vestment
vestig- track Latin vestigium investigate, vestigial
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obvious, via
vic- change Latin vicis vicar, vicarious, vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty each Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vicesimus vicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre, visus evident, provide, providence, provident, revise, supervise, video, visible, vision, visit, vista
vigil- watchful Latin vigil, also vigilare invigilate, reveille, surveillance, vigil, vigilance, vigilant, vigilante
vil- cheap Latin vilis revile, vile, vilify
vill- country house Latin villa villa, village, villain
vill- shaggy hair Latin villus velour, velvet, villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vine, vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere (past participle victus) convict, convince, evict, evince, invincible, province, vanquish, victor, victory
vir- man Latin vir triumvirate, virility
vir- green Latin virere virid, viridian
visc- thick Latin viscum viscosity
viscer- internal organ Latin viscus, visceris eviscerate, visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital, vitamin
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus vitellogenesis
viti- fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate, vituperate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous, vitriol
viv- live Latin vivere "to live", related to vita "life" convivial, revive, survive, viable, victuals, vital, vitality, vitamin, vivacious, vivacity, vivid, vivisection
voc- call, voice Latin vocare (to call), from vox "voice" (genitive vocis) advocate, avocation, convocation, equivocal, equivocate, evoke, invocation, invoke, provocative, provoke, vocal, vocation, vociferous
vol- fly Latin volare volatility
vol- will Latin voluntas "will" from velle "to wish" benevolent, malevolent, velleity, volition, voluntary, Voluntaryism, volunteer, voluptuary, voluptuous
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus convolution, devolve, evolve, involve, revolve, valve, vault, voluble, volume, voluminous, volvox, vulva
vom- discharge Latin vomere vomit
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax carnivorous, devour, herbivorous, locavore, omnivorous, voracious
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus votive
vulg- crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpēs, vulpis vulpine

X[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
xanth- yellow Greek ξανθός (xanthos) xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen- foreign Greek ξένος (xenos) xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer- dry Greek ξηρός (xēros) xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph- sword Greek ξίφος (xiphos) xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl- wood Greek ξύλον (xulon) xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone

Z[edit]

Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
zel- zeal, jealousy Greek ζῆλος (zēlos) jealousy, zeal, zealot
zo- animal, living being Greek ζῷον (zōion) azotemia, protozoa, zoanthropy, zodiac, zoic, zoo, zoology, zoomorphism, zoon, zooxanthella
zon- belt, girdle Greek ζώνη (zōnē) zonal, zone
zyg- yoke Greek ζυγός (zugon) heterozygous, zygote
zym- ferment Greek ζύμη (zumē) enzyme, lysozyme

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